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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1928 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1928
MCMXXVIII
Ab urbe condita2681
Armenian calendar1377
ԹՎ ՌՅՀԷ
Assyrian calendar6678
Bahá'í calendar84–85
Balinese saka calendar1849–1850
Bengali calendar1335
Berber calendar2878
British Regnal year18 Geo. 5 – 19 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar2472
Burmese calendar1290
Byzantine calendar7436–7437
Chinese calendar丁卯(Fire Rabbit)
4624 or 4564
    — to —
戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)
4625 or 4565
Coptic calendar1644–1645
Discordian calendar3094
Ethiopian calendar1920–1921
Hebrew calendar5688–5689
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1984–1985
 - Shaka Samvat1849–1850
 - Kali Yuga5028–5029
Holocene calendar11928
Igbo calendar928–929
Iranian calendar1306–1307
Islamic calendar1346–1347
Japanese calendarShōwa 3
(昭和3年)
Javanese calendar1858–1859
Juche calendar17
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4261
Minguo calendarROC 17
民國17年
Nanakshahi calendar460
Thai solar calendar2470–2471
Tibetan calendar阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
2054 or 1673 or 901
    — to —
阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
2055 or 1674 or 902

1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1928th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 928th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1920s decade.

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  • ✪ A Bankrupt Germany Didn't Create the Nazis | Between 2 Wars | 1928 Part 1 of 1
  • ✪ A Merry Christmas from 1928 - 1929 (Latest Toys)
  • ✪ That Dude from All Those T-Shirts (June 14, 1928)
  • ✪ Weimar Politics 1924 - 1928
  • ✪ 2/4 Paris 1928 - A Tale of Three Cities

Transcription

So, there’s this idea that the reason that the Nazis came to power was because Germany was completely broke under the war reparations of the Treaty of Vesrailles. This, my friends is a bit of a misconception, you see starting in 1924 Germany joined the 1920s upswing in what would become known as the Goldener Zwanziger, the Golden Twenties. Welcome to Between-2-Wars a chronological summary of the interwar years, covering all facets of life, the uncertainty, hedonism, and euphoria, and ultimately humanity’s descent into the darkness of the Second World War. I’m Indy Neidell. In our 1923 episode on Hitler’s failed putsch we saw how the first years of the Weimar Republic were blighted by hyperinflation as the government desperately printed more money to pay off massive war debts and reparations. Entire life savings were made worthless and the economy was in chaos. However, political achievements in both the domestic and international spheres in late 1923 and 1924 meant that Germany has entered into an era of relative political and economic stability which, accompanied by a flourishing of mass culture, leads the era to become known as the ‘golden twenties’. Like other industrial countries by 1928, Germany is firmly in an economic boom. However, beneath all this there are still major weaknesses within Weimar’s political and economic systems, with increasing social conservatism running alongside the social liberalism for which the era is known. What were these achievements that enabled Germany’s economic boom? In the domestic sphere, a semblance of political stability had been guaranteed in the autumn of 1923 by the passing of an enabling act in the Reichstag which granted the government, headed by Gustav Stresemann, the power to pass laws without parliamentary approval. Enabling acts were nothing new in German politics but this was the most extensive so far and would set a dangerous precedent in Weimar politics. Nevertheless, the government now held much more power than before, allowing it to beat back uprisings such as the Beer Hall Putsch, and concentrate on economics There was a big rollback in government spending, and by the end of 1923 civil servants were earning 40% to 70% than they had before the war. The government also cut social services. The measures were brutal but they allowed the German economy to stabilize, something also helped by the Dawes Plan, which was the result of Germany requesting the Allied reparations commission that their ability to pay should be reviewed by a team of experts, something America had actually already proposed in 1922. Finalized in the summer of 1924, and passing narrowly in the Reichstag, the plan did not actually reduce the overall reparations payment but did structure a new payment schedule. It also took away the threat of sanctions and military occupation, and payments were now to be made to a reparations agent who would supervise and monitor Germany’s financials and transmit the money to the various Allied powers. France and Belgium also pledged to phase out their occupation of the Ruhr. With economic and political stabilization, the conditions were set for Germany to take part in the economic boom that was sweeping across Europe and America. Money was flowing in America, and part of the Dawes agreement is a massive loan. This surplus of capital and a stabilized economy meant that Germany’s industrial infrastructure could undergo modernization, with businesses following American model of assembly lines. In fact, German entrepreneurs seem to be fascinated by American industrialists, especially Henry Ford. One engineer who visited a Ford factory in Detroit gushed about “the work rhythm that sweeps everything along with it, just as a band carries along the legs of the marching troops and even the spectators.” There was also now money to invest in housing, hospitals, or other public projects. Virtually no new housing had been built since before the war and architects are being called upon to design apartment blocks, and even whole new settlements, showcasing German modernity. Municipalities across Germany are now vying for their city to be the most modern, building parks, stadiums, road networks, transport systems, and public libraries. Berlin towers above these, though. It is the third largest city in the world, home to business empires, has the fastest underground railway in the world, and the highest ratio of telephones to population,. On top public investment, the government began spending on social services again, most significantly on the unemployment service, which providing 26 weeks of benefit entitlement to any unemployed worker who had been employed for 26 weeks in the previous twelve months. By 1928, Germany’s GDP is 25% higher than it was in 1925, with total industrial production reaching pre-war levels in 1927 which it will then soon surpass. The country also now has the highest paid industrial work force in Europe, and the female workforce is growing as women increasingly moving away from the countryside to find work in the city. The middle-class booms, with legions of office workers and factory managers. This relative economic stability has also fostered new social and cultural habits amongst the population. Ordinary Germans are going on an American-style consumption binge, fueling economic growth further. Consumer credit is now socially acceptable for all classes, and even workers seek out modern style and flair in Germany’s department stores. American products flood the market, and epartment stores now dot the country. Why are Germans so willing to spend after the hyperinflation of the early 20s had shown how quickly economic fortunes could change? Historian Eric Weitz argued that it was exactly this experience which cultivated such heady consumerism. The trials of war and hyperinflation has made Germans realize that money and even life itself can disappear in an instant. Everything was ephemeral and it was better to enjoy life now then worry about the unknown future. This attitude is boosted by modern advertising which, like its American counterpart, fused sex appeal with consumer ideals. What is interesting, though, about German advertising is how it brings together mass culture and high art. Clean lines of modernist design in the style of Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) are used to sell consumer products. Advertising lights up the streets of German cities, while artists find their work published both by marketing firms and intellectual journals. New forms of mass-culture are also emerging as an increasingly urban population enjoys the thrills of modern life. Cinema is extremely popular, with 353 million cinema tickets sold in 1928. Germany’s own film industry actually has struggled since 1923, but foreign movies are hugely popular, with films such as Charlie Chaplin’s The Gold Rush and Fred Niblo’s Ben-Hur becoming nationwide favorites. Alongside the cinema, radio is a phenomenon. Public broadcasting began in 1923 and is hailed as a triumph of German modernity. The number of listeners has shot up from barely 10,000 in April 1924, to 780,000 a year later, and by 1928 it is on its way to 3.7 million. The listening public is the second largest in Europe, and they enjoy everything from music to plays. Boxing becomes the spectator sport of choice for many Germans, fusing athleticism and show business. Fights are sellout shows all over Germany and it is something enjoyed by all social classes. In fact, in 1928, a leading Berlin theatre postponed the premiere of a play because it was the same night as a championship fight It would appear then that Germans are really enjoying life. But beneath all this spending, social change, and leisure, the German economy is still suffering from major economic weaknesses. Historian Theo Balderston has gone so far to say that ‘gold-plated’ is a more suitable term for this era, with the surface level wealth masking deep problems. For one, the economy has not been progressing as healthily as it might seem. Despite the clear modernization, it is also stagnating with no real technological innovations being introduced to boost it. German industrialists may be obsessed with American techniques but seem unable to actually inject any dynamism into their own economy. Alongside this stagnation, Germany is getting itself into a dangerous situation with American credit. The country is essentially relying on American loans not only to fuel its economy but also to pay its reparations to other European countries, who themselves rely on these reparations to pay their war debts back to America. This means that a cycle of international loans has emerged which relies too heavily on a successful American economy and the willingness of creditors to hand out cheap loans. If America crashes then so does Germany - hard. Alongside these deeper structural issues, there are also immediate problems which make clear all is not well in these ‘golden years’. Unemployment has risen significantly as a result of the overenthusiastic introduction of assembly lines and housing is also still in short supply, despite the efforts made by local governments. Those who live outside the big cities have barely seen a boom at all. German farmers had actually benefitted slightly from hyperinflation, being able to pay off their debts and estate mortgages, but the stabilization hit them hard, and they are now saddled with tax burdens which are 3.7 times higher than before the war, with little government expenditure being pumped back into their sector. What is more, worldwide economic conditions are not favorable. The war led to a global over-expansion of agricultural capacity, meaning prices have fallen dramatically, and German farmers have to compete with the agrarian powerhouses of countries like America. Between 1918 and 1928, the national average of real incomes has risen by 45%, but for farmers, real income has only risen by 4.5%. There is also an agricultural labor shortage as people, especially young women, have moved to the big cities to find better work. The Mittelstand class of shopkeepers and artisans face similar problems as they pay high taxes and deal with the complicated bureaucracy of the Weimar system. They find their prices undercut by the much larger department stores. These ‘golden years’ rest not only on shaky economic foundations, but also only really benefit urban communities and big business, while the rural areas suffer. And these economic problems do little to help the Republic with its legitimacy crisis. Germany’s far-right are keen to exploit the grievances of the non-urban communities and drive home the degeneracy of Weimar. Julius Streicher, a top Nazi party official and publisher of Der Sturmer, declared in 1927 that “the peasantry is without a fatherland, German land is sold and mortgaged to the international Jewish controlling power; today the peasant no longer possesses his own corn, for he must pay four-fifths of his income in taxes, and woe betide him who does not pay, for then the bailiff comes”. Demonstrations are arranged by organizations like the Rural League, the Farmers' Association, League of Smallholdings, Artisans' League, Settlers' Association, and the Shopkeepers' Guild, with Nazi and other far-right speakers denouncing the Weimar democracy that has caused Germany’s farmers and Mittelstand to become slaves to the stock market. The fact that many department stores are Jewish-owned has also led to increasing anti-Semitism amongst artisans and shopkeepers. And the middle-class in general are distrustful of the political system, having been the hardest hit by hyperinflation. Workers, too, are resentful after increased job insecurity and the loss of hard-won rights such as the eight-hour day, which the government cut in a bid to appease businesses during stabilization. Even without these specific grievances, there is the significant challenge of encouraging a general faith in Weimar. Real democracy is still new to Germany and the population has had little political education and practice. This isn’t helped by the nature of the newspaper industry. Pro-Republican newspapers either try to pursue a neutral editorial position or are drowned out by the shrill calls for the death of the Republic from either the far-left or far-left. Of course, none of this is helped by the fact that the country had 6 different cabinets between December 1923 and June 1928, supposedly showing that parliamentary democracy is weak and unstable. Finally, the fact that Paul von Hindenburg, hardly a man embodying democratic values, was elected as president in 1925 suggests that there is little commitment to Weimar’s ideals among the general population. Growing cultural conservativism, in part a reaction to the increasingly socially liberal times, also threatens the republic. Women have also become a potent symbol used by conservatives to show the degeneracy of the republic. Many have enjoyed unprecedented freedom, and their sporting of new American fashions and access to contraception has led conservative and religious groups to decry the decadence of urban life and loss of pure German morality. It is of course, easy to look at all this and see an inevitable collapse of Weimar democracy. But there is a lot that appears to be going well with the country. Many people are much better off than they were before as they enjoy an unprecedented range of freedom and leisure options. Commitment to the values of the Republic are maybe a little thin on the ground, but political participation is still undoubtedly high with up to 80% of the population often voting in elections. And it says something that the largest paramilitary group in this time, the 3 million-strong Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, is committed to defending parliamentary democracy, suggesting that a great number of people are in fact willing to fight for the Republic. Also, though he is hardly the embodiment of its values, Hindenburg is a potentially stabilizing figure for Weimar, providing continuity between the imperial past and the republican present. Thus, in everything from economics to politics to society, the ‘golden years’ of Weimar Germany are defined by its contradictions. Economic modernization and economic stagnation; relative political stability and a crisis of legitimacy; cultural change and cultural conservativism; are all the orders of the day and it isn’t clear which side will win out. If you want to learn more about the times when Germany was still suffering from hyperinflation and it did in fact almost bring the Nazis to power, watch our epode about the Hitler Putsch here. Our TimeGhost Army member of the week is Sebastian Räihä - do like Sebastian and join us on Patreon or TimeGhost.tv - that is the only thing keeping these golden episodes coming. Prost!

Contents

Events

January

February

March

April

May

South African flag
South African flag
  • May 31 – South Africa adopts a new national flag, based upon the Van Riebeeck flag or Prinsevlag (originally the Dutch flag), to replace the Red Ensign.

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Births

Births
January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Deaths

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Nobel Prizes

In fiction

References

  1. ^ Griffith, Fred. (January 1928). "The Significance of Pneumococcal Types". Journal of Hygiene. Cambridge University Press. 27 (2): 113–159. doi:10.1017/S0022172400031879. JSTOR 4626734. PMC 2167760. PMID 20474956.
  2. ^ Downie, A. W. (1972). "Pneumococcal transformation – a backward view: Fourth Griffith Memorial Lecture" (PDF). Journal of General Microbiology. 73 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1099/00221287-73-1-1. PMID 4143929. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  3. ^ "250,000 Slaves in Sierra Leone, Africa, Freed". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 3, 1928. p. 3.
  4. ^ "Anak Krakatoa". Today in Science History. Todayinsci. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  5. ^ Leavitt, Amie Jane (2011). Anatomy of a Volcanic Eruption. Capstone Press.
  6. ^ "Transatlantic Television in 1928". Baird Television. Retrieved September 29, 2015. Extract from The New York Times 1928-02-09.
  7. ^ Shahar, Meir (2008). The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8248-3349-7.
  8. ^ Not much is known about the West Plains Dance Hall explosion. Much of this event has been lost in time, and since forensic science was still developing, the cause was never discovered.
  9. ^ OED (1933, 1978 vol. 1, pp. xxv, xxvl).
  10. ^ Cherundolo, Gina; Porter, Carly (March 11, 2010). "Is Winter Finally Over?". AccuWeather.com. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
  11. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  12. ^ "Coca-Cola Park : History". January 3, 2013. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved December 22, 2017.
  13. ^ The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
  14. ^ a b "Álvaro Obregón" (in Spanish). Biografias y Vidas. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  15. ^ Chapman, Matthew (2010). The Snail and the Ginger Beer: the story of Donoghue v Stevenson. London: Wildy, Simmons & Hill. ISBN 0-85490-049-7.
  16. ^ "Philo Taylor Farnsworth (1906–1971)". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
  17. ^ Farnsworth, Elma G. (1989). Distant Vision: Romance & Discovery on an Invisible Frontier. Salt Lake City: PemberleyKent. p. 108. ISBN 0-9623276-0-3.
  18. ^ "Culture shock will highlight penicillin discovery" (PDF) (Press release). London: Royal Society of Chemistry. September 2, 2003. Retrieved November 30, 2011.
  19. ^ Ricklefs (1982). A History of Modern Indonesia (reprint ed.). Macmillan Southeast Asian. p. 177. ISBN 0-333-24380-3.
  20. ^ Funston, John, ed. (2001). Government & Politics in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 75. ISBN 9789812301345.
This page was last edited on 15 September 2019, at 09:53
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