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1954 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1954 United States Senate elections

← 1952 September 13[a] & November 2, 1954 1956 →

38 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Senator Lyndon Johnson.jpg
William F. Knowland headshot.jpg
Leader Lyndon Johnson Bill Knowland
Party Democratic Republican
Leader since January 3, 1953 August 4, 1953
Leader's seat Texas California
Seats before 46 49
Seats won 48 47
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2
Popular vote 11,402,106 8,839,779
Percentage 55.5% 43.0%
Swing Increase 10.8% Decrease 8.9%
Seats up 20 12
Races won 22 10

  Third party
 
Party Independent
Seats before 1
Seats won 1
Seat change Steady
Seats up 0
Races won 0

Us 1954 senate election map.svg
Results of the elections:
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold
     No election

Majority Leader before election

Bill Knowland
Republican

Elected Majority Leader

Lyndon Johnson
Democratic

The 1954 United States Senate elections was a midterm election in the first term of Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidency. Eisenhower's Republican party lost a net of two seats to the Democratic opposition. This small change was just enough to give Democrats control of the chamber with the support of an Independent (Wayne Morse of Oregon) who caucused with them.

The elections resulted in a divided government that continued to the end of Eisenhower's presidency and a Democratic majority that would last until 1981.

Incumbents defeated

Democrats defeated incumbents John S. Cooper (R-KY), Homer Ferguson (R-MI), Ernest S. Brown (R-NV), and Guy Cordon (R-OR).

Republicans took the seats of incumbents Guy M. Gillette (D-IA) and Thomas A. Burke (D-OH).

Open seat gains

Democrats took an open seat in Wyoming.

Republicans took an open seat in Colorado.

Change in composition

Before the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
Ala.
Ran
D26
Ark.
Ran
D27
Colo.
Retired
D28
Del.
Ran
D38
N.C. (sp 3)
Ran
D37
N.C. (reg)
N.C. (sp 2)
Ran
D36
N.M.
Ran
D35
Mont.
Ran
D34
Miss.
Ran
D33
Minn.
Ran
D32
La.
Ran
D31
Iowa
Ran
D30
Ill.
Ran
D29
Ga.
Ran
D39
Ohio (sp)
Ran
D40
Okla.
Ran
D41
R.I.
Ran
D42
S.C.
Retired
D43
Tenn.
Ran
D44
Texas
Ran
D45
Va.
Ran
D46
W.Va.
Ran
I1 R49
Wyo. (reg)
Wyo. (sp)
Retired
Majority →
R39
Mass.
Ran
R40
Mich.
Ran
R41
Neb. (reg)
Neb. (sp 2)
Retired
R42
Neb. (sp 1)
Retired
R43
Nev. (sp)
Ran
R44
N.H. (reg)
Ran
R45
N.H. (sp)
Ran
R46
N.J.
Retired
R47
Ore.
Ran
R48
S.D.
Ran
R38
Me.
Ran
R37
Ky.
Ran
R36
Kan.
Ran
R35
Idaho
Ran
R34
Calif. (sp)
Ran
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Results of the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
Ala.
Re-elected
D26
Ark.
Re-elected
D27
Del.
Re-elected
D28
Ga.
Re-elected
D38
R.I.
Re-elected
D37
Okla.
Re-elected
D36
N.C. (sp 3)
Elected[b]
D35
N.C. (reg)
N.C. (sp 2)
Hold
D34
N.M.
Re-elected
D33
Mont.
Re-elected
D32
Miss.
Re-elected
D31
Minn.
Re-elected
D30
La.
Re-elected
D29
Ill.
Re-elected
D39
S.C.
Hold
D40
Tenn.
Re-elected
D41
Texas
Re-elected
D42
Va.
Re-elected
D43
W.Va.
Re-elected
D44
Ky.
Gain
D45
Mich.
Gain
D46
Nev. (sp)
Gain
D47
Ore.
Gain
D48
Wyo. (reg)
Wyo. (sp)
Gain
Majority with Independent in caucus ↑ I1
R39
Neb. (reg)
Neb. (sp 2)
Hold
R40
Neb. (sp 1)
Hold
R41
N.H. (reg)
Re-elected
R42
N.H. (sp)
Hold
R43
N.J.
Hold
R44
S.D.
Re-elected
R45
Colo.
Gain
R46
Iowa
Gain
R47
Ohio (sp)
Gain
R38
Mass.
Re-elected
R37
Me.
Re-elected
R36
Kan.
Re-elected
R35
Idaho
Re-elected
R34
Calif. (sp)
Elected[b]
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
I# Independent
R# Republican

Race summaries

Special elections during the 83rd Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1954 or before January 3, 1955; ordered by election date, then state, then class.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California
(Class 3)
Thomas Kuchel Republican 1953 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 2, 1954.
Nebraska
(Class 1)
Samuel W. Reynolds Republican 1954 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 2, 1954.
Republican hold.
Nebraska
(Class 2)
Eva Bowring Republican 1954 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 2, 1954.
Republican hold.
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
  • Green tickY Hazel Abel (Republican) 57.8%
  • William H. Meier (Democratic) 42.2%
Nevada
(Class 3)
Ernest S. Brown Republican 1954 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 2, 1954.
Democratic gain.
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Robert W. Upton Republican 1953 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected November 2, 1954.
Republican hold.
North Carolina
(Class 2)
Alton Lennon Democratic 1953 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected November 2, 1954.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to next term, see below.
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Sam Ervin Democratic 1954 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 2, 1954.
Ohio
(Class 3)
Thomas A. Burke Democratic 1953 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected November 2, 1954.
Republican gain.
Wyoming
(Class 2)
Edward D. Crippa Republican 1954 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected November 2, 1954.
Democratic gain.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.

Races leading to the 84th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on January 3, 1955; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John Sparkman Democratic 1946 (Special)
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas John L. McClellan Democratic 1942
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Colorado Edwin C. Johnson Democratic 1936
1942
1948
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Delaware J. Allen Frear Jr. Democratic 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia Richard Russell Jr. Democratic 1932 (Special)
1936
1942
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Idaho Henry Dworshak Republican 1946 (Special)
1948 (Lost)
1949 (Appointed)
1950 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois Paul Douglas Democratic 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa Guy Gillette Democratic 1936 (Special)
1938
1944 (Lost)
1948
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Republican gain.
Kansas Andrew Frank Schoeppel Republican 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky John Sherman Cooper Republican 1946 (Special)
1948 (Lost)
1952 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Louisiana Allen J. Ellender Democratic 1936
1942
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Maine Margaret Chase Smith Republican 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts Leverett Saltonstall Republican 1944 (Special)
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Michigan Homer S. Ferguson Republican 1942
1948
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Minnesota Hubert Humphrey Democratic 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
Mississippi James Eastland Democratic 1942
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Montana James E. Murray Democratic 1934 (Special)
1936
1942
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Nebraska Eva Bowring Republican 1954 (Special) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Winner was not elected to finish the term, see above.
New Hampshire Styles Bridges Republican 1936
1942
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
New Jersey Robert C. Hendrickson Republican 1948 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
New Mexico Clinton Anderson Democratic 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina Alton Lennon Democratic 1953 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost nomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to finish the term, see above.
Oklahoma Robert S. Kerr Democratic 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Robert S. Kerr (Democratic) 55.8%
  • Fred M. Mock (Republican) 43.7%
  • George V. Fried (Independent) 0.3%
  • George H. Brasier (Independent) 0.2%
Oregon Guy Cordon Republican 1944 (Appointed)
1944 (Special)
1948
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Rhode Island Theodore F. Green Democratic 1936
1942
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina Charles E. Daniel Democratic 1954 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Incumbent then resigned December 23, 1954 to give successor preferential seniority.
Winner appointed December 24, 1954 to finish the term.
South Dakota Karl E. Mundt Republican 1948
1948 (Appointed)
Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee Estes Kefauver Democratic 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
Texas Lyndon B. Johnson Democratic 1948 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Lyndon B. Johnson (Democratic) 84.6%
  • Carlos G. Watson (Republican) 14.9%
  • Fred Spangler (Constitution Party) 0.5%
Virginia Absalom Willis Robertson Democratic 1946 (Special)
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Absalom Willis Robertson (Democratic) 79.9%
  • Charles W. Lewis Jr. (Independent-Democratic) 10.7%
  • Clarke T. Robb (Virginia Social Democratic) 9.4%
West Virginia Matthew M. Neely Democratic 1922
1928 (Lost)
1930
1936
1941 (Resigned)
1948
Incumbent re-elected.
Wyoming Edward D. Crippa Republican 1954 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Winner also elected to finish the term, see above.

Alabama

Alabama election

← 1948
1960 →
 
JohnSparkman-1952Portrait-.jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee John Sparkman Junius Foy Guin Jr.
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 259,348 55,110
Percentage 82.48% 17.53%

U.S. senator before election

John Sparkman
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

John Sparkman
Democratic

Alabama election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Sparkman (Incumbent) 259,348 82.47
Republican J. Foy Guin Jr. 55,110 17.53
Majority 204,438 64.96
Turnout 314,458
Democratic hold

Arkansas

Arkansas election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John L. McClellan (Incumbent) 291,058 100.00
Democratic hold

California (Special)

California election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Thomas Kuchel (Incumbent) 2,090,836 53.2
Democratic Sam Yorty 1,788,071 45.5
Independent-Progressive Isobel M. Cerney 50,506 1.3
None Scattering 255 0.00
Majority 302,765 7.7
Turnout 3,929,668
Republican hold

Colorado

Colorado election

← 1948
1960 →
 
Gordon Allott.jpg
JohnACarroll.jpg
Nominee Gordon Allott John A. Carroll
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 248,502 235,686
Percentage 51.32% 48.68%

U.S. senator before election

Edwin C. Johnson
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Gordon Allott
Republican

Colorado election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Gordon Allott 248,502 51.32
Democratic John A. Carroll 235,686 48.68
Majority 12,816 2.64
Turnout 484,188
Republican gain from Democratic

Delaware

Delaware election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic J. Allen Frear (Incumbent) 82,511 56.94
Republican Herbert B. Warburton 62,389 43.06
Majority 20,122 13.88
Turnout 144,900
Democratic hold

Georgia

Georgia election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard B. Russell (Incumbent) 333,917 99.99
None Scattering 19 0.01
Majority 333,898 99.98
Turnout 333,936
Democratic hold

Idaho

Idaho election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Henry Dworshak (Incumbent) 142,269 62.84
Democratic Glen H. Taylor 84,139 37.16
Majority 58,130 25.68
Turnout 226,408
Republican hold

Illinois

Illinois election

← 1948
1960 →
Turnout63.69%
 
Paul Douglas (1).JPG
3x4.svg
Nominee Paul Douglas Joseph T. Meek
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,804,338 1,563,683
Percentage 53.57% 46.43%

U.S. senator before election

Paul Douglas
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Paul Douglas
Democratic

Illinois election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Paul H. Douglas (Incumbent) 1,804,338 53.57
Republican Joseph T. Meek 1,563,683 46.43
Majority 240,655 7.14
Turnout 3,368,021
Democratic hold

Iowa

Iowa election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Thomas E. Martin 442,409 52.21
Democratic Guy Gillette (Incumbent) 402,712 47.53
Republicsons Ernest Seeman 2,234 0.26
Majority 39,697 4.68
Turnout 847,355
Republican gain from Democratic

Kansas

Kansas election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Andrew Schoeppel (Incumbent) 348,144 56.33
Democratic George McGill 258,575 41.84
Prohibition David C. White 11,344 1.84
Majority 89,569 14.49
Turnout 618,063
Republican hold

Kentucky

Kentucky election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Alben Barkley 434,109 54.46
Republican John Sherman Cooper (Incumbent) 362,948 45.54
Majority 71,161 8.92
Turnout 797,057
Democratic gain from Republican

Louisiana

Louisiana election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Allen J. Ellender (Incumbent) 207,115 100.00
Democratic hold

Maine

Maine election

← 1948 September 13, 1954 1960 →
 
Margaret Chase Smith 1943 (cropped).jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee Margaret Chase Smith Paul Fullam
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 144,530 102,075
Percentage 58.61% 41.39%

U.S. senator before election

Margaret Chase Smith
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Margaret Chase Smith
Republican

Maine election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Margaret Chase Smith (Incumbent) 144,530 58.61
Democratic Paul A. Fullam 102,075 41.39
Majority 42,455 17.22
Turnout 246,605
Republican hold

Massachusetts

Massachusetts election

← 1948
1960 →
 
LeverettSaltonstall.jpg
Foster Furcolo, 60th Governor of Massachusetts.jpg
Nominee Leverett Saltonstall Foster Furcolo
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 956,605 927,899
Percentage 50.54% 49.03%

Senator before election

Leverett Saltonstall
Republican

Elected Senator

Leverett Saltonstall
Republican

In Massachusetts, Republican Incumbent Leverett Saltonstall defeated his challengers.

Democrat Foster Furcolo (Treasurer and Receiver-General of Massachusetts since 1952 and member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 2nd congressional district from 1949-1952) beat John I. Fitzgerald (former member of the Boston City Council and Democratic candidate for Senate in 1948) and Joseph L. Murphy (former member of the Massachusetts Senate).

Republican incumbent Leverett Saltonstall (United States senator since 1945 and Governor of Massachusetts from 1939-1945) was renominated. Other nominees included Socialist Workers Thelma Ingersoll (ran for Senate in 1952.[3]) and Prohibition Harold J. Ireland (candidate for Treasurer and Receiver-General in 1948 and 1952).

Democratic primary [4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Foster Furcolo 207,232 59.13
Democratic Joseph L. Murphy 79,463 22.68
Democratic John I. Fitzgerald 63,752 18.19
General election
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Republican Leverett Saltonstall 956,605 50.54 -2.41%
Democratic Foster Furcolo 927,899 49.03 +2.60%
Socialist Labor Thelma Ingersoll 5,353 0.28 -0.17%
Prohibition Harold J. Ireland 2,832 0.15 -0.03%
None Scattering 21 0.00
Majority 28,706 1.52
Turnout 1,892,710
Republican hold Swing

Michigan

Michigan election

← 1948
1960 →
 
Patrick Vincent McNamara.jpg
HomerFerguson.jpg
Nominee Patrick V. McNamara Homer S. Ferguson
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 1,088,550 1,049,420
Percentage 50.75% 48.93%

U.S. senator before election

Homer S. Ferguson
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Patrick V. McNamara
Democratic

Michigan election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Patrick V. McNamara 1,088,550 50.75
Republican Homer S. Ferguson (Incumbent) 1,049,420 48.93
Prohibition Leroy M. Lowell 4,841 0.23
Socialist Labor James Sim 1,126 0.05
Socialist Workers Rita Shaw 902 0.04
None Scattering 1 0.00
Majority 39,130 1.82
Turnout 2,144,840
Democratic gain from Republican

Minnesota

United States Senate election in Minnesota, 1954

← 1948
1960 →
 
Hubert Humphrey crop.jpg
Uncle Valdi Mug.jpg
Nominee Hubert H. Humphrey Val Bjornson
Party Democratic (DFL) Republican
Popular vote 642,193 479,619
Percentage 56.39% 42.11%

MNSenate54.svg
County results
Humphrey:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%
Bjornson:      40-50%      50-60%      60-70%

U.S. senator before election

Hubert H. Humphrey
Democratic (DFL)

Elected U.S. Senator

Hubert H. Humphrey
Democratic (DFL)

Minnesota election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic (DFL) Hubert Humphrey (Incumbent) 642,193 56.38
Republican Val Bjornson 479,619 42.11
Liberal Independent Francis Patrick Ryan 12,457 1.09
Socialist Workers Vincent R. Dunne 4,683 0.41
Majority 162,574 14.27
Turnout 1,138,952
Democratic (DFL) hold

Mississippi

Mississippi election

← 1948
1960 →
 
James O Eastland.jpg
No image.svg
Nominee James Eastland James A. White
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 100,848 4,678
Percentage 95.6% 4.43%

Mississippi Senate Election Results by County, 1954.svg
County results
Eastland:      80-90%      90-100%

U.S. senator before election

James Eastland
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

James Eastland
Democratic

Mississippi election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James Eastland (Incumbent) 100,848 95.57
Republican James A. White 4,678 4.43
Majority 96,070 91.14
Turnout 105,526
Democratic hold

Montana

In Montana incumbent senator James E. Murray, who was first elected to the Senate in a special election in 1934 and was re-elected in 1936, 1942, and 1948, ran for re-election.

Murray won the Democratic primary against trivial opponents (farmer Ray E. Gulick and Sam G. Feezell).

Democratic Party primary results[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James E. Murray (Incumbent) 65,896 86.94
Democratic Ray E. Gulick 4,961 6.55
Democratic Sam G. Feezell 4,941 6.52
Total votes 75,798 100.00

Republican Wesley A. D'Ewart United States Congressman from Montana's 2nd congressional district beat Robert Yellowtail, former Superintendent of the Crow Indian Reservation, for the GOP nomination.

Republican Primary results[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Wesley A. D'Ewart 49,964 82.36
Republican Robert Yellowtail 10,705 17.64
Total votes 60,669 100.00

A contentious and close election ensued, but ultimately, Murray was able to narrowly win re-election over D'Ewart to a final term in the Senate.

Montana election[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic James E. Murray (Incumbent) 114,591 50.38 -6.27%
Republican Wesley A. D'Ewart 112,863 49.62 +6.88%
Majority 1,728 0.76 -13.15%
Turnout 227,454
Democratic hold Swing

Nebraska

Nebraska had three Senate elections on the ballot. Both incumbents had died in the span of three months, leading to appointments and special elections.

Nebraska (Special, Class 1)

Incumbent Republican Hugh A. Butler died July 1, 1954 and Republican Samuel W. Reynolds was appointed July 3, 1954 to continue the term. Reynolds was did not run to finish the term, and Republican Roman Hruska won the seat in November to finish the term ending in 1959.

Nebraska class 1 special election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Roman Hruska 250,341 60.88
Democratic James F. Green 160,881 39.12
None Scattering 3 0.00
Majority 89,460 21.76
Turnout 411,225
Republican hold

Nebraska (Special, Class 2)

Incumbent Republican Dwight P. Griswold died April 12, 1954, and Republican Eva Bowring was appointed April 16 to continue the term. In November, Republican Hazel Abel was elected to finish the term.

Nebraska class 2 special election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican "Mrs. George P. Abel" (Hazel Abel) 233,589 57.76
Democratic William H. Meier 170,828 42.24
None Scattering 5 0.00
Majority 62,761 15.52
Turnout 404,422
Republican hold

Nebraska (Regular)

Although elected to finish the class 2 term, Abel did not run for the next term, and Republican Carl Curtis was elected in November to the next term.

Nebraska general election (class 2)[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Carl T. Curtis 255,695 61.07
Democratic Keith Neville 162,990 38.93
None Scattering 6 0.00
Majority 92,705 22.14
Turnout 418,691
Republican hold

On December 31, 1954 Abel resigned and Curtis was appointed January 1, 1955, two days ahead of his elected term.

Nevada (Special)

Nevada election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Alan Bible 45,043 58.11
Republican Ernest S. Brown (Incumbent) 32,470 41.89
Majority 12,573 16.22
Turnout 77,513
Democratic gain from Republican

New Hampshire

New Hampshire (Regular)

New Hampshire election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Styles Bridges (Incumbent) 117,150 60.22
Democratic Gerard L. Morin 77,386 39.78
Majority 39,764 20.44
Turnout 194,536
Republican hold

New Hampshire (Special)

New Hampshire election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Norris Cotton 114,068 60.18
Democratic Stanley J. Betley 75,490 39.82
Majority 20.36
Turnout 189,558
Republican hold

New Jersey

New Jersey election

← 1948
1960 →
 
Rep Clifford P Case.jpg
Charles R. Howell (New Jersey Congressman).jpg
Nominee Clifford P. Case Charles R. Howell
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 861,528 858,158
Percentage 48.66% 48.47%

1954 US Senate Election in New Jersey by County.svg
County Results
Case:      40–50%      50-60%      60-70%
Howell:      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%

U.S. senator before election

Robert C. Hendrickson
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

Clifford P. Case
Republican

New Jersey election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Clifford Case (Incumbent) 861,528 48.66
Democratic Charles R. Howell 858,158 48.47
American Third Henry Krajewski 35,421 2.00
Write-In Fred A. Hartley 7,025 0.40
Socialist Labor Albert Ronis 4,832 0.27
Socialist Workers George Breitman 3,590 0.20
Majority 3,370 0.19
Turnout 1,770,554
Republican hold

New Mexico

New Mexico election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Clinton P. Anderson (Incumbent) 111,351 57.10
Republican Edwin L. Mechem 83,671 42.90
Majority 27,680 14.20
Turnout 195,022
Democratic hold

North Carolina

Like Nebraska, North Carolina had three elections on the ballot. Both senators had died during the 83rd Congress, leading to appointments and special elections.

North Carolina (Special, Class 2)

Democrat Willis Smith died June 26, 1953 and Democrat Alton A. Lennon was appointed July 10, 1953 to continue the term. In November, Lennon lost the nomination to Democrat W. Kerr Scott to finish the term.[6] Scott took office November 29, 1954.

North Carolina class 2 special election[2][7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic W. Kerr Scott 420,268 100.00
Democratic hold

North Carolina (Regular)

Democrat W. Kerr Scott was also elected to the next term, which would begin January 3, 1955.[8]

North Carolina (class 2) general election[2][9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic W. Kerr Scott 408,312 65.90
Republican Paul C. West 211,322 34.10
Majority 196,990 31.80
Turnout 619,634
Democratic hold

North Carolina (Special, Class 3)

Democrat Clyde R. Hoey died May 12, 1954 and Democrat Sam Ervin was appointed June 5, 1954 to continue the term. In November, Ervin was elected to finish the term.

North Carolina class 3 special election[2][10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Samuel J. Ervin Jr. (Incumbent) 410,574 100.00
Democratic hold

Ohio (Special)

Ohio election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George H. Bender 1,257,874 50.06
Democratic Thomas A. Burke (Incumbent) 1,254,904 49.94
Majority 2,970 0.12
Turnout 2,512,778
Republican gain from Democratic

Oklahoma

Oklahoma election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert S. Kerr (Incumbent) 335,127 55.84
Republican Fred M. Mock 262,013 43.66
Independent George V. Fried 1,563 0.26
Independent George H. Brasier 1,417 0.24
Majority 73,114 12.18
Turnout 600,120
Democratic hold

Oregon

Oregon election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Richard L. Neuberger 285,775 50.22
Republican Guy Cordon 283,313 49.78
Majority 2,462 0.44
Turnout 569,088
Democratic gain from Republican

Rhode Island

Rhode Island election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Theodore Francis Green (Incumbent) 193,654 59.29
Republican Walter I. Sundlun 132,970 40.71
Majority 60,684 18.58
Turnout 326,624
Democratic hold

South Carolina

South Carolina election

 
Governor Strom Thurmond b&w crop.jpg
EdgarAllanBrown.PNG
Nominee Strom Thurmond Edgar A. Brown
Party Democratic Democratic
Popular vote 143,444 83,525
Percentage 63.1% 36.8%

SC-Sen 1954.svg
Thurmond:      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%      70–80% Brown:      50-60%      60-70%      >90%

U.S. senator before election

Burnet R. Maybank
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Strom Thurmond
Democratic

In South Carolina, Senator Burnet R. Maybank did not face a primary challenge in the summer and was therefore renominated as the Democratic Party's nominee for the election in the fall. However, his death on September 1 left the Democratic Party without a nominee and the executive committee decided to nominate state Senator Edgar A. Brown as their candidate for the election. Many South Carolinians were outraged by the party's decision to forgo a primary election and former Governor Strom Thurmond entered the race as a write-in candidate. He easily won the election and became the first U.S. senator to be elected by a write-in vote (William Knowland of California in 1946 was technically the first, but the ballots in that election were blank with no candidates listed, so essentially every candidate was running a write-in campaign).[11]

Sitting Senator Burnet R. Maybank entered the 1954 contest without a challenge in the Democratic primary nor in the general election. His unexpected death on September 1 caused panic and confusion within the hierarchy of the state Democratic party because the state law required that a party's nominee be certified by September 3. Hours after Maybank's funeral, the state Democratic executive committee met in secret and chose state Senator Edgar A. Brown of Barnwell County as the party's nominee for the general election. Not only was Brown a part of the "Barnwell Ring", but he was also a member of the executive committee.

The state Democratic Party's decision to choose a candidate without holding a special primary election drew widespread criticism across the state. On September 3, The Greenville News ran an editorial advocating that a primary election be called and several newspapers across the state followed suit. At least six county Democratic committees repudiated the action by the state committee and called for a primary election. Despite repeated calls for a primary, the state executive committee voted against holding a primary because they did not think that there was enough time before the general election to hold a primary election.

Immediately after the executive committee voted against holding a primary election, former Governor Strom Thurmond and lumberman Marcus Stone announced their intention to run as Democratic write-in candidates. Thurmond and his supporters stated that the executive committee had several legal alternatives as opposed to the outright appointment of state Senator Brown. In addition, Thurmond promised that if he were elected he would resign in 1956 so that the voters could choose a candidate in the regular primary for the remaining four years of the term.

Thurmond received support from Governor James F. Byrnes and from those who backed his Presidential bid as a Dixiecrat in the 1948 Presidential election. Thurmond framed the race as a "moral issue: democracy versus committee rule"[12] and his write-in campaign was repeatedly assisted by every newspaper in the state, except for those in Anderson. For instance, The News and Courier devoted its front page on November 2 to show voters a sample ballot and it also provided detailed instructions on how to cast a write-in vote. Not only that, but the newspaper also printed an editorial on the front page giving precise reasons why voters should vote for Thurmond instead of Brown.

On the other hand, Brown was supported by the Democratic party regulars and he also gained the endorsement of Senator Olin D. Johnston. Brown based his campaign entirely on the issue of party loyalty, stressing that Thurmond was a Republican ally because he had voted for President Eisenhower in 1952.

Marcus A. Stone, a lumberman in Florence and Dillon, was a candidate in previous Democratic primaries for governor and senator. He did very little campaigning for the general election.

South Carolina U.S. Senate Election, 1954
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Strom Thurmond (Write-In) 143,444 63.13 +63.13
Democratic Edgar A. Brown 83,525 36.76 -59.64
Democratic Marcus Stone (Write-In) 240 0.11 +0.11
No party Write-Ins 23 0.00 0.00
Majority 59,919 26.37 -66.43
Turnout 227,232
Democratic hold

South Dakota

South Dakota election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Karl Mundt (Incumbent) 135,071 57.30
Democratic Kenneth Holum 100,674 42.70
Majority 34,397 14.60
Turnout 235,745
Republican hold

Tennessee

Tennessee election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Estes Kefauver (Incumbent) 249,121 69.96
Republican Thomas P. Wall Jr. 106,971
None Write-Ins 21.76% 0.00
Majority 142,150 39.92
Turnout 356,094
Democratic hold

Texas

Texas election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lyndon Johnson (Incumbent) 538,417 84.59
Republican Carlos Watson 95,033 14.93
Communist Fred T. Spangler 3,025 0.48
Majority 443,384 69.66
Turnout 636,475
Democratic hold

Virginia

Virginia election

← 1948
1960 →
 
Absalom Willis Robertson.jpg
No image.svg
Nominee Absalom Willis Robertson Charles W. Lewis Jr.
Party Democratic Ind. Democratic
Popular vote 244,844 32,681
Percentage 79.9% 10.7%

 
Nominee Clarke T. Robb
Party Social Democratic
Popular vote 28,922
Percentage 9.4%

U.S. senator before election

Absalom Willis Robertson
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Absalom Willis Robertson
Democratic

In Virginia, Democratic incumbent Senator Absalom Willis Robertson defeated Independent Democrat Charles Lewis and Social Democrat Clarke Robb and was re-elected to a second term in office.

Virginia election[2]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Democratic Absalom Willis Robertson (Incumbent) 244,844 79.88 +14.14%
Ind. Democratic Charles W. Lewis Jr. 32,681 10.66 +10.66%
Social Democratic Clarke T. Robb 28,922 9.44 +9.02%
Write-ins 63 0.02 +0.02%
Majority 212,163 69.22 +34.18%
Turnout 306,510
Democratic hold Swing

West Virginia

West Virginia election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Matthew M. Neely (Incumbent) 325,263 54.82
Republican Tom Sweeney 268,066 45.18
Majority 57,197 9.64
Turnout 593,329
Democratic hold

Wyoming

There were two elections the same day to the same seat, due to the June 19, 1954 death of Democrat Lester C. Hunt. Both elections were won by Democratic former senator Joseph C. O'Mahoney.

Wyoming (Special)

Republican Edward D. Crippa was appointed June 24, 1954 to continue the term, pending a November 2, 1954 special election.

Wyoming special election, November 2, 1954[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Joseph C. O'Mahoney 57,163 51.56
Republican William Henry Harrison III 53,705 48.44
Majority 3,458 3.12
Turnout 110,868
Democratic gain from Republican

Wyoming (Regular)

Wyoming general election[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Joseph C. O'Mahoney 57,845 51.53
Republican William Henry Harrison III (Incumbent) 54,407 48.47
Majority 3,438 3.06
Turnout 112,252
Democratic gain from Republican

Joseph C. O'Mahoney would serve out this one term and then retire.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Maine held its election in September
  2. ^ a b Appointee elected

References

  1. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - Container Detail Page". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am "Statistics of the Congressional Election of November 2, 1954" (PDF). Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  3. ^ Thelma Ingersoll at ourcampaigns.com
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1960". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  5. ^ a b "Report of the Official Canvass of the Vote Cast at the Primary Election Held in the State of Montana, July 20, 1954" (PDF). Montana Secretary of State. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 28, 2013. Retrieved July 2, 2014.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC US Senate - Special D Primary Race - May 29, 1954". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC US Senate - Special Election Race - Nov 02, 1954". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC US Senate - D Primary Race - May 29, 1954". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC US Senate Race - Nov 02, 1954". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC US Senate - Special Election Race - Nov 02, 1954". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  11. ^ Wilgoren, Debbi (November 3, 2010). "Murkowski appears to make history in Alaska". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  12. ^ Lander, Ernest: A History of South Carolina 1865-1960, page 183. University of South Carolina Press, 1970.

Sources

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