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1984 United States presidential election in Missouri

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1984 United States presidential election in Missouri

← 1980 November 6, 1984 1988 →
 
Ronald Reagan 1985 presidential portrait (cropped).jpg
Vice President Mondale 1977 closeup.jpg
Nominee Ronald Reagan Walter Mondale
Party Republican Democratic
Home state California Minnesota
Running mate George H. W. Bush Geraldine Ferraro
Electoral vote 11 0
Popular vote 1,274,188 848,583
Percentage 60.02% 39.98%

Missouri Presidential Election Results 1984.svg
County Results

President before election

Ronald Reagan
Republican

Elected President

Ronald Reagan
Republican

The 1984 United States presidential election in Missouri took place on November 6, 1984. All 50 states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1984 United States presidential election. Missouri voters chose eleven electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president of the United States.

Missouri was won by incumbent United States President Ronald Reagan of California, who was running against former Vice President Walter Mondale of Minnesota. Reagan ran for a second time with former C.I.A. Director George H. W. Bush of Texas, and Mondale ran with Representative Geraldine Ferraro of New York, the first major female candidate for the vice presidency.

Partisan background

The presidential election of 1984 was a perfectly partisan election in Missouri, with 100% of the electorate voting for either the Democratic or the Republican nominee, as only those two appeared on the ballot.[1] Accordingly, every county gave either Mondale or Reagan an outright majority: five (including the county-equivalent of the city of St Louis) gave Mondale a majority; the rest gave Reagan one. Reagan's strongest performance was in Gasconade County, which gave him 80.54% of its ballots; Mondale's was in the city of St Louis, which gave him 64.80%.

Missouri weighed in for this election as 2 percentage points more Republican than the national average.

Democratic platform

Walter Mondale accepted the Democratic nomination for presidency after pulling narrowly ahead of Senator Gary Hart of Colorado and Rev. Jesse Jackson of Illinois - his main contenders during what would be a very contentious[2] Democratic primary. During the campaign, Mondale was vocal about reduction of government spending, and, in particular, was vocal against heightened military spending on the nuclear arms race against the Soviet Union,[3] which was reaching its peak on both sides in the early 1980s.

Taking a (what was becoming the traditional liberal) stance on the social issues of the day, Mondale advocated for gun control, the right to choose regarding abortion, and strongly opposed the repeal of laws regarding institutionalized prayer in public schools. He also criticized Reagan for his economic marginalization of the poor, stating that Reagan's reelection campaign was "a happy talk campaign," not focused on the real issues at hand.[4]

A very significant political move during this election: the Democratic Party nominated Representative Geraldine Ferraro to run with Mondale as Vice-President. Ferraro is the first female candidate to receive such a nomination in United States history. She said in an interview at the 1984 Democratic National Convention that this action "opened a door which will never be closed again,"[5] speaking to the role of women in politics.

Republican platform

Reagan challenging Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!," from the Brandenburg Gate in June, 1987. Reagan's firm stance with the Soviet Union was an important contributor to his 1984 reelection.
Reagan challenging Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!," from the Brandenburg Gate in June, 1987. Reagan's firm stance with the Soviet Union was an important contributor to his 1984 reelection.

By 1984, Reagan was very popular with voters across the nation as the President who saw them out of the economic stagflation of the early and middle 1970's, and into a period of (relative) economic stability.[6]

The economic success seen under Reagan was politically accomplished (principally) in two ways. The first was initiation of deep tax cuts for the wealthy,[7] and the second was a wide-spectrum of tax cuts for crude oil production and refinement, namely, with the 1980 Windfall profits tax cuts.[8] These policies were augmented with a call for heightened military spending,[9] the cutting of social welfare programs for the poor,[10] and the increasing of taxes on those making less than $50,000 per year.[7] Collectively called "Reaganomics", these economic policies were established through several pieces of legislation passed between 1980 and 1987.

These new tax policies also arguably curbed several existing tax loopholes, preferences, and exceptions, but Reaganomics is typically remembered for its trickle down effect of taxing poor Americans more than rich ones. Reaganomics has (along with legislation passed under presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton) been criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United States after 2007, such as the Great Recession.[11]

Virtually unopposed during the Republican primaries, Reagan ran on a campaign of furthering his economic policies. Reagan vowed to continue his "war on drugs," passing sweeping legislation after the 1984 election in support of mandatory minimum sentences for drug possession.[12] Furthermore, taking a (what was becoming the traditional conservative) stance on the social issues of the day, Reagan strongly opposed legislation regarding comprehension of gay marriage, abortion, and (to a lesser extent) environmentalism,[13] regarding the final as simply being bad for business.

Republican victory

Reagan won the state in a landslide, amassing over 60% of the vote, slightly more than his national vote share. He performed particularly strongly in its largest county or county-equivalent, suburban St Louis County (which does not include the city of St Louis), where he got 64% of the vote. He also got over 2/3 of the vote in the Show-Me State's fourth-largest county, historically Republican Greene County (home of Springfield). Mondale scored a strong win in the city of St Louis, where he got 64.8%, and eked out a narrow victory in Jackson County, home of Kansas City. However, he could not match Reagan in rural and small-town Missouri; aside from Jackson County and the city of St Louis, Mondale had only three other wins in Missouri's counties and county-equivalents, with his only convicing win being in the historically secessionist and highly unionized Lead Belt county of Reynolds County (he also narrowly won Oregon and Mississippi Counties). Reagan became the first Republican nominee to sweep Missouri's 'Little Dixie' region, as he became the first Republican ever to carry Monroe County. This feat was repeated by George W. Bush in 2004 (and, excluding Boone County, home to the University of Missouri, by every subsequent Republican nominee as of 2020).

Results

United States presidential election in Missouri, 1984
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Republican Ronald Reagan 1,274,188 60.02% 11
Democratic Walter Mondale 848,583 39.98% 0
Totals 2,122,771 100.0% 11

Results by county

County Ronald Wilson Reagan
Republican
Walter Frederick Mondale
Democratic
Margin Total votes cast[14]
# % # % # %
Adair 6,430 67.34% 3,119 32.66% 3,311 34.67% 9,549
Andrew 4,252 63.38% 2,457 36.62% 1,795 26.76% 6,709
Atchison 2,277 65.13% 1,219 34.87% 1,058 30.26% 3,496
Audrain 7,261 60.90% 4,662 39.10% 2,599 21.80% 11,923
Barry 7,683 68.81% 3,483 31.19% 4,200 37.61% 11,166
Barton 3,996 74.78% 1,348 25.22% 2,648 49.55% 5,344
Bates 4,223 59.38% 2,889 40.62% 1,334 18.76% 7,112
Benton 3,805 62.83% 2,251 37.17% 1,554 25.66% 6,056
Bollinger 2,778 59.09% 1,923 40.91% 855 18.19% 4,701
Boone 26,600 57.87% 19,364 42.13% 7,236 15.74% 45,964
Buchanan 19,735 56.22% 15,369 43.78% 4,366 12.44% 35,104
Butler 8,712 64.96% 4,699 35.04% 4,013 29.92% 13,411
Caldwell 2,678 65.96% 1,382 34.04% 1,296 31.92% 4,060
Callaway 8,262 65.63% 4,327 34.37% 3,935 31.26% 12,589
Camden 8,057 72.29% 3,088 27.71% 4,969 44.59% 11,145
Cape Girardeau 17,404 70.32% 7,346 29.68% 10,058 40.64% 24,750
Carroll 3,495 63.84% 1,980 36.16% 1,515 27.67% 5,475
Carter 1,402 60.48% 916 39.52% 486 20.97% 2,318
Cass 14,456 65.79% 7,517 34.21% 6,939 31.58% 21,973
Cedar 3,539 71.08% 1,440 28.92% 2,099 42.16% 4,979
Chariton 2,744 55.01% 2,244 44.99% 500 10.02% 4,988
Christian 7,634 70.31% 3,223 29.69% 4,411 40.63% 10,857
Clark 2,068 55.97% 1,627 44.03% 441 11.94% 3,695
Clay 36,529 61.79% 22,586 38.21% 13,943 23.59% 59,115
Clinton 4,226 60.34% 2,778 39.66% 1,448 20.67% 7,004
Cole 20,366 75.24% 6,702 24.76% 13,664 50.48% 27,068
Cooper 4,603 67.47% 2,219 32.53% 2,384 34.95% 6,822
Crawford 4,716 64.37% 2,610 35.63% 2,106 28.75% 7,326
Dade 2,600 70.27% 1,100 29.73% 1,500 40.54% 3,700
Dallas 3,577 65.29% 1,902 34.71% 1,675 30.57% 5,479
Daviess 2,414 61.27% 1,526 38.73% 888 22.54% 3,940
DeKalb 2,188 59.91% 1,464 40.09% 724 19.82% 3,652
Dent 3,490 57.84% 2,544 42.16% 946 15.68% 6,034
Douglas 3,662 70.45% 1,536 29.55% 2,126 40.90% 5,198
Dunklin 6,092 55.09% 4,967 44.91% 1,125 10.17% 11,059
Franklin 18,669 69.18% 8,319 30.82% 10,350 38.35% 26,988
Gasconade 4,678 80.54% 1,130 19.46% 3,548 61.09% 5,808
Gentry 2,047 56.13% 1,600 43.87% 447 12.26% 3,647
Greene 57,250 67.18% 27,965 32.82% 29,285 34.37% 85,215
Grundy 3,156 62.91% 1,861 37.09% 1,295 25.81% 5,017
Harrison 2,844 63.30% 1,649 36.70% 1,195 26.60% 4,493
Henry 5,419 59.16% 3,741 40.84% 1,678 18.32% 9,160
Hickory 2,190 64.37% 1,212 35.63% 978 28.75% 3,402
Holt 2,087 67.04% 1,026 32.96% 1,061 34.08% 3,113
Howard 2,360 53.96% 2,014 46.04% 346 7.91% 4,374
Howell 8,204 68.53% 3,767 31.47% 4,437 37.06% 11,971
Iron 2,316 53.38% 2,023 46.62% 293 6.75% 4,339
Jackson 132,271 49.48% 135,067 50.52% -2,796 -1.05% 267,338
Jasper 23,066 71.36% 9,259 28.64% 13,807 42.71% 32,325
Jefferson 34,525 63.29% 20,026 36.71% 14,499 26.58% 54,551
Johnson 8,413 66.50% 4,238 33.50% 4,175 33.00% 12,651
Knox 1,513 57.97% 1,097 42.03% 416 15.94% 2,610
Laclede 6,406 70.62% 2,665 29.38% 3,741 41.24% 9,071
Lafayette 8,581 63.90% 4,848 36.10% 3,733 27.80% 13,429
Lawrence 8,370 69.23% 3,720 30.77% 4,650 38.46% 12,090
Lewis 2,438 55.22% 1,977 44.78% 461 10.44% 4,415
Lincoln 6,137 65.10% 3,290 34.90% 2,847 30.20% 9,427
Linn 3,822 55.12% 3,112 44.88% 710 10.24% 6,934
Livingston 4,090 60.24% 2,699 39.76% 1,391 20.49% 6,789
Macon 4,542 59.93% 3,037 40.07% 1,505 19.86% 7,579
Madison 2,808 60.13% 1,862 39.87% 946 20.26% 4,670
Maries 2,267 62.02% 1,388 37.98% 879 24.05% 3,655
Marion 6,831 59.42% 4,666 40.58% 2,165 18.83% 11,497
McDonald 4,521 68.19% 2,109 31.81% 2,412 36.38% 6,630
Mercer 1,229 58.41% 875 41.59% 354 16.83% 2,104
Miller 6,706 76.55% 2,054 23.45% 4,652 53.11% 8,760
Mississippi 2,502 49.78% 2,524 50.22% -22 -0.44% 5,026
Moniteau 4,197 72.23% 1,614 27.77% 2,583 44.45% 5,811
Monroe 2,163 52.06% 1,992 47.94% 171 4.12% 4,155
Montgomery 3,261 66.16% 1,668 33.84% 1,593 32.32% 4,929
Morgan 4,392 66.94% 2,169 33.06% 2,223 33.88% 6,561
New Madrid 4,323 53.38% 3,776 46.62% 547 6.75% 8,099
Newton 11,709 71.69% 4,623 28.31% 7,086 43.39% 16,332
Nodaway 5,471 60.21% 3,615 39.79% 1,856 20.43% 9,086
Oregon 1,979 49.41% 2,026 50.59% -47 -1.17% 4,005
Osage 4,381 76.54% 1,343 23.46% 3,038 53.07% 5,724
Ozark 2,614 70.19% 1,110 29.81% 1,504 40.39% 3,724
Pemiscot 3,733 53.13% 3,293 46.87% 440 6.26% 7,026
Perry 4,493 70.98% 1,837 29.02% 2,656 41.96% 6,330
Pettis 10,991 67.00% 5,413 33.00% 5,578 34.00% 16,404
Phelps 9,012 63.98% 5,074 36.02% 3,938 27.96% 14,086
Pike 3,933 54.28% 3,313 45.72% 620 8.56% 7,246
Platte 12,859 62.64% 7,668 37.36% 5,191 25.29% 20,527
Polk 5,467 65.98% 2,819 34.02% 2,648 31.96% 8,286
Pulaski 5,330 65.04% 2,865 34.96% 2,465 30.08% 8,195
Putnam 1,540 65.90% 797 34.10% 743 31.79% 2,337
Ralls 2,067 50.69% 2,011 49.31% 56 1.37% 4,078
Randolph 5,735 56.19% 4,471 43.81% 1,264 12.38% 10,206
Ray 4,875 55.06% 3,979 44.94% 896 10.12% 8,854
Reynolds 1,330 39.63% 2,026 60.37% -696 -20.74% 3,356
Ripley 2,927 60.85% 1,883 39.15% 1,044 21.70% 4,810
Saline 6,042 58.53% 4,281 41.47% 1,761 17.06% 10,323
Schuyler 1,250 52.28% 1,141 47.72% 109 4.56% 2,391
Scotland 1,485 58.01% 1,075 41.99% 410 16.02% 2,560
Scott 8,727 61.05% 5,569 38.95% 3,158 22.09% 14,296
Shannon 1,779 52.96% 1,580 47.04% 199 5.92% 3,359
Shelby 2,243 58.78% 1,573 41.22% 670 17.56% 3,816
Saint Charles 47,784 73.06% 17,617 26.94% 30,167 46.13% 65,401
Saint Clair 2,667 61.71% 1,655 38.29% 1,012 23.42% 4,322
Saint Francois 9,792 57.84% 7,137 42.16% 2,655 15.68% 16,929
Saint Louis County 307,684 63.99% 173,144 36.01% 134,540 27.98% 480,828
Saint Louis City 61,020 35.20% 112,318 64.80% -51,298 -29.59% 173,338
Sainte Genevieve 3,245 54.37% 2,723 45.63% 522 8.75% 5,968
Stoddard 6,701 60.95% 4,294 39.05% 2,407 21.89% 10,995
Stone 5,706 72.92% 2,119 27.08% 3,587 45.84% 7,825
Sullivan 2,306 56.38% 1,784 43.62% 522 12.76% 4,090
Taney 7,082 70.86% 2,912 29.14% 4,170 41.73% 9,994
Texas 5,591 60.42% 3,662 39.58% 1,929 20.85% 9,253
Vernon 5,181 63.45% 2,984 36.55% 2,197 26.91% 8,165
Warren 5,150 72.39% 1,964 27.61% 3,186 44.78% 7,114
Washington 3,755 55.70% 2,987 44.30% 768 11.39% 6,742
Wayne 2,867 54.82% 2,363 45.18% 504 9.64% 5,230
Webster 5,529 64.96% 2,982 35.04% 2,547 29.93% 8,511
Worth 921 55.65% 734 44.35% 187 11.30% 1,655
Wright 4,687 70.38% 1,973 29.62% 2,714 40.75% 6,660
Totals 1,274,188 60.02% 848,583 39.98% 425,605 20.05% 2,122,771

See also

References

  1. ^ "1984 Presidential General Election Results – Missouri". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2013-11-11.
  2. ^ Kurt Andersen, "A Wild Ride to the End", Time, May 28, 1984
  3. ^ Trying to Win the Peace, by Even Thomas, Time, July 2, 1984
  4. ^ Ap (1984-09-11). "Text of Mondale's Statement". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-01-03.
  5. ^ Martin, Douglas (2011-03-27). "Geraldine A. Ferraro, First Woman on Major Party Ticket, Dies at 75". The New York Times. pp. A1. Retrieved November 5, 2013.
  6. ^ Raines, Howell (November 7, 1984). "Reagan Wins By a Landslide, Sweeping at Least 48 States; G.O.P. Gains Strength in House". The New York Times. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  7. ^ a b "U.S. Federal Individual Income Tax Rates History, 1913–2011 (Nominal and Inflation-Adjusted Brackets)". Tax Foundation. September 9, 2011. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved November 10, 2013.
  8. ^ Joseph J. Thorndike (Nov 10, 2005). "Historical Perspective: The Windfall Profit Tax". Retrieved November 11, 2013.
  9. ^ Historical tables, Budget of the United States Government Archived 2012-04-17 at the Wayback Machine, 2013, table 6.1.
  10. ^ Niskanen, William A. (1992). "Reaganomics". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (1st ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. OCLC 317650570, 50016270, 163149563
  11. ^ Jerry Lanson (2008-11-06). "A historic victory. A changed nation. Now, can Obama deliver?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  12. ^ Alexander, Michelle (2010). The New Jim Crow. New York: The New Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1595581037.
  13. ^ Prendergast, William B. (1999). The Catholic vote in American politics. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. pp. 186, 191–193. ISBN 0-87840-724-3.
  14. ^ Missouri Secretary of State, ‘General Election Returns Vote for President, By Counties, at General Election November 6, 1984’ Official Manual State of Missouri 1985-1986 (Jefferson City, 1985)
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