To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Bell Trade Act

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Bell Trade Act of 1946, also known as the Philippine Trade Act, was an act passed by the United States Congress specifying policy governing trade between the Philippines and the United States following independence of the Philippines from the United States.[1][2] The United States Congress offered $800 million for post World War II rebuilding funds if the Bell Trade Act was ratified by the Philippine Congress. The specifics of the act required the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines be amended. The Philippine Congress approved the measure on July 2, two days before independence from the United States of America, and on September 18, 1946 approved a plebiscite to amend the Constitution of the Philippines.

Authored by Missouri Congressman C. Jasper Bell, the Bell Trade Act required:

  • Preferential tariffs on US products imported into the Philippines;
  • A 2:1 fixed exchange rate between the Philippine peso and the United States dollar;
  • No restrictions on currency transfers from the Philippines to the United States;
  • "Parity rights" granting U.S. citizens and corporations rights to Philippine natural resources equal to (in parity with) those of Philippine citizens, contrary to Article XIII in the 1935 Philippine Constitution, necessitating a constitutional amendment.[3]

The Bell Act, particularly the parity clause, was seen by critics as an inexcusable surrender of national sovereignty.[4] The pressure of the sugar barons, particularly those of President Roxas's home region of Western Visayas, and other landowner interests, however, was irresistible.[4]

In 1955, the Laurel–Langley Agreement revised the Bell Trade Act.[3] This treaty abolished the United States authority to control the exchange rate of the peso, made parity privileges reciprocal, extended the sugar quota, and extended the time period for the reduction of other quotas and for the progressive application of tariffs on Philippine goods exported to the United States.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    4 986
    2 049
    479 591
  • ✪ The Republic [ Presentation]
  • ✪ Batas Bell at Parity Rights
  • ✪ Ang Nakatagong Tanikala
  • ✪ Pakistan Currency Crisis - IMF or China? Who will bailout Pakistan - Current Affairs 2018



1947 Philippine Parity Rights plebiscite

As required by the Bell Trade Act, a plebiscite was held in the Philippines to amend the Philippine Constitution to provide for "parity rights" between American and Philippine citizens.

Prior to the plebiscite, the Constitutional amendment had to be approved by the Philippine Congress, which required a 3/4 vote by the Philippine House and Philippine Senate.[4] The 3/4 vote was obtained only by the denial of seats in the House to six members of the leftist Democratic Alliance and three from the Nacionalista Party on grounds of fraud and violent campaign tactics during the April 1946 election.[4] Then the definition of three-quarters had to be settled because three-quarters of the sitting members, not the full House and Senate (including non-voting and absent members), had approved the amendment.[4] The Philippine Supreme Court resolved the dispute in favor of the amendment.[4]

The plebiscite was held on March 11, 1947 and voters approved the amendment 79% to 21%. Forty percent of voters participated in the plebiscite.[4]

1947 Philippine parity rights plebiscite
Choice Votes %
Referendum passed
432,833 78.89
No 115,853 21.11
Total votes 548,786 100.00

See also


  1. ^ Schirmer, Daniel B; Shalom, Stephen Rosskamm (1987), The Philippines reader: a history of colonialism, neocolonialism, dictatorship, and resistance, South End Press, p. 88, ISBN 978-0-89608-275-5
  2. ^ Kerkvliet, Benedict J (2002), The Huk rebellion: a study of peasant revolt in the Philippines (second ed.), Rowman & Littlefield, p. 150, ISBN 978-0-7425-1868-1
  3. ^ a b Andersen, Regine (2008), Governing agrobiodiversity: plant genetics and developing countries, Ashgate, p. 218, ISBN 978-0-7546-4741-6.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Dolan, Ronald E, ed. (1991), Philippines: A Country Study, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 27 June 2019, at 17:04
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.