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1928 United States presidential election in Illinois

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1928 United States presidential election in Illinois

← 1924 November 6, 1928 1932 →

All 29 Illinois votes to the Electoral College
 
President Hoover portrait.jpg
AlfredSmith.png
Nominee Herbert Hoover Al Smith
Party Republican Democratic
Home state California New York
Running mate Charles Curtis Joseph Taylor Robinson
Electoral vote 29 0
Popular vote 1,769,141 1,313,817
Percentage 56.93% 42.28%

Illinois Presidential Election Results 1928.svg
County Results

President before election

Calvin Coolidge
Republican

Elected President

Herbert Hoover
Republican

The 1928 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 6, 1928, as part of the 1928 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose twenty-nine representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Election information

The primaries and general elections coincided with those for House as well as those for state offices.[1]

Background

A strongly Democratic state during the Second Party System, Illinois became Republican-leaning after the Civil War due to a combination of strong Free Soil Party heritage amongst its Yankee northern counties with the wartime conversion of some Virginian-settled rock-ribbed Democratic Southern Illinois counties[2] to Unionist Republicanism[3] à la Appalachia.[4] Between the Civil War and World War I, partisanship in Illinois – like in the Border States – largely re-fought the war, with the result that although the Democratic Party gained at least 43 percent of the statewide vote via Southern and German Catholic support in every election up to 1900, they never gained an absolute majority and carried the state's electoral votes only in 1892.[5]

Due to the Democratic Party's growing Populist and prohibitionist leanings, a decline in Democratic support after 1900 in its German Central Illinois strongholds transformed Illinois into a powerfully Republican state at all levels.[6] Even Woodrow Wilson in 1912 when the GOP was mortally divided carried the state by only a very narrow margin, and in 1920 hostility to the League of Nations and the perceived anti-German bias of both outgoing President Wilson and new Democratic nominee and former Ohio Governor James Cox – the latter of whom had banned German-language instruction in Ohio schools[7] – meant Harding carried Illinois by over 42 percentage points and the state was his sixth strongest in a national landslide. Thirteen German Catholic or southern-settled counties went Republican for the first time.[8]

In 1924, Calvin Coolidge maintained Harding's dominance despite losing substantial German Catholic and Mississippi Valley industrial support to Progressive Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette, whose family would endorse Catholic New York City Democrat Al Smith after the patriarch died in 1925.[9]

Turnout

The total vote in the state-run primary elections (Democratic and Republican) was 1,228,537.[1]

The total vote in the general election was 3,107,489.[1]

Primaries

Both major parties held non-binding state-run preferential primaries on April 12.[1]

Democratic

1928 Illinois Democratic presidential primary

← 1924 April 10, 1928 (1928-04-10) 1932 →
 
AlfredSmith (1).png
James A. Reed cph.3b20301 (1).jpg
Candidate Al Smith James A. Reed
Home state New York Missouri
Popular vote 44,212 3,786
Percentage 91.11% 7.80

The 1928 Illinois Democratic presidential primary was held on April 10, 1928 in the U.S. state of Illinois as one of the Democratic Party's state primaries ahead of the 1928 presidential election.

The popular vote was a non-binding "beauty contest". Delegates were instead elected by direct votes by congressional district on delegate candidates.[1]

Al Smith easily won the primary, and was virtually unopposed for the Democratic nomination, with most other prominent Democrats standing out as they felt they had no hope of winning the general election.[10]

1928 Illinois Democratic presidential primary[1]
Candidate Votes %
Al Smith (write-in) 44,212 91.11
James A. Reed (write-in) 3,786 7.80
Thomas Walsh (write-in) 221 0.46
W.G. McAdoo (write-in) 213 0.44
E. T. Meredith (write-in) 57 0.12
Henry T. Rainey (write-in) 16 0.03
Scattering 204 0.42
Total 48,525 100

Republican

1928 Illinois Republican presidential primary

← 1924 April 10, 1928 (1928-04-10) 1932 →
 
Frank O Lowden portrait (1).jpg
Candidate Frank Orren Lowden
Home state Illinois
Popular vote 345,498
Percentage 99.50%

The 1928 Illinois Republican presidential primary was held on April 10, 1928 in the U.S. state of Illinois as one of the Republican Party's state primaries ahead of the 1928 presidential election.

The preference vote was a "beauty contest". Delegates were instead selected by direct-vote in each congressional districts on delegate candidates.[1]

The preference vote was won nearly unanimously by the only name on ballot, favorite son, Secretary of Commerce Frank Lowden.[1][11]

1928 Illinois Republican presidential primary[1]
Candidate Votes %
Frank Lowden 1,172,278 99.35
Herbert Hoover (write-in) 4,368 0.37
Calvin Coolidge (incumbent) (write-in) 2,420 0.21
Charles G. Dawes (write-in) 756 0.06
Scattering 190 0.02
Total 1,180,012 100

General election

Despite some predictions of an upheaval during April[12] Hoover was easily nominated as the Republican candidate. Smith was nominated as the Democratic candidate.

After the nominations were finalized, some critics felt Smith might have a chance of carrying electoral-vote-rich Illinois due to opposition to Hoover in the Farm Belt;[13] however by the end of June Hoover asserted that the farm vote was safe after Lowden's supporters decided to aid the GOP nominee.[14]

Hoover campaigned in Illinois after reports early in July[15] suggested the popularity of Smith's “wet” stand in Chicago made his win in this traditionally Republican state doubtful.[16] Smith did not visit the state during the summer, but relied on campaigning by members of the state Democratic ticket led by Thomas S. Donovan,[17] mainly in Chicago but also in the Metro East region.[18] During September, Donovan and the Democrats intensified their campaign in both liberal and anti-Prohibition Chicago and “dry” downstate Illinois.[19]

At the end of the summer, the state was confused and few trends were apparent in early polling, with Republicans in metropolitan Chicago quarreling bitterly.[20] However, by the end of September it was clear that religion was the paramount issue in the campaign and that it was driving Chicago toward Smith and the rest of the state toward Hoover (Smith was the first Catholic nominated by a major party for president).[21]

Despite earlier doubts,[16][17] the earliest poll by Literary Digest showed Hoover carrying Illinois by a two-to-one majority;[22] however, increased registration in Cook County made the early Literary Digest polls seem dubious,[23] and Hoover was winning only by five-to-three in the next poll in the second week of October,[24] and only by twelve percentage points in the third week – at a time when Hoover was leading in 42 of 48 states.[25] As things turned out, this last poll proved accurate.

Smith would give his final Chicago campaign speech on October 17.[26]

Results

Hoover carried Illinois by a 14-point margin, which was nonetheless a major decline upon the two preceding elections and the first time Illinois had voted more Democratic than the nation at-large since Stephen A. Douglas in 1860. Smith did make major gains in heavily Catholic Chicago[27] – despite reservations from the city's large Polish-American population about his Irish and Tammany background[28] – but he failed to carry Cook County despite doubling Davis’ 1924 vote share. In the most heavily anti-Catholic areas – Scandinavian Rockford and Ozark Bible Belt-influenced Southern Illinois – the GOP vote held firm or rose and this was enough to ensure Smith had no chance of carrying the state.[27]

Presidential Candidate Running Mate Party Electoral Vote (EV) Popular Vote (PV)[1]
Herbert Hoover of California Charles Curtis Republican 29 1,769,141 56.93%
Al Smith Joseph T. Robinson Democratic 0 1,313,817 42.28%
Norman Thomas James Maurer Socialist 0 19,138 0.62%
William Z. Foster Benjamin Gitlow Workers Party America 0 3,581 0.12%
Verne L. Reynolds Jeremiah Crowley Socialist Labor 0 1,812 0.06%

Results by county

County Herbert Clark Hoover
Republican
Alfred Emmanuel Smith
Democratic
Normal Mattoon Thomas
Socialist
William Z. Foster
Workers’ Party America
Verne L. Reynolds
Socialist Labor
Margin Total votes cast[29]
# % # % # % # % # % # %
Adams 15,590 53.59% 13,215 45.42% 254 0.87% 13 0.04% 21 0.07% 2,375 8.16% 29,093
Alexander 5,666 61.24% 3,558 38.46% 21 0.23% 4 0.04% 3 0.03% 2,108 22.78% 9,252
Bond 4,160 64.06% 2,298 35.39% 30 0.46% 1 0.02% 5 0.08% 1,862 28.67% 6,494
Boone 5,965 80.95% 1,371 18.60% 30 0.41% 1 0.01% 2 0.03% 4,594 62.34% 7,369
Brown 2,289 54.96% 1,867 44.83% 6 0.14% 1 0.02% 2 0.05% 422 10.13% 4,165
Bureau 11,557 63.73% 6,486 35.77% 62 0.34% 12 0.07% 16 0.09% 5,071 27.97% 18,133
Calhoun 1,594 50.16% 1,551 48.80% 31 0.98% 2 0.06% 0 0.00% 43 1.35% 3,178
Carroll 6,197 76.34% 1,876 23.11% 41 0.51% 4 0.05% 0 0.00% 4,321 53.23% 8,118
Cass 4,009 53.50% 3,461 46.18% 17 0.23% 3 0.04% 4 0.05% 548 7.31% 7,494
Champaign 19,494 68.28% 8,915 31.23% 119 0.42% 11 0.04% 11 0.04% 10,579 37.05% 28,550
Christian 9,896 56.77% 7,345 42.14% 135 0.77% 37 0.21% 18 0.10% 2,551 14.63% 17,431
Clark 5,632 60.64% 3,621 38.99% 26 0.28% 6 0.06% 3 0.03% 2,011 21.65% 9,288
Clay 4,522 65.16% 2,418 34.84% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 2,104 30.32% 6,940
Clinton 3,031 30.77% 6,774 68.76% 39 0.40% 3 0.03% 5 0.05% -3,743 -37.99% 9,852
Coles 11,479 69.12% 5,071 30.54% 39 0.23% 7 0.04% 11 0.07% 6,408 38.59% 16,607
Cook 812,063 52.73% 716,283 46.51% 8,971 0.58% 2,101 0.14% 753 0.05% 95,780 6.22% 1,540,171
Crawford 5,989 62.90% 3,495 36.70% 32 0.34% 4 0.04% 2 0.02% 2,494 26.19% 9,522
Cumberland 3,242 63.04% 1,873 36.42% 21 0.41% 5 0.10% 2 0.04% 1,369 26.62% 5,143
DeKalb 11,501 74.19% 3,940 25.41% 45 0.29% 15 0.10% 2 0.01% 7,561 48.77% 15,503
DeWitt 6,100 69.40% 2,631 29.93% 55 0.63% 2 0.02% 2 0.02% 3,469 39.47% 8,790
Douglas 4,890 68.19% 2,239 31.22% 40 0.56% 2 0.03% 0 0.00% 2,651 36.97% 7,171
DuPage 28,016 72.37% 10,479 27.07% 181 0.47% 13 0.03% 23 0.06% 17,537 45.30% 38,712
Edgar 7,509 58.27% 5,325 41.32% 42 0.33% 6 0.05% 4 0.03% 2,184 16.95% 12,886
Edwards 2,861 74.78% 950 24.83% 14 0.37% 1 0.03% 0 0.00% 1,911 49.95% 3,826
Effingham 3,882 47.26% 4,239 51.61% 85 1.03% 5 0.06% 3 0.04% -357 -4.35% 8,214
Fayette 6,545 61.65% 3,998 37.66% 57 0.54% 6 0.06% 10 0.09% 2,547 23.99% 10,616
Ford 4,668 68.72% 2,098 30.88% 26 0.38% 1 0.01% 0 0.00% 2,570 37.83% 6,793
Franklin 9,900 45.79% 11,369 52.58% 161 0.74% 143 0.66% 49 0.23% -1,469 -6.79% 21,622
Fulton 10,600 59.95% 6,591 37.28% 454 2.57% 11 0.06% 24 0.14% 4,009 22.68% 17,680
Gallatin 2,002 45.78% 2,343 53.58% 22 0.50% 1 0.02% 5 0.11% -341 -7.80% 4,373
Greene 4,299 51.05% 4,076 48.40% 40 0.48% 3 0.04% 3 0.04% 223 2.65% 8,421
Grundy 5,126 61.54% 3,174 38.11% 23 0.28% 2 0.02% 4 0.05% 1,952 23.44% 8,329
Hamilton 3,275 51.08% 3,037 47.36% 75 1.17% 20 0.31% 5 0.08% 238 3.71% 6,412
Hancock 7,795 58.65% 5,447 40.99% 35 0.26% 5 0.04% 8 0.06% 2,348 17.67% 13,290
Hardin 1,758 64.35% 933 34.15% 28 1.02% 3 0.11% 10 0.37% 825 30.20% 2,732
Henderson 2,695 71.11% 1,065 28.10% 26 0.69% 2 0.05% 2 0.05% 1,630 43.01% 3,790
Henry 14,666 70.83% 5,858 28.29% 167 0.81% 7 0.03% 9 0.04% 8,808 42.54% 20,707
Iroquois 8,453 60.71% 5,421 38.94% 38 0.27% 4 0.03% 7 0.05% 3,032 21.78% 13,923
Jackson 9,180 60.79% 5,836 38.64% 75 0.50% 6 0.04% 5 0.03% 3,344 22.14% 15,102
Jasper 3,201 51.04% 3,055 48.71% 14 0.22% 2 0.03% 0 0.00% 146 2.33% 6,272
Jefferson 7,326 55.08% 5,905 44.40% 62 0.47% 4 0.03% 4 0.03% 1,421 10.68% 13,301
Jersey 2,993 54.62% 2,473 45.13% 11 0.20% 3 0.05% 0 0.00% 520 9.49% 5,480
Jo Daviess 6,333 61.59% 3,856 37.50% 88 0.86% 3 0.03% 3 0.03% 2,477 24.09% 10,283
Johnson 2,892 70.69% 1,163 28.43% 30 0.73% 4 0.10% 2 0.05% 1,729 42.26% 4,091
Kane 38,236 69.94% 16,184 29.60% 220 0.40% 15 0.03% 18 0.03% 22,052 40.33% 54,673
Kankakee 11,905 53.44% 10,247 45.99% 120 0.54% 3 0.01% 4 0.02% 1,658 7.44% 22,279
Kendall 3,589 75.53% 1,154 24.28% 8 0.17% 1 0.02% 0 0.00% 2,435 51.24% 4,752
Knox 16,151 72.33% 5,993 26.84% 173 0.77% 3 0.01% 10 0.04% 10,158 45.49% 22,330
Lake 26,814 67.73% 12,252 30.95% 339 0.86% 150 0.38% 32 0.08% 14,562 36.78% 39,587
LaSalle 24,039 53.15% 20,807 46.00% 354 0.78% 12 0.03% 16 0.04% 3,232 7.15% 45,228
Lawrence 5,851 60.16% 3,806 39.13% 53 0.54% 8 0.08% 8 0.08% 2,045 21.03% 9,726
Lee 9,238 67.14% 4,476 32.53% 38 0.28% 5 0.04% 3 0.02% 4,762 34.61% 13,760
Livingston 11,161 65.68% 5,737 33.76% 84 0.49% 2 0.01% 8 0.05% 5,424 31.92% 16,992
Logan 7,631 59.97% 5,019 39.44% 60 0.47% 10 0.08% 5 0.04% 2,612 20.53% 12,725
Macon 24,492 70.68% 9,932 28.66% 194 0.56% 12 0.03% 24 0.07% 14,560 42.02% 34,654
Macoupin 10,699 47.68% 11,290 50.32% 350 1.56% 81 0.36% 18 0.08% -591 -2.63% 22,438
Madison 28,028 53.48% 23,658 45.14% 540 1.03% 119 0.23% 61 0.12% 4,370 8.34% 52,406
Marion 9,110 60.52% 5,823 38.69% 85 0.56% 10 0.07% 24 0.16% 3,287 21.84% 15,052
Marshall 4,029 58.69% 2,828 41.19% 7 0.10% 1 0.01% 0 0.00% 1,201 17.49% 6,865
Mason 3,956 54.78% 3,246 44.95% 17 0.24% 2 0.03% 0 0.00% 710 9.83% 7,221
Massac 3,405 72.87% 1,241 26.56% 13 0.28% 12 0.26% 2 0.04% 2,164 46.31% 4,673
McDonough 8,953 68.15% 4,104 31.24% 69 0.53% 4 0.03% 8 0.06% 4,849 36.91% 13,138
McHenry 10,661 65.33% 5,596 34.29% 57 0.35% 4 0.02% 1 0.01% 5,065 31.04% 16,319
McLean 20,780 65.37% 10,742 33.79% 240 0.75% 11 0.03% 16 0.05% 10,038 31.58% 31,789
Menard 3,243 64.54% 1,742 34.67% 34 0.68% 6 0.12% 0 0.00% 1,501 29.87% 5,025
Mercer 5,699 70.59% 2,316 28.69% 51 0.63% 4 0.05% 3 0.04% 3,383 41.91% 8,073
Monroe 2,721 48.03% 2,934 51.79% 8 0.14% 2 0.04% 0 0.00% -213 -3.76% 5,665
Montgomery 8,999 54.29% 7,392 44.60% 123 0.74% 48 0.29% 13 0.08% 1,607 9.70% 16,575
Morgan 10,192 63.52% 5,805 36.18% 31 0.19% 8 0.05% 10 0.06% 4,387 27.34% 16,046
Moultrie 3,310 60.31% 2,168 39.50% 9 0.16% 1 0.02% 0 0.00% 1,142 20.81% 5,488
Ogle 9,808 76.53% 2,961 23.10% 43 0.34% 1 0.01% 3 0.02% 6,847 53.43% 12,816
Peoria 31,024 56.50% 23,150 42.16% 632 1.15% 31 0.06% 76 0.14% 7,874 14.34% 54,913
Perry 4,636 47.47% 5,029 51.49% 67 0.69% 7 0.07% 27 0.28% -393 -4.02% 9,766
Piatt 4,565 69.62% 1,959 29.88% 23 0.35% 3 0.05% 7 0.11% 2,606 39.74% 6,557
Pike 6,705 61.88% 4,008 36.99% 110 1.02% 8 0.07% 5 0.05% 2,697 24.89% 10,836
Pope 2,004 74.06% 679 25.09% 20 0.74% 3 0.11% 0 0.00% 1,325 48.97% 2,706
Pulaski 3,319 65.18% 1,726 33.90% 34 0.67% 10 0.20% 3 0.06% 1,593 31.28% 5,092
Putnam 1,387 61.10% 869 38.28% 11 0.48% 2 0.09% 1 0.04% 518 22.82% 2,270
Randolph 5,739 47.46% 6,251 51.69% 93 0.77% 3 0.02% 7 0.06% -512 -4.23% 12,093
Richland 4,042 61.03% 2,550 38.50% 23 0.35% 2 0.03% 6 0.09% 1,492 22.53% 6,623
Rock Island 27,246 65.22% 14,334 34.31% 132 0.32% 45 0.11% 19 0.05% 12,912 30.91% 41,776
Saline 7,525 53.82% 6,337 45.32% 87 0.62% 17 0.12% 17 0.12% 1,188 8.50% 13,983
Sangamon 31,957 59.99% 21,026 39.47% 174 0.33% 78 0.15% 36 0.07% 10,931 20.52% 53,271
Schuyler 3,011 54.00% 2,542 45.59% 16 0.29% 1 0.02% 6 0.11% 469 8.41% 5,576
Scott 2,601 59.96% 1,730 39.88% 5 0.12% 2 0.05% 0 0.00% 871 20.08% 4,338
Shelby 7,214 62.58% 4,071 35.31% 243 2.11% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 3,143 27.26% 11,528
St. Clair 31,026 45.60% 36,374 53.46% 506 0.74% 76 0.11% 55 0.08% -5,348 -7.86% 68,037
Stark 2,966 69.09% 1,306 30.42% 19 0.44% 2 0.05% 0 0.00% 1,660 38.67% 4,293
Stephenson 11,992 67.97% 5,579 31.62% 62 0.35% 3 0.02% 7 0.04% 6,413 36.35% 17,643
Tazewell 9,409 56.73% 6,910 41.66% 248 1.50% 3 0.02% 16 0.10% 2,499 15.07% 16,586
Union 3,352 44.52% 4,149 55.10% 24 0.32% 4 0.05% 1 0.01% -797 -10.58% 7,530
Vermilion 21,616 62.26% 12,728 36.66% 259 0.75% 59 0.17% 55 0.16% 8,888 25.60% 34,717
Wabash 2,373 37.26% 3,955 62.10% 33 0.52% 5 0.08% 3 0.05% -1,582 -24.84% 6,369
Warren 7,915 73.61% 2,681 24.93% 146 1.36% 4 0.04% 7 0.07% 5,234 48.67% 10,753
Washington 3,638 55.90% 2,848 43.76% 22 0.34% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 790 12.14% 6,508
Wayne 5,189 62.04% 3,108 37.16% 57 0.68% 5 0.06% 5 0.06% 2,081 24.88% 8,364
White 4,177 53.01% 3,666 46.53% 28 0.36% 5 0.06% 3 0.04% 511 6.49% 7,879
Whiteside 13,580 76.60% 4,079 23.01% 61 0.34% 2 0.01% 6 0.03% 9,501 53.59% 17,728
Will 26,081 55.02% 20,877 44.04% 413 0.87% 18 0.04% 16 0.03% 5,204 10.98% 47,405
Williamson 10,913 51.21% 10,139 47.58% 166 0.78% 62 0.29% 29 0.14% 774 3.63% 21,309
Winnebago 33,258 80.39% 7,684 18.57% 269 0.65% 121 0.29% 40 0.10% 25,574 61.81% 41,372
Woodford 5,140 60.30% 3,311 38.84% 67 0.79% 5 0.06% 1 0.01% 1,829 21.46% 8,524
Totals 1,769,141 56.93% 1,313,817 42.28% 19,138 0.62% 3,581 0.12% 1,812 0.06% 455,324 14.65% 3,107,489

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "OFFICIAL VOTE OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS CAST AT THE GENERAL ELECTION, November 6, 1928 JUDICIAL ELECTIONS, 1927-1928 PRIMARY ELECTION GENERAL PRIMARY, April 10, 1928 PRESIDENTIAL PREFERENCE, APRIL 10, 1928" (PDF). Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  2. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 341-344 ISBN 978-0-691-16324-6
  3. ^ Wells, Damon; Stephen Douglas: The Last Years, 1857–1861, p. 285 ISBN 0292776357
  4. ^ Copeland, James E.; ‘Where Were the Kentucky Unionists and Secessionists’; The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, volume 71, no. 4 (October, 1973), pp. 344-363
  5. ^ "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Illinois". Dave Leip’s U.S. Election Atlas.
  6. ^ Schattschneider, Elmer Eric; The Semisovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America, pp. 76-84 ISBN 0030133661
  7. ^ Hough, Jerry F.; Changing Party Coalitions: The Mystery of the Red State-Blue State Alignment, pp. 86-87 ISBN 0875864090
  8. ^ Menendez, Albert J.; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868-2004, p. 52 ISBN 0786422173
  9. ^ Menendez; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, p. 59
  10. ^ Warren, Kenneth F.; Encyclopedia of U.S. campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior: A-M, Volume 1, p. 620 ISBN 1412954894
  11. ^ Groves, Charles; ‘Lowden Supporters Count Great Gain: Aided by Illinois Primary Victory and Farm Bill Claim 185 Delegates – Buck Silent on Story Dawes Will Get Them’; Daily Boston Globe, April 15, 1928, p. A8
  12. ^ Dudle, Uncle; ‘The Lowden Revival’; Daily Boston Globe, April 17, 1928, p. 22
  13. ^ ‘The Pivotal State’; The Washington Post, June 11, 1928
  14. ^ ‘Hoover Will Have Aid of Lowden Men in His Campaign: Kansas City "Coalition" Chiefs Promise Their Support – Lowden Himself Silent’; The New York Times, July 1, 1982, p. 1
  15. ^ ‘Hoover Drive Begun to Hold Illinois: Deneen Tells State Chiefs Democrats “Poison” Minds of Some Industrial Leaders’; The New York Times, July 10, 1928, p. 1
  16. ^ a b ‘Celler Reports Smith Strong in Midwest: Representative Tells of Train Polls on His Trip Back From Houston’; The New York Times, July 8, 1928, p. 20
  17. ^ a b ‘Illinois for Smith, Says State Chairman: Donovan Telegraphs Raskob That the Democratic Sentiment “Is a Revelation”’; The New York Times, August 2, 1928, p. 2
  18. ^ ‘Plan Smith Campign Outside of Chicago: Hawes and Donowan Want Headquarters at St. Louis for Down-State Illinois’; The New York Times; August 16, 1928, p. 10
  19. ^ ‘Democrat Attack Telling in Illinois: State Is Called Extremely Doubtful as Assaults Hit G.O.P. Strongholds’
  20. ^ ‘Voters of Illinois Confused on Issues: No Definite Trend Yet Seen; G.O.P. in Bitter Quarrel in Chicago’; The Washington Post, September 2, 1928, p. M6
  21. ^ Hennessy, M.E.; ‘Religion Tops Issues in Battle in Illinois: Chicago Strong for Smith Rest Is for Hoover. Mid-West Republican Bureau Lays Claim to That Whole Section’; Daily Boston Globe, September 27, 1928, p. 12
  22. ^ ‘Hoover Lead Gains in Digest Poll’; The New York Times; October 5, 1928, p. 2
  23. ^ Donegan, Arthur B.; ‘Illinois in Ferment in Big Finals Drives: Both Parties Impressed by Record Registration in Cook County. State Is Held in Doubt’; The Washington Post, October 7, 1928, p. M4
  24. ^ ‘Hoover Keeps Lead on Digest Ballots: Poll of Forty States Gives Him 1,201,869, Against 688,829 for Governor Smith’; The New York Times, October 12, 1928, p. 22
  25. ^ ‘Hoover Has 42 States in Poll: Four States Show Smith Majority and Two Considered Doubtful Total of 2,529,997 Returns’; The Wall Street Journal, October 19, 1928, p. 6
  26. ^ Gableman, Edwin W.; ‘Smith Sees Victory in States Visited: Arrives in Chicago for His Final Speech of the Present Tour. Missouri Is Optimistic’; The Washington Post, October 18, 1928, p. 2
  27. ^ a b Phillips; The Emerging Republican Majority, p. 387
  28. ^ Duncan-Clark, S.J.; ‘Uncertainties in Illinois Campaign: Republican Factionalism in Cook County Cause for Grave Misgivings. Democratic Ranks Broken: Fears of Tammany in the White House Loom Large Throughout the State’; The New York Times, September 23, 1928, p. E1
  29. ^ Our Campaigns; IL US President Race, November 06, 1928
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