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1928 United States presidential election in Georgia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1928 United States presidential election in Georgia

← 1924 November 6, 1928 (1928-11-06) 1932 →
 
AlfredSmith.png
Herbert Hoover - NARA - 532049.jpg
Nominee Al Smith Herbert Hoover
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New York California
Running mate Joseph T. Robinson Charles Curtis
Electoral vote 14 0
Popular vote 129,602 99,368
Percentage 56.56% 43.36%

Georgia Presidential Election Results 1928.svg
County Results

President before election

Calvin Coolidge
Republican

Elected President

Herbert Hoover
Republican

The 1928 United States presidential election in Georgia took place on November 6, 1928, as part of the wider United States Presidential election. Voters chose 14 representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Background

With the exception of a handful of historically Unionist North Georgia counties – chiefly Fannin but also to a lesser extent Pickens, Gilmer and Towns – Georgia since the 1880s had been a one-party state dominated by the Democratic Party. Disfranchisement of almost all African-Americans and most poor whites had made the Republican Party virtually nonexistent outside of local governments in those few hill counties,[1] and the national Democratic Party served as the guardian of white supremacy against a Republican Party historically associated with memories of Reconstruction. The only competitive elections were Democratic primaries, which state laws restricted to whites on the grounds of the Democratic Party being legally a private club.[2]

However, with all other prominent Democrats sitting the election out,[3] the party nominated Alfred E. Smith, four-term Governor of New York as its nominee for 1928, with little opposition. Smith had been the favorite for the 1924 nomination, but had lost due to opposition to his Catholic faith and "wet" views on Prohibition: he wished to repeal or modify the Volstead Act.

Once Smith was nominated – despite his attempt to dispel fears by nominating "dry" Southern Democrat Joseph T. Robinson as his running mate[4] – extreme fear ensued in the South, which had no experience of the Southern and Eastern European Catholic immigrants who were Smith's local constituency. Southern fundamentalist Protestants believed that Smith would allow papal and priestly leadership in the United States, which Protestantism was a reaction against.[5]

In Georgia – alongside Texas the only state that had never to that point voted Republican even during Reconstruction – many Protestant ministers were strongly opposed to Smith.[6] However, with the state’s large number of majority-black counties, there was great opposition to Hoover because of the strong Republican association with Reconstruction and black political power.[7]

Vote

The Smith/Robinson ticket carried the state of Georgia on election day, making the state, with Texas voting Republican for the first time, the only state to have never voted for a Republican presidential candidate. Nonetheless, Hoover did fare better than any other GOP presidential nominee in Georgia history,[8] and his vote percentage would not be beaten until Barry Goldwater carried the state in 1964, by when the national Democratic Party had become firmly linked with black civil rights. As in the rest of the South, Hoover’s gains were largely confined to areas with few blacks, where he gained up to fifty percent in Forsyth and Wilkes Counties, and in other northern upcountry counties he gained over forty percent. Nevertheless, unlike most Black Belt areas where there was no pro-Hoover trend,[9] in some heavily black counties like Long, Effingham and McDuffie where the white voting population was substantially German Lutheran and intensely hostile to Catholicism, Hoover did make large gains, meaning that Georgia was one of only two states where any counties with nonvoting black majorities deserted Smith.[7] Hoover also made large gains from the newly developing urban middle class in Atlanta and Augusta,[9] where his gains on Coolidge were comparable to the most anti-Catholic upcountry areas.

Results

1928 United States presidential election in Georgia[10]
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Democratic Al Smith 129,602 56.56% 14
Republican Herbert Hoover 99,368[a] 43.36% 0
Socialist Norman Thomas 124[b] 0.05% 0
Workers (Communist) William Foster 64[b] 0.03% 0

Results by county

County Alfred Emmanuel Smith
Democratic
Herbert Clark Hoover
Republican/“Anti-Smith”
Margin Total votes cast[11]
# % # % # %
Appling 415 41.75% 579 58.25% -164 -16.50% 994
Atkinson 350 74.31% 121 25.69% 229 48.62% 471
Bacon 305 60.04% 203 39.96% 102 20.08% 508
Baker 462 82.35% 99 17.65% 363 64.71% 561
Baldwin 712 72.51% 270 27.49% 442 45.01% 982
Banks 422 53.76% 363 46.24% 59 7.52% 785
Barrow 479 41.19% 684 58.81% -205 -17.63% 1,163
Bartow 830 49.76% 838 50.24% -8 -0.48% 1,668
Ben Hill 1,006 68.62% 460 31.38% 546 37.24% 1,466
Berrien 735 87.50% 105 12.50% 630 75.00% 840
Bibb 2,289 52.42% 2,078 47.58% 211 4.83% 4,367
Bleckley 641 90.03% 71 9.97% 570 80.06% 712
Brantley 166 49.11% 172 50.89% -6 -1.78% 338
Brooks 770 80.04% 192 19.96% 578 60.08% 962
Bryan 219 59.19% 151 40.81% 68 18.38% 370
Bulloch 1,258 76.47% 387 23.53% 871 52.95% 1,645
Burke 687 72.54% 260 27.46% 427 45.09% 947
Butts 846 85.11% 148 14.89% 698 70.22% 994
Calhoun 571 86.25% 91 13.75% 480 72.51% 662
Camden 274 50.65% 267 49.35% 7 1.29% 541
Campbell 425 56.52% 327 43.48% 98 13.03% 752
Candler 411 75.55% 133 24.45% 278 51.10% 544
Carroll 1,913 47.53% 2,112 52.47% -199 -4.94% 4,025
Catoosa 562 48.16% 605 51.84% -43 -3.68% 1,167
Charlton 415 72.17% 160 27.83% 255 44.35% 575
Chatham 5,534 51.14% 5,288 48.86% 246 2.27% 10,822
Chattahoochee 141 88.68% 18 11.32% 123 77.36% 159
Chattooga 920 45.63% 1,096 54.37% -176 -8.73% 2,016
Cherokee 581 25.71% 1,679 74.29% -1,098 -48.58% 2,260
Clarke 1,407 66.03% 724 33.97% 683 32.05% 2,131
Clay 405 87.85% 56 12.15% 349 75.70% 461
Clayton 612 49.72% 619 50.28% -7 -0.57% 1,231
Clinch 717 83.37% 143 16.63% 574 66.74% 860
Cobb 1,426 45.46% 1,711 54.54% -285 -9.09% 3,137
Coffee 1,176 66.55% 591 33.45% 585 33.11% 1,767
Colquitt 970 54.93% 796 45.07% 174 9.85% 1,766
Columbia 279 54.39% 234 45.61% 45 8.77% 513
Cook 689 74.41% 237 25.59% 452 48.81% 926
Coweta 1,656 87.85% 229 12.15% 1,427 75.70% 1,885
Crawford 358 88.18% 48 11.82% 310 76.35% 406
Crisp 523 56.54% 402 43.46% 121 13.08% 925
Dade 453 58.00% 328 42.00% 125 16.01% 781
Dawson 332 53.38% 290 46.62% 42 6.75% 622
Decatur 734 38.84% 1,156 61.16% -422 -22.33% 1,890
DeKalb 2,293 49.09% 2,378 50.91% -85 -1.82% 4,671
Dodge 677 71.26% 273 28.74% 404 42.53% 950
Dooly 744 82.67% 156 17.33% 588 65.33% 900
Dougherty 982 72.15% 379 27.85% 603 44.31% 1,361
Douglas 452 42.72% 606 57.28% -154 -14.56% 1,058
Early 674 74.48% 231 25.52% 443 48.95% 905
Echols 314 91.55% 29 8.45% 285 83.09% 343
Effingham 163 20.63% 627 79.37% -464 -58.73% 790
Elbert 1,052 53.05% 931 46.95% 121 6.10% 1,983
Emanuel 1,076 75.19% 355 24.81% 721 50.38% 1,431
Evans 489 71.81% 192 28.19% 297 43.61% 681
Fannin 811 31.92% 1,730 68.08% -919 -36.17% 2,541
Fayette 367 65.89% 190 34.11% 177 31.78% 557
Floyd 1,494 46.34% 1,730 53.66% -236 -7.32% 3,224
Forsyth 287 23.51% 934 76.49% -647 -52.99% 1,221
Franklin 770 49.01% 801 50.99% -31 -1.97% 1,571
Fulton 8,872 48.64% 9,368 51.36% -496 -2.72% 18,240
Gilmer 529 34.33% 1,012 65.67% -483 -31.34% 1,541
Glascock 123 35.34% 225 64.66% -102 -29.31% 348
Glynn 549 40.73% 799 59.27% -250 -18.55% 1,348
Gordon 740 41.60% 1,039 58.40% -299 -16.81% 1,779
Grady 1,172 72.75% 439 27.25% 733 45.50% 1,611
Greene 627 71.90% 245 28.10% 382 43.81% 872
Gwinnett 970 47.74% 1,062 52.26% -92 -4.53% 2,032
Habersham 1,105 44.04% 1,404 55.96% -299 -11.92% 2,509
Hall 1,523 49.19% 1,573 50.81% -50 -1.61% 3,096
Hancock 552 82.39% 118 17.61% 434 64.78% 670
Haralson 690 30.84% 1,547 69.16% -857 -38.31% 2,237
Harris 551 79.28% 144 20.72% 407 58.56% 695
Hart 919 60.38% 603 39.62% 316 20.76% 1,522
Heard 493 55.83% 390 44.17% 103 11.66% 883
Henry 763 67.94% 360 32.06% 403 35.89% 1,123
Houston 323 77.83% 92 22.17% 231 55.66% 415
Irwin 917 84.99% 162 15.01% 755 69.97% 1,079
Jackson 859 51.22% 818 48.78% 41 2.44% 1,677
Jasper 632 81.87% 140 18.13% 492 63.73% 772
Jeff Davis 315 63.64% 180 36.36% 135 27.27% 495
Jefferson 798 43.02% 1,057 56.98% -259 -13.96% 1,855
Jenkins 409 55.20% 332 44.80% 77 10.39% 741
Johnson 632 69.00% 284 31.00% 348 37.99% 916
Jones 414 80.54% 100 19.46% 314 61.09% 514
Lamar 672 84.21% 126 15.79% 546 68.42% 798
Lanier 303 68.71% 138 31.29% 165 37.41% 441
Laurens 1,987 80.87% 470 19.13% 1,517 61.74% 2,457
Lee 287 86.45% 45 13.55% 242 72.89% 332
Liberty 201 49.75% 203 50.25% -2 -0.50% 404
Lincoln 445 51.86% 413 48.14% 32 3.73% 858
Long 166 29.28% 401 70.72% -235 -41.45% 567
Lowndes 1,413 70.33% 596 29.67% 817 40.67% 2,009
Lumpkin 560 59.51% 381 40.49% 179 19.02% 941
Macon 819 76.04% 258 23.96% 561 52.09% 1,077
Madison 474 47.35% 527 52.65% -53 -5.29% 1,001
Marion 365 76.20% 114 23.80% 251 52.40% 479
McDuffie 304 44.38% 381 55.62% -77 -11.24% 685
McIntosh 141 43.93% 180 56.07% -39 -12.15% 321
Meriwether 1,515 84.07% 287 15.93% 1,228 68.15% 1,802
Miller 322 76.12% 101 23.88% 221 52.25% 423
Milton 183 29.19% 444 70.81% -261 -41.63% 627
Mitchell 1,358 90.47% 143 9.53% 1,215 80.95% 1,501
Monroe 801 70.88% 329 29.12% 472 41.77% 1,130
Montgomery 337 77.47% 98 22.53% 239 54.94% 435
Morgan 803 79.43% 208 20.57% 595 58.85% 1,011
Murray 982 47.03% 1,106 52.97% -124 -5.94% 2,088
Muscogee 2,098 57.14% 1,574 42.86% 524 14.27% 3,672
Newton 873 55.57% 698 44.43% 175 11.14% 1,571
Oconee 344 53.42% 300 46.58% 44 6.83% 644
Oglethorpe 813 79.86% 205 20.14% 608 59.72% 1,018
Paulding 690 34.66% 1,301 65.34% -611 -30.69% 1,991
Peach 572 73.33% 208 26.67% 364 46.67% 780
Pickens 543 29.16% 1,319 70.84% -776 -41.68% 1,862
Pierce 523 64.73% 285 35.27% 238 29.46% 808
Pike 714 75.00% 238 25.00% 476 50.00% 952
Polk 886 37.73% 1,462 62.27% -576 -24.53% 2,348
Pulaski 639 85.89% 105 14.11% 534 71.77% 744
Putnam 682 92.29% 57 7.71% 625 84.57% 739
Quitman 174 80.93% 41 19.07% 133 61.86% 215
Rabun 590 65.85% 306 34.15% 284 31.70% 896
Randolph 803 81.94% 177 18.06% 626 63.88% 980
Richmond 2,086 29.01% 5,104 70.99% -3,018 -41.97% 7,190
Rockdale 472 75.16% 156 24.84% 316 50.32% 628
Schley 328 80.99% 77 19.01% 251 61.98% 405
Screven 300 29.82% 706 70.18% -406 -40.36% 1,006
Seminole 371 77.13% 110 22.87% 261 54.26% 481
Spalding 1,734 80.80% 412 19.20% 1,322 61.60% 2,146
Stephens 438 61.86% 270 38.14% 168 23.73% 708
Stewart 732 89.27% 88 10.73% 644 78.54% 820
Sumter 1,237 80.80% 294 19.20% 943 61.59% 1,531
Talbot 536 87.87% 74 12.13% 462 75.74% 610
Taliaferro 446 88.49% 58 11.51% 388 76.98% 504
Tattnall 460 36.77% 791 63.23% -331 -26.46% 1,251
Taylor 590 62.57% 353 37.43% 237 25.13% 943
Telfair 2,057 86.10% 332 13.90% 1,725 72.21% 2,389
Terrell 897 88.55% 116 11.45% 781 77.10% 1,013
Thomas 1,240 60.37% 814 39.63% 426 20.74% 2,054
Tift 736 59.02% 511 40.98% 225 18.04% 1,247
Toombs 615 52.74% 551 47.26% 64 5.49% 1,166
Towns 517 37.63% 857 62.37% -340 -24.75% 1,374
Treutlen 392 85.96% 64 14.04% 328 71.93% 456
Troup 1,557 61.69% 967 38.31% 590 23.38% 2,524
Turner 328 38.41% 526 61.59% -198 -23.19% 854
Twiggs 571 88.53% 74 11.47% 497 77.05% 645
Union 623 17.82% 2,873 82.18% -2,250 -64.36% 3,496
Upson 721 76.54% 221 23.46% 500 53.08% 942
Walker 1,053 37.09% 1,786 62.91% -733 -25.82% 2,839
Walton 1,135 72.80% 424 27.20% 711 45.61% 1,559
Ware 1,416 51.40% 1,339 48.60% 77 2.79% 2,755
Warren 247 49.20% 255 50.80% -8 -1.59% 502
Washington 1,142 70.76% 472 29.24% 670 41.51% 1,614
Wayne 488 54.16% 413 45.84% 75 8.32% 901
Webster 174 74.04% 61 25.96% 113 48.09% 235
Wheeler 312 75.54% 101 24.46% 211 51.09% 413
White 274 32.54% 568 67.46% -294 -34.92% 842
Whitfield 1,154 41.16% 1,650 58.84% -496 -17.69% 2,804
Wilcox 459 68.00% 216 32.00% 243 36.00% 675
Wilkes 747 48.35% 798 51.65% -51 -3.30% 1,545
Wilkinson 487 68.21% 227 31.79% 260 36.41% 714
Worth 952 75.44% 310 24.56% 642 50.87% 1,262
Totals 129,602 56.56% 99,368 43.36% 30,234 13.19% 229,158

Notes

  1. ^ Hoover vote is a fusion of Republican and Anti-Smith Democratic votes.
  2. ^ a b These write-in votes were not separated by county and only given as a statewide total.

References

  1. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 208, 210 ISBN 9780691163246
  2. ^ Springer, Melanie Jean; How the States Shaped the Nation: American Electoral Institutions and Voter Turnout, 1920-2000, p. 155 ISBN 022611435X
  3. ^ Warren, Kenneth F.; Encyclopedia of U.S. campaigns, elections, and electoral behavior: A-M, Volume 1, p. 620 ISBN 1412954894
  4. ^ Nelson, Michael (1991); Historic documents on presidential elections, 1787-1988, p. 296
  5. ^ Whisenhunt, Donald W.; President Herbert Hoover, p. 69 ISBN 1600214762
  6. ^ Orwat, Stephen F.; The 1928 Presidential Election in the South: The Question of Southern Conservative Values (1994), p. 62
  7. ^ a b Key, V.O. junior; Southern Politics in State and Nation; p. 329 ISBN 087049435X
  8. ^ "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Georgia". Dave Leip’s U.S. Election Atlas.
  9. ^ a b Phillips, The Emerging Republican Majority, p. 212
  10. ^ "1928 Presidential General Election Results – Georgia". Dave Leip’s U.S. Election Atlas.
  11. ^ "GA US President Race, November 06, 1928". Our Campaigns.
This page was last edited on 30 September 2020, at 00:38
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