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The following events occurred in October 1956:

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Hungarian Uprising, Budapest (1956)
  • ✪ The Hungarian Revolution of 1956: Rare Silent Footage
  • ✪ CIA Archives: Egypt and Gamal Abdel Nasser during the Suez Canal Crisis (1956)
  • ✪ Buddha Vandana- Babasaheb Ambedkar in Nagpur 1956 14th October
  • ✪ 29th October 1956: Israel invades Egypt in the Suez Crisis

Transcription

Hungarian Uprising -- Budapest, 1956 -- The Cold War After the Second World War, Hungary was absorbed as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. A communist government was established. Political opposition was purged and Mátyás Rákosi, who was a strong supporter of Stalin, was appointed leader. Imre Nagy would replace him in 1953 when Stalin died. Until 1955, because of his independent attitude Rákosi would again seize power on a stalinist leadership style such as his use of the secret police to brutally put down opponents made him unpopular with Hungarians as did the low living standards. In June, 1956, in the spirit of de-Stalinisation, Rákosi was forced by the Soviet Politburo to resign as general secretary. Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization also encouraged a sense of freedom among Hungarians to criticize the Soviet regime and improve relations with the West. A rise of protests by students and workers waving Hungarian flags with the Communist Emblem in the center cut out arose in Budapest. Erupting into active fighting in October 1956. The rebels were successful in the first stages of the revolution against Soviet troops. They pulled down Stalin statue and released political prisoners. András Hegedüs was forced to resign and the popular Imre Nagy now became prime minister. Fighting ceased on the 28th of October as the Hungarians believed that Soviet troops had withdrawn entirely. The new Hungarian government under Nagy began to make reforms for free elections and an end of the secret police. In a radio address to the Hungarian people, Nagy declared that Hungary would withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. Khrushchev was not happy with the idea of Hungary withdrawing, therefore making it neutral against the Soviet Union's enemies. On 1st November, 1956, Soviet Troops invaded Hungary, re-entering Budapest on the 4th November. Nagy had appealed to the United Nations to support the revolution. But Western Powers did not intervene for risk of starting a global confrontation with USSR. The Hungarians could not continue fighting against the numerous Soviet troops and tanks and street fighting ceased after two weeks A new pro-Soviet government was set up on János Kádár, while Nagy was caught and later executed for treason in 1958.

Contents

October 1, 1956 (Monday)

October 2, 1956 (Tuesday)

October 3, 1956 (Wednesday)

October 4, 1956 (Thursday)

  • On Italy, the United Action Pact between PCI and PSI, in force from 1934, becomes, by mutual agreement, a less binding Consultation Pact. In parallel, PSI and PSDI carry on the tractates for a future reunification of the two Italian Socialist parties.[8]
  • Negev desert road ambush: Palestinian Fedayeen militants attack two Israeli jeeps on the Sodom–Beer Sheva road (Highway 25), travelling near the southern part of the Dead Sea, 7 miles west of the Jordanian border with Israel. Four passengers are killed.[9]
  • Born: Christoph Waltz, Austrian actor, in Vienna

October 5, 1956 (Friday)

October 6, 1956 (Saturday)

October 7, 1956 (Sunday)

October 8, 1956 (Monday)

October 9, 1956 (Tuesday)

October 10, 1956 (Wednesday)

  • In Terrazzano (Milan) two lunatics, the brothers Arturo and Egidio Santato (the first just released by a criminal madhouse) take hostage, in a primary school, 97 children and three schoolmistresses, asking for a ransom. After a day of anguish, the situation is unlocked by two volunteers, the worker Sante Zennaro and the private eye Tom Ponzi, who enter in the school. All the hostages are saved, but, for a tragic mistake, Zennaro is killed by the policemen’s fire.[14]
  • Finland is admitted as a member of UNESCO.[15]
  • "Operation Samaria" is carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in the West Bank. The action results in the deaths of 100 Jordanian soldiers and 17 IDF soldiers.[16]

October 11, 1956 (Thursday)

October 12, 1956 (Friday)

October 13, 1956 (Saturday)

October 14, 1956 (Sunday)

October 15, 1956 (Monday)

  • The sixth Miss World competition is held at the Lyceum Ballroom in London, UK, and is won by Petra Schürmann of Germany, after an administrative error results in US representative Betty Lane Cherry being given the winner's sash just before the ceremony; she was subsequently named first runner-up.[23]

October 16, 1956 (Tuesday)

October 17, 1956 (Wednesday)

October 18, 1956 (Thursday)

October 19, 1956 (Friday)

October 20, 1956 (Saturday)

  • Born: Danny Boyle, English director, producer, screenwriter and theatre director, in Radcliffe, Greater Manchester

October 21, 1956 (Sunday)

October 22, 1956 (Monday)

  • Discussions open between the governments of the United Kingdom, France and Israel, leading to the Protocol of Sèvres, which sets out tactics for invading and occupying the Suez Canal.[32]
  • The airplane transporting Ahmed Ben Bella and four FLN exponents from Rabat to Tunis is forced to land in Algers and the five men are arrested by the French Army. The action, performed without the knowledge of the Prime Minister Guy Mollet, causes the retire from Paris of the Moroccan and Tunisian ambassadors, many protest in the French public opinion and an hardening of the Algerian war; more, it makes Ben Bella the moral leader of the revolution.[33]
  • A group of dissident Hungarian students draws up a list of sixteen demands for political reform, and declares their intent to hold a demonstration the next day in Budapest.
  • Born: Marco Lodoli, Italian writer, in Rome.

October 23, 1956 (Tuesday)

October 24, 1956 (Wednesday)

October 25, 1956 (Thursday)

  • Hungarian Revolution of 1956: ÁVH secret policemen open fire on a peaceful and unarmed crowd in front of the Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest, provoking Soviet troops, who believe they are being fired on from the crowd, to also open fire. At least 100 civilians are killed. The massacre galvanizes support for the Revolution among the populace, and fighting continues to escalate between insurgents and Soviet forces. János Kádár replaces Ernő Gerő as Hungarian Party leader.
  • In Germany, the Berchetsgarden Tribunal declares Adolf Hitler “officially dead”, after a four years enquiry and the hearing as witnesses of the dictator’s attendants.[38]
  • Died: Risto Ryti, Finnish politician, former Prime Minister (1939-1940) and President (1940-44), 67[39]

October 26, 1956 (Friday)

October 27, 1956 (Saturday)

October 28, 1956 (Sunday)

  • Hungarian Revolution: A de facto ceasefire comes into effect between armed revolutionaries and Soviet troops, who begin to withdraw from Budapest. Communist officials and facilities begin to come under attack from the revolutionaries. Imre Nagy's faction gains full control of the Hungarian government, as many Stalinist hardliners leave the country for the Soviet Union.
  • Twenty one year old Elvis Presley is inoculated, before the world's press, and as originally suggested by the March of Dimes, with the third version of Dr Jonas Salk's anti-polio vaccine. Dr. Harold Fuerst, with assistance from the NY Health Commissioner Dr. Leona Baumgartner are the physicians in charge, all of which leading to the exponentional increase in the immunization level of all americans from 0.6% to 80% in the next 6 months.
  • Pope Pius XII, with the encyclical Luctuosissimi eventus, asks to the bishops of the whole world public prayers for the Hungarian people.[43]

October 29, 1956 (Monday)

October 30, 1956 (Tuesday)

October 31, 1956 (Wednesday)

References

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  2. ^ The International Who's Who. Europa Publications. 2004. p. 1114.
  3. ^ Jasen, David A. (1988). Tin Pan Alley: the Composers, the Songs, the Performers and Their Times. New York: Donald I. Fine, Inc. pp. 50–51. ISBN 1556110995.
  4. ^ "Polling Method In Kenya: Appeal For Reform" The Times, 29 September 1956, p5, Issue 53649
  5. ^ "Kenya Political Tangle First African Election", The Times, 16 March 1957, p5, Issue 53791
  6. ^ M'ARTHUR DISAVOWS BID; General Repeats He Is Not Candidate for Senate in NYT on October 3, 1956 (subscription required)
  7. ^ "1956 World Series Game 1 – New York Yankees vs. Brooklyn Dodgers". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  8. ^ Stabilito il «patto di consultazione»
  9. ^ אתר לזכר האזרחים חללי פעולות האיבה
  10. ^ "Domestic Grosses, Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2013-01-11.
  11. ^ "Legends – Sir Bobby Charlton". ManUtd.com. Manchester United. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
  12. ^ "50ème Paris-Tours 1956". Memoire du cyclisme. Archived from the original on 26 January 2004.
  13. ^ Don Larsen, with Mark Shaw. (1996). The Perfect Yankee: The Incredible Story of the Greatest Miracle in Baseball History. Urbana, IL: Sagamore Publishing. ISBN 978-1-571-67043-4.
  14. ^ Lo so io cosa mi ha spinto ad andare a Terrazzano di Rho, alle porte di Milano, in un hinterland che per me è uno dei posti più sconosciuti al mondo, by Toni Capuozzo.
  15. ^ UNESCO official site: List of the 195 Member States (and the 10 Associate Members) of UNESCO and the date on which they became members (or Associate Members) of the Organization. Accessed 19 June 2018
  16. ^ Shlaim, Avi (2007). Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace. Penguin Books. ISBN 9780141017280.
  17. ^ Breffort, Dominique. Lockheed Constellation: from Excalibur to Starliner Civilian and Military Variants. Histoire and Collecions, 2006. p.117 to p.119
  18. ^ Profile
  19. ^ W. A. Townsley, Cosgrove, Sir Robert (1884 - 1969), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 505-507.
  20. ^ Sesto congresso della DC
  21. ^ "About". Indira Kala Sangeet University. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  22. ^ Vajpeyi, Ananya (27 August 2015). "Comment article from Ananya Vajpeyi: Owning Ambedkar sans his views". The Hindu. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  23. ^ Eddy Gilmore, "Miss Germany Wins World Beauty Title", Associated Press in San Mateo Times, 16 October 1956. Retrieved 2017-02-17 via Newspapers.com Free to read
  24. ^ "Jules Rimet: The man who kicked off the World Cup". The Independent. 5 June 2006. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  25. ^ "BBC On This Day, Site history". Retrieved 2017-12-29.
  26. ^ Hans Kmoch, Chess Review, December 1956, p. 374.
  27. ^ DanTD (December 3, 2009). WST Great Train Wreck of 1956(Pineola, Florida) (photograph). Retrieved April 3, 2013.
  28. ^ Compendium of Documents
  29. ^ A M Rosenthal (13 September 1982). "WLADYSLAW GOMULKA AND HIS REGIME". New York Times. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  30. ^ "25 Feared Lost In Typhoon". The Times (53668). London. 22 October 1956. col C, p. 6.
  31. ^ "Norwegian cup 1956". RSSSF Norway. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  32. ^ Turner, Barry. Suez 1956: The First Oil War. Hodder (2007). Page 299
  33. ^ Détournement de l'avion du FLN, fr.wikipedia
  34. ^ Video (in Hungarian): The First Hours of the Revolution {{[1] director: György Ordódy, producer: Duna Televízió – Fonds 306, Audiovisual Materials Relating to the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, OSA Archivum, Budapest, Hungary ID number: HU OSA 306-0-1:40}}
  35. ^ http://www.cne.go.cr/CEDO-CRID/CEDO-CRID%20v2.0/CEDO/pdf/spa/doc4626/doc4626-b.pdf
  36. ^ "M 7.1 - near the coast of Nicaragua". United States Geological Survey. 24 October 1956. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  37. ^ Steve Cawley & Gary James, The Pride of Manchester – A History of the Manchester Derby (ACL & Polar Publishing, 1991), p 320.
  38. ^ Hitler sedeva col capo reclinato, sulla tempia destra era visibile il foro d´ingresso della pallottola.
  39. ^ Turtola, Martti (1994). Risto Ryti: A Life for the Fatherland. Risto Ryti: Elämä isänmaan puolesta. Helsinki: Otava.
  40. ^ The Miami News, October 26, 1956. Walter Gieseking Dies, Famous Concert Pianist
  41. ^ Comunicato della Cgil sui fatti ungheresi
  42. ^ Soccerbase – first match
  43. ^ Pio XII e la Rivoluzione ungherese
  44. ^ Il PCI contro l’ingerenza sovietica in Ungheria
  45. ^ Mark Kramer, "New Evidence on Soviet Decision-making and the 1956 Polish and Hungarian Crises" (PDF), Cold War International History Project Bulletin, page 368.
  46. ^ The Institute for the History of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution: Part 3. Days of Freedom
  47. ^ Gati, Charles (September 2006). Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt. Stanford University Press. p. 177. ISBN 0-8047-5606-6.
  48. ^ Manifestazione a Roma per il popolo ungherese
  49. ^ National Hurricane Center (2009). "HURDAT: Easy-to-read version". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  50. ^ Clodfelter, Michael: Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015, 4th ed, p. 573
  51. ^ Pimlott – editor British Military Operations, 1945–1984 London: Guild Publishing 1984 p. 78
  52. ^ U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. "Aviation History Facts". Archived from the original on 2012-10-04. October 31 in 1956: The US Navy R4D-5 Skytrain Que Sera Sera, commanded by Rear Admiral George Dufek, becomes the first airplane to make a landing at the South Pole. (Reference: Aviation Year by Year, Bill Gunston, ed. London: Amber Books Limited, 2001. Dorling Kindersley editions: ISBN 0-7513-3367-0, ISBN 0-7894-7986-9.)
  53. ^ "R-11FM / SS-1b Scud". Federation of American Scientists. July 13, 2000. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
  54. ^ Soccerbase – replay
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