To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

1988 United States Senate election in Texas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1988 United States Senate election in Texas

← 1982 November 8, 1988 1993 (special) →
Beau Boulter.jpg
Nominee Lloyd Bentsen Beau Boulter
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 3,149,806 2,129,228
Percentage 59.2% 40.0%

Texas Senate Election Results by County, 1988.svg
County results
Bentsen:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%
     80–90%      >90%
Boulter:      50–60%      60–70%

U.S. senator before election

Lloyd Bentsen

Elected U.S. Senator

Lloyd Bentsen

The 1988 United States Senate election in Texas was held on November 8, 1988. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Lloyd Bentsen won re-election to a fourth term, defeating Republican U.S. Representative Beau Boulter. Bentsen easily won the Democratic nomination for another term, while Boulter came through a run-off in the Republican primary defeating Wes Gilbreath. After winning renomination, Bentsen was chosen by Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis as his vice-presidential running mate and therefore ran for both the Senate and the vice-presidency at the same time. Although the presidential ticket lost the general election and did not carry Texas, Bentsen was always the favorite for the Senate election and won with 59.2% of the vote, compared to 40% for Boulter. As of 2020, this was the last time a Democratic candidate won a United States Senate election in Texas.[1][2]


Democratic primary

In the Democratic primary Democratic senator Lloyd Bentsen defeated the same opponent he had beaten in 1982, Joe Sullivan, a psychology professor from San Antonio.[3]

Bentsen had been Senator from Texas since first winning election in 1970 and had been re-elected in 1976 and 1982. He was also Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee and the clear favourite for re-election in 1988.[4] Sullivan stood on a platform calling for reduced spending by the federal government, but had been easily defeated by Bentsen in the 1982 Democratic primary.[4] This was repeated in 1988 with Bentsen winning the primary with over 80% of the vote.[3]

March 8 Democratic primary results[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lloyd Bentsen (incumbent) 1,365,736 84.8
Democratic Joe Sullivan 244,805 15.2
Total votes 1,610,541 100

Republican primary

Four candidates competed for the Republican nomination; U.S. representative Beau Boulter, former state representative Milton Fox, millionaire Houston businessman Wes Gilbreath and businessman Ned Snead.[6] Boulter was a two-term representative for the 13th district, while Gilbreath was competing in his first election, but spent $500,000 on the primary.[7]

Wes Gilbreath led in the March primary with 36.7%, but as no candidate won a majority, went into a run-off election against Beau Boulter who came second with 30.5%.[5]

March 8 Republican primary results[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Wes Gilbreath 275,080 36.7
Republican Beau Boulter 228,676 30.5
Republican Milton Fox 138,031 18.4
Republican Ned Snead 107,560 14.4
Total votes 749,347 100

There were few policy differences between Boulter and Gilbreath, with both candidates being conservatives who opposed abortion and called for reduced government spending.[8] Gilbreath spent about one million dollars of his money in his contest for the primary,[9] while Boulter spent about $250,000.[8] However Boulter won endorsements from many Texas Republican leaders,[9] including the candidates who had come third and fourth in the March primary, as well as from anti-abortion groups.[8]

Boulter won the April run-off for the Republican nomination with just over 60% of the vote.[8]

April 12 Republican run-off results[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Beau Boulter 111,134 60.2
Republican Wes Gilbreath 73,573 39.8
Total votes 184,707 100

Vice-presidential candidate

In July 1988 the Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis chose Lloyd Bentsen to be the Democratic vice-presidential candidate.[10] As the Texas Democrats had already had their primary for senate candidate, Bentsen could not be replaced on the ballot.[10] Bentsen was however able to run both for the Senate and for vice-president as Lyndon Johnson had gotten Texas law changed in 1960 to allow Johnson to do the same at the 1960 election.[11]

However Beau Boulter attacked Bentsen for running for both the senate and vice presidency, calling it arrogant, unethical and possibly illegal.[12] Boulter and the National Republican Senatorial Committee filed a complaint with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) claiming that the dual candidacy violated federal campaign finance laws as any spending in one race would unfairly affect the other campaign, however the FEC rejected the complaint and this decision was confirmed by the United States courts of appeals.[13] Boulter continued to attack Bentsen over the dual candidacy running a campaign advert in August 1988 mocking Bentsen for trying to ride two horses at the same time.[14]


Lloyd Bentsen was always the favourite for the election,[15] with a large cash advantage over Beau Boulter.[16] Filings with the FEC at the beginning of August showed Bentsen had $3.9 million compared to only $14,000 for Boulter.[16] The financial advantage for Bentsen continued through the campaign and by the beginning of November Bentsen had raised $7.5 million for the senate election, while Boulter had raised $2.7 million.[17]

Boulter's campaign receive little or no official Republican support, with the Republican presidential campaign giving a not very subtle endorsement of a "Texas Ticket", which was George Bush for president and Bentsen for the senate.[18] However Boulter hoped to benefit from Bush's coattails and ran campaign adverts pointing to his links with Bush and Ronald Reagan.[19] Boulter also ran adverts attacking Bentsen for supporting giving benefit to illegal immigrants, but this was denied by the Bentsen campaign.[19] Meanwhile, Bentsen ran adverts showing things they said he had done for Texas such as passing a trade bill, catastrophic coverage legislation, repealing the windfall profit tax and preserving local bus services.[19]

At the beginning of October 1988 Democratic polls were reported to show Bentsen at least 20% ahead of Boulter,[11] with Bentsen spending much of his time campaigning for the presidential election and very little time on the senate election.[17]

Election results

Lloyd Bentsen won the senate election by a clear margin over Beau Boulter, at the same time as he and Michael Dukakis lost the presidential race,[20] with George Bush winning Texas with 56% of the vote compared to 43% for Dukakis.[21] Bentsen's vote total in the senate election was reported to be at the time the highest vote total in any Texas statewide election.[22] Boulter's showing was particularly embarrassing for the Texas GOP since Vice President Bush easily carried Texas by a margin almost identical to the one Bentsen garnered in the Senate race.

General election results[5]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Lloyd Bentsen (incumbent) 3,149,806 59.2 +0.6
Republican Beau Boulter 2,129,228 40.0 -0.5
Libertarian Jeff Daiell 44,572 0.8
Majority 1,020,578 19.2 +1.1
Turnout 5,323,606
Democratic hold Swing

See also


  1. ^ Giroux, Gregory (May 30, 2012). "Texas Democratic U.S. Senate Turnout May Be Lowest Since 1916". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  2. ^ "Senate: Texas". CNN. November 8, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Mississippi Congressmen Will Battle for Stennis' Senate Seat". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. March 9, 1988. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Bentsen target of 5 'Davids'". The Victoria Advocate. February 27, 1988. p. 46. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Texas Almanac, 1990-1991". Texas Almanac. The Portal to Texas History. p. 366. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  6. ^ "Candidates for Stennis seat chosen". Bangor Daily News. Associated Press. March 9, 1988. p. 33. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
  7. ^ "Sen. Bentsen Nominated for 4th Term". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. March 9, 1988. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d "Boulter, Gilbreath in Texas GOP senate runoff". Associated Press. April 13, 1988. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  9. ^ a b "Texas Senate Primary Today Pits 2 Survivors of March 8". The New York Times. Associated Press. April 12, 1988. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  10. ^ a b "Dukakis Chooses Texas Sen. Bentsen as Running Mate". The Washington Post. July 13, 1988. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  11. ^ a b Weaver, Warren (October 4, 1988). "Texas Law Seems Mixed Blessing to Bentsen". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  12. ^ Pertman, Adam (July 14, 1988). "Bentsen's senate for raps bid for 2 offices". The Boston Globe. HighBeam Research. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  13. ^ Chachere, Vickie (August 4, 1988). "Court refuses to block spending by Democrats". The Boston Globe. HighBeam Research. Archived from the original on April 15, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  14. ^ Schwartz, Maralee (August 17, 1988). "Commercial Lampoons Bentsen Over Campaigning for 2 Offices". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. Archived from the original on October 9, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  15. ^ Schwartz, Maralee (July 19, 1988). "Another Senate Race in Texas?". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  16. ^ a b "Tilting Toward the Ins". The Washington Post. HighBeam Research. August 1, 1988. Archived from the original on March 11, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  17. ^ a b Tumulty, Karen (November 4, 1988). "Law Allows Senator to Run 2 Races : Conservative Texas Voters Can Get Bush and Bentsen". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  18. ^ Moreland, Laurence; Steed, Robert; Baker, Tod (January 1, 1991). The 1988 Presidential Election in the South: Continuity Amidst Change in Southern Party Politics. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 226. ISBN 9780275931452. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  19. ^ a b c "Bentsen favored for Senate, Boulter Counts on Bush Link". The Victoria Advocate. October 23, 1988. p. 11. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  20. ^ "Sen. Bentsen 'wins' even while losing". Chicago Sun-Times. HighBeam Research. November 9, 1988. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  21. ^ "Sen. John Cornyn (R-Texas)". Roll Call. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  22. ^ Black, Chris (November 9, 1988). "Bentsen reelected but Texas goes GOP". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 10, 2014 – via HighBeam Research.
This page was last edited on 15 October 2020, at 06:22
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.