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1988 Democratic Party presidential primaries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1988 Democratic Party presidential primaries

← 1984 February 8 to June 14, 1988 1992 →
 
Michael Dukakis color photograph (cropped).png
JesseJackson.png
Sengore.jpg
Candidate Michael Dukakis Jesse Jackson Al Gore
Home state Massachusetts South Carolina Tennessee
Delegate count 1,792 1,023 374
Contests won 30 13 7
Popular vote 10,024,101 6,941,816 3,190,992
Percentage 42.4% 29.3% 13.5%

 
Paul Simon (US Senator from Illinois) (1).jpg
Dick Gephardt (1).jpg
Candidate Paul Simon Dick Gephardt
Home state Illinois Missouri
Delegate count 161 137
Contests won 1 3
Popular vote 1,107,692 1,452,331
Percentage 4.7% 6.1%

1988DemocraticPresidentialPrimaries.svg
First place finishes by roll call vote

Previous Democratic nominee

Walter Mondale

Democratic nominee

Michael Dukakis

The 1988 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1988 U.S. presidential election.

Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1988 Democratic National Convention held from July 18 to July 21, 1988, in Atlanta, Georgia.

Background

Having been badly defeated in the 1984 presidential election, the Democrats in 1985 and 1986 were eager to find a new approach to win the presidency. They created the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), with the aim of recruiting a candidate for the 1988 election.[citation needed]

The large gains in the 1986 mid-term elections (which resulted in the Democrats taking back control of the Senate after six years of Republican rule) and the continuing Iran Contra scandal gave Democrats confidence in the run-up to the primary season.[citation needed]

Candidates

Nominee

Candidate Most recent position Home state Campaign Popular

vote

Contests won Running mate
Michael Dukakis
Governor of Massachusetts
(1975–79,
1983–91)
Massachusetts

Massachusetts

(Campaign)

10,024,101
(42.37%)
30
NH, MN, ME primary, VT primary
FL, HI caucus, ID caucus, MD
MA, RI, TX, WA
AS caucus, CO caucus, KS caucus
CT, WI, AZ caucus, NY, UT caucus, PA, IN
OH, NE, OR, CA, MT, NJ, NM, ND
Lloyd Bentsen

Withdrew during primaries or convention

Candidate Experience Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Popular vote Contests won
Jesse Jackson
Civil rights leader

South Carolina

Eliminated at convention
(Campaign)

6,941,816
(29.34%)
13
AL, GA, LA, MS, VA
AK caucus, SC, PR
VT caucus, MI caucus, DE caucus, DC
Al Gore
U.S. Senator
from Tennessee
(1985–93)

U.S. Representative from Tennessee
(1977–85)


Tennessee
Al Gore '88 logo.svg

Withdrew: April 21

(Campaign)

3,190,992
(13.49%)
7
WY caucus, AR, KY
NV caucus, NC, OK, TN
Paul Simon
Paul Simon (US Senator from Illinois).jpg
U.S. Senator
from Illinois
(1985–97)

U.S. Representative from Illinois
(1975–85)

Illinois

Illinois
Paul Simon presidential campaign, 1988.png

Withdrew: April 7
1,107,692
(4.68%)
1
IL
Dick Gephardt
Dick Gephardt.jpg
U.S. Representative
from Missouri
(1977–2005)
Missouri

Missouri
Dickgephardt1988.gif

Withdrew: March 29
1,452,331
(6.14%)
3
IA caucus, SD, MO
Gary Hart
Gary Hart in 1987 (cropped).jpg
U.S. Senator
from Colorado
(1975–87)
Colorado

Colorado
Garyhart1988.gif

Withdrew: March 12
390,200
(1.65%)
0

Other notable candidates campaigning for the nomination but receiving less than 1% of the national vote included:

Withdrew before primaries

Candidate Experience Home state Campaign

Withdrawal date

Joe Biden
U.S. Senator
from Delaware
(1973–2009)

Delaware

September 23, 1987
(Campaign)

Pat Schroeder
U.S. Representative
from Colorado
(1973–97)

Colorado
September 28, 1987

Declined

Polling

Nationwide polling

Poll source Publication
Bruce Babbitt
Michael Dukakis
Dick Gephardt
Al Gore
Gary Hart
Jesse Jackson
Paul Simon
May 8: Gary Hart suspends his campaign
December 16: Gary Hart re-enters the race
YCS[2] Dec. 17–18, 1987 14% 4% 30% 22% 7%
Gallup[2] Dec. 17–18, 1987 10% 2% 31% 13% 10%
YCS[2] Jan. 3–6, 1988 11% 4% 28% 17% 13%
New York Times[2] Jan. 17–21, 1988 6% 4% 23% 17% 9%
Washington Post/ABC[2] Jan. 17–23, 1988 11% 4% 23% 25% 12%
Gallup[2] Jan. 22–24, 1988 3% 16% 9% 6% 23% 15% 9%
Harris Interactive[2] Jan. 7–26, 1988 15% 6% 19% 15% 8%
Gordon Black[2] Jan. 21–28, 1988 13% 9% 17% 13% 7%
New York Times[2] Jan. 30–31, 1988 8% 4% 18% 16% 6%
February 8: Iowa caucus
February 16: New Hampshire primary
March 8: Super Tuesday

Primary race

The Hart-Rice affair

The Democratic front-runner for most of 1987 was former Colorado Senator Gary Hart.[3] Hart had made a strong showing in the 1984 primaries and, after Mondale's defeat in the presidential election, had positioned himself as the moderate centrist many Democrats felt their party would need to win.[4]

However, questions and rumors about possible extramarital affairs and about past debts dogged Hart's campaign.[5] One of the great myths is that Senator Hart challenged the media to "put a tail" on him and that reporters then took him up on that challenge. In fact, Hart had told E. J. Dionne of The New York Times that if reporters followed him around, they would "be bored". However, in a separate investigation, the Miami Herald claimed to have received an anonymous tip from a friend of Donna Rice that Rice was involved with Hart. It was only after Hart had been discovered that the Herald reporters found Hart's quote in a pre-print of The New York Times Magazine.[6]

On May 8, 1987, a week after the Donna Rice story broke, Hart dropped out of the race.[5]

In December 1987, Hart surprised many political pundits by resuming his presidential campaign.[7] He again led in the polls for the Democratic nomination, both nationally and in Iowa. However, the allegations of adultery and reports of irregularities in his campaign financing had delivered a fatal blow to his candidacy, and he fared poorly in the early primaries before dropping out again.[8]

The Hart scandal would later be depicted in the 2018 film The Front Runner, with Hugh Jackman portraying Hart.

Biden plagiarism scandal

Delaware Senator Joe Biden led a highly competitive campaign which ended in controversy after he was accused of plagiarizing a speech by Neil Kinnock, then-leader of the British Labour Party.[9] Though Biden had correctly credited the original author in all speeches but one, the one of which he failed to make mention of the originator was caught on video and sent to the press by members of the Dukakis campaign. In the video Biden is filmed repeating a stump speech by Kinnock, with only minor modifications. Michael Dukakis later acknowledged that his campaign was responsible for leaking the tape, and two members of his staff resigned.[10]

It was also discovered that Biden had been guilty of plagiarism years before, while a student at the Syracuse University College of Law in the 1960s. Though Biden professed his integrity, the impression lingering in the media as the result of this double punch would lead him to drop out of the race.[10]

The Delaware Supreme Court's Board on Professional Responsibility would later clear Biden of the law school plagiarism charges.[11]

After campaigns in 2008 and 2020, Biden was elected Vice President in 2008 and President in 2020.

Results

In the Iowa caucuses, Gephardt finished first, Simon finished second, and Dukakis finished third. In the New Hampshire primary, Dukakis finished first, Gephardt finished second, and Simon finished third. Dukakis and Gore campaigned hard against Gephardt with negative ads, and eventually the United Auto Workers retracted their endorsement of Gephardt, who was heavily dependent on labor union backing.

In the Super Tuesday races, Dukakis won six primaries, Gore five, Jackson five and Gephardt one, with Gore and Jackson splitting the southern states. The next week, Simon won Illinois. 1988 is tied with 1992 as the race with the most candidates winning primaries since the McGovern reforms of 1971. Gore's effort to paint Dukakis as too liberal for the general election proved unsuccessful and he eventually withdrew. Jackson focused more on getting enough delegates to make sure African-American interests were represented in the platform than on winning outright.[12] Dukakis eventually emerged as the party's nominee.

State Results

Raw Vote Delegate Estimate
Date State Delegates Dukakis Gephardt Gore Jackson Simon Others Dukakis Gephardt Gore Jackson Simon
February 8 Iowa caucus[13] 45 27,750 39,125 80 11,000 33,375 13,625 12 18 0 0 15
February 16 New Hampshire[14] 16 44,112 24,513 8,400 9,615 21,094 15,179 8 4 0 0 4
February 23 Minnesota[15] 68 8,990 1,970 274 5,270 4,766 5,281 25 0 0 15 13
South Dakota[15] 17 22,349 31,184 5,993 3,867 3,992 4,221 7 10 0 0 0
February 28 Maine primary[16] 20 3,170 282 139 2,722 378 2,053 8 0 0 7 0
March 1 Vermont Caucus[17] 12 582 0 6 596 0 120 6 0 0 6 0
March 5 Wyoming caucus[18] 11 76 61 88 38 6 1 4 3 4 0 0
March 8

(Super Tuesday)

Alabama[19] 47 31,206 30,214 151,739 176,764 3,063 12,845 0 0 22 25 0
Arkansas[20] 32 94,103 59,711 185,758 85,003 9,020 63,949 8 0 16 7 0
Florida[21] 101 520,868 182,779 161,106 254,825 27,592 121,606 68 0 0 33 0
Georgia[22] 64 97,179 41,489 201,490 247,831 8,388 26,375 0 0 24 29 0
Hawaii caucus[23] 17 2,716 98 58 1,739 46 318 10 0 0 7 0
Idaho caucus[24] 16 144 3 32 73 16 112 7 0 0 4 0
Kentucky[25] 48 59,433 28,982 145,988 49,667 9,393 25,258 11 0 27 9 0
Louisiana[26] 52 95,661 67,029 174,971 221,522 5,153 60,683 10 0 18 23 0
Maryland[27] 56 242,479 42,059 46,063 152,642 16,013 16,631 34 0 0 22 0
Massachusetts[28] 93 418,256 72,943 31,631 133,385 26,176 31,552 71 0 0 22 0
Mississippi[29] 40 29,941 19,693 120,364 160,651 2,118 26,650 1 0 15 24 0
Missouri[30] 71 61,303 305,287 14,549 106,386 21,433 18,857 0 53 0 18 0
Nevada caucus[31] 12 427 33 491 382 20 285 3 0 4 3 0
North Carolina[32] 68 137,993 37,553 235,669 224,177 8,032 36,534 16 0 27 25 0
Oklahoma[33] 39 66,278 82,596 162,584 52,417 6,901 21,951 9 10 20 0 0
Rhode Island[34] 20 34,159 2,013 1,932 7,369 1,392 1,958 16 0 0 4 0
Tennessee[35] 56 19,348 8,470 416,861 119,248 2,647 9,740 0 0 44 12 0
Texas[36] 145 579,713 240,158 357,764 433,335 34,499 121,576 61 0 38 46 0
Virginia[37] 62 80,183 15,935 81,419 164,709 7,045 15,608 15 0 15 32 0
Washington[38] 53 3,784 78 166 3,083 300 1,074 29 0 0 24 0
American Samoa caucus[39] 6 39% 22% 0% 7% 0% 4 2 0 0 0
March 10 Alaska caucus[40] 10 774 15 48 882 18 791 3 0 0 4 0
March 12 Colorado caucus[41] 36 4,852 0 307 3,720 14 1,867 17 0 0 13 0
South Carolina[42] 37 1,018 307 2,777 8,114 36 2,853 0 0 7 22 0
March 15 Illinois[43] 160 245,289 35,108 77,265 484,233 635,219 23,816 29 0 0 57 74
March 19 Kansas caucus[44] 34 278 12 125 235 0 114 15 0 7 13 0
March 20 Puerto Rico[45] 40 70,733 9,159 45,361 87,757 57,639 3,753 11 0 7 13 9
March 24 Connecticut[46] 58% 0% 8% 28% 1%
March 26 Michigan caucus[47] 127 61,674 27,222 4,253 113,777 4,466 326 45 0 0 82 0
April 5 Wisconsin[48] 47% 0% 17% 30% 5%
April 16 Arizona caucus[49] 54% 0% 5% 38% 1%
April 18 Delaware caucus[50] 27% 0% 2% 46% 0%
April 19 New York[51] 243 801,457 0 157,559 585,076 17,011 14,083 142 0 5 87 0
April 25 Utah caucus[52] 72% 0% 0% 15% 0%
April 26 Pennsylvania[53] 161 1,002,480 7,254 44,542 411,260 9,692 32,462 114 0 0 47 0
May 3 Indiana[54] 70% 3% 3% 22% 2%
May 3 Ohio[55] 63% 0% 2% 27% 1%
May 3 Washington, D.C.[56] 18% 0% 1% 80% 1%
May 10 Nebraska[57] 63% 3% 1% 26% 1%
May 10 West Virginia[58] 75% 2% 3% 13% 1%
May 17 Oregon[59] 57% 2% 1% 38% 1%
June 7 California[60] 272 1,910,808 56,645 1,102,093 43,771 25,417 173 0 0 99 0
Montana[61] 69% 3% 2% 22% 1%
New Jersey[62] 100 414,829 18,062 213,705 7,706 66 0 0 34 0
New Mexico[63] 61% 0% 3% 28% 2%
June 14 North Dakota[64] 85% 0% 0% 15% 0%
1,427 98 307 1,046 115

Total popular vote results

Total popular vote results from primaries and caucuses:[65]

Convention and general election

The Democratic Party Convention was held in Atlanta, Georgia, July 18–21. The Dukakis nominating speech delivered by Arkansas governor and future president Bill Clinton was widely criticized as too long and tedious.[66]

Texas State Treasurer Ann Richards (who two years later became the state governor) delivered a memorable keynote address in which she uttered the lines "Poor George [Bush], he can't help it, he was born with a silver foot in his mouth." Six years later, Bush's son George W. Bush would deny Richards re-election as Texas Governor.

With most candidates having withdrawn and asking their delegates to vote for Dukakis, the tally for president was as follows:[67]

Jesse Jackson's campaign believed that since they had come in a respectable second, Jackson was entitled to the vice presidential spot. Dukakis refused, and gave the spot to Lloyd Bentsen.

Bentsen was selected in large part to secure the state of Texas and its large electoral vote for the Democrats. During the vice-presidential debate, Republican candidate and Senator Dan Quayle ignored a head-on confrontation with Bentsen (aside from the "Jack Kennedy" comparison) and spent his time attacking Dukakis.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Kennedy, Citing Senate Goals, Rules Out '88 Presidential Bid". The New York Times. December 20, 1985.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "US President - D Primares (Polling)". OurCampaigns. 31 Aug 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  3. ^ John Dillin for The Christian Science Monitor. 23 February 1987 Cuomo's `no' opens door for dark horses
  4. ^ E. J. Dionne Jr. (May 3, 1987). "Gary Hart The Elusive Front-Runner". The New York Times, pg. SM28.
  5. ^ a b Johnston, David; King, Wayne; Nordheimer, Jon (1987-05-09). "Courting Danger: The Fall Of Gary Hart". The New York Times.
  6. ^ "The Gary Hart Story: How It Happened". The Miami Herald. May 10, 1987.
  7. ^ Bob Drogin for the Los Angeles Times. 16 December 1987 Hart Back in Race for President : Political World Stunned, Gives Him Little Chance
  8. ^ Associated Press, in the Los Angeles Times. 13 March 1988 Quits Campaign : 'The People 'Have Decided,' Hart Declares
  9. ^ "Biden Is Facing Growing Debate On His Speeches". The New York Times. September 16, 1987.
  10. ^ a b Thompson, Alex; Pager, Tyler (January 19, 2021). "They failed spectacularly in '88. Now, these Biden aides are getting sweet redemption". Politico.
  11. ^ "Professional Board Clears Biden In Two Allegations of Plagiarism". The New York Times. May 29, 1989. p. 29.
  12. ^ Williams, Juan (1988-07-17). "Waiting for The Jackson Reaction; Will Jesse End His Crusade With a Bang or a Whimper?". The Washington Post. p. C1.
  13. ^ Robert S. Boyd; Susan Bennett (February 9, 1988). "Dole, Gephardt take Iowa". Google News Search Archive. Spartanburg, SC: Spartanburg Herald-Journal. pp. 1, 3. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  14. ^ Robert S. Boyd; Susan Bennett (February 17, 1988). "Bush, Dukakis score big wins". Google News Search Archive. Spartanburg, SC: Spartanburg Herald-Journal. pp. 1, 4. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  15. ^ a b Robert S. Boyd; Susan Bennett (February 24, 1988). "Dole scores impressive victories". Google News Search Archive. Spartanburg, SC: Spartanburg Herald-Journal. pp. 1, 4. Retrieved 1 November 2017.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - ME US President - D Caucus Race - Feb. 28, 1988". Our Campaigns.
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  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL US President - D Primary Race - Mar. 08, 1988". Our Campaigns.
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  21. ^ "Florida Department of State (Election Results)" (search results: 1988 Presidential preference primary (Democratic party)). Florida Secretary of State. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  22. ^ "Supplement to the Georgia Official and Statistical Register 1985-1988" (search results: 1988 Presidential preference primary (Democratic party)). Georgia Official and Statistical Register. p. 3. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  23. ^ "Incomplete Statewide Data for Caucuses" (Excel worksheet). U.S. Election Atlas (AtlasWiki). Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  24. ^ "Idaho Caucus County Results" (Excel worksheet). U.S. Election Atlas (AtlasWiki). Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  25. ^ "Kentucky County Results" (Excel worksheet). U.S. Election Atlas (AtlasWiki). Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  26. ^ "Louisiana County Results" (Excel worksheet). U.S. Election Atlas (AtlasWiki). Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  27. ^ "1988 Presidential Election". Maryland State Board of Elections. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
  28. ^ "Massachusetts County, Congressional District and Town Results" (Excel worksheet). U.S. Election Atlas (AtlasWiki). Retrieved 3 November 2017.
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  30. ^ "Missouri County Results" (Excel worksheet). U.S. Election Atlas (AtlasWiki). Retrieved 3 November 2017.
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  39. ^ "After Super Tuesday: Caucus Tallies". New York Times. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
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External links

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