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1924 United States presidential election in Illinois

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1924 United States presidential election in Illinois

← 1920 November 4, 1924 1928 →

All 29 Illinois votes to the Electoral College
 
John Calvin Coolidge, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
John William Davis.jpg
Robert M La Follette, Sr.jpg
Nominee Calvin Coolidge John W. Davis Robert M. La Follette
Party Republican Democratic Progressive
Home state Massachusetts West Virginia Wisconsin
Running mate Charles G. Dawes Charles W. Bryan Burton K. Wheeler
Electoral vote 29 0 0
Popular vote 1,453,321 576.975 432,027
Percentage 58.84% 23.36% 17.49%

Illinois Presidential Election Results 1924.svg
County Results

President before election

Calvin Coolidge
Republican

Elected President

Calvin Coolidge
Republican

The 1924 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 4, 1924, as part of the 1924 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose twenty-nine representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Election information

The primaries and general elections coincided with those for other federal offices (Senate and House), as well as those for state offices.[1]

Background

A strongly Democratic state during the Second Party System, Illinois became Republican-leaning after the Civil War due to a combination of strong Free Soil Party heritage amongst its Yankee northern counties with the wartime conversion of some Virginian-settled rock-ribbed Democratic Southern Illinois counties[2] to Unionist Republicanism[3] à la Appalachia.[4] Between the Civil War and World War I, partisanship in Illinois – like in the Border States – largely re-fought the war, with the result that although the Democratic Party gained at least 43 percent of the statewide vote via Southern and German Catholic support in every election up to 1900, they never gained an absolute majority and carried the state's electoral votes only in 1892.[5]

Due to the Democratic Party's growing Populist and prohibitionist leanings, a decline in Democratic support after 1900 in its German Central Illinois strongholds transformed Illinois into a powerfully Republican state at all levels.[6] Even Woodrow Wilson in 1912 when the GOP was mortally divided carried the state by only a very narrow margin, and in 1920 hostility to the League of Nations and the perceived anti-German bias of both outgoing President Wilson and new Democratic nominee and former Ohio Governor James Cox – the latter of whom had banned German-language instruction in Ohio schools[7] – meant Harding carried Illinois by over 42 percentage points and the state was his sixth strongest in a national landslide. German Catholic Clinton County, and twelve southern-settled counties in the Illinois River valley and southward, went Republican for the first time.[8]

Turnout

The total vote in the state-run primary elections (Democratic and Republican) was 1,101,583.[1]

The total vote in the general election was 2,470,067.[1]

Primaries

Both major parties held non-binding state-run preferential primaries on April 8.[1]

Democratic

1924 Illinois Democratic presidential primary

← 1920 April 8, 1924 (1924-04-08) 1928 →
 
William Gibbs McAdoo, formal photo portrait, 1914 (1).jpg
Candidate William Gibbs McAdoo
Home state California
Popular vote 180,544
Percentage 98.93%

The 1924 Illinois Democratic presidential primary was held on April 8, 1924 in the U.S. state of Illinois as one of the Democratic Party's state primaries ahead of the 1924 presidential election.

The preference vote was a non-binding "beauty contest". Delegates were instead elected by direct votes by congressional district on delegate candidates.[1] Delegate candidates either were listed on the ballot with their preference on for a particular presidential candidate, or were listed as expressing no preference.[1]

The preference vote was near unanimously won by the only name on the ballot, former United States Secretary of the Treasury William Gibbs McAdoo.[1]

1924 Illinois Democratic presidential primary[1]
Candidate Votes %
William Gibbs McAdoo 180,544 98.93
William E. Dever (write-in) 1,574 0.86
Al Smith (write-in) 235 0.13
James Reed (write-in) 84 0.05
Scattering 66 0.04
Total 182,503 100

Republican

1924 Illinois Republican presidential primary

← 1920 April 8, 1924 (1924-04-08) 1928 →
 
John Calvin Coolidge, Bain bw photo portrait (1).jpg
Hiram Johnson 2 (1).jpg
Candidate Calvin Coolidge Hiram Johnson
Home state Massachusetts California
Popular vote 533,193 385,590
Percentage 58.01% 41.95%

The 1924 Illinois Republican presidential primary was held on April 8, 1924 in the U.S. state of Illinois as one of the Republican Party's state primaries ahead of the 1924 presidential election.

The preference vote was a "beauty contest". Delegates were instead selected by direct-vote in each congressional districts on delegate candidates.[1] Delegate candidates either were listed on the ballot with their preference on for a particular presidential candidate, or were listed as expressing no preference.[1]

1924 Illinois Republican presidential primary[1]
Candidate Votes %
Calvin Coolidge (incumbent) 533,193 58.01
Hiram W. Johnson 385,590 41.95
Robert La Follette (write-in) 278 0.03
Scattering 21 0.00
Total 919,082 100

General election

During the Republican National Convention, Illinosian Charles G. Dawes easily won the Vice-Presidential nomination ahead of fellow state resident Frank Lowden.[9]

The first campaign in Illinois was not by Coolidge or Davis, but by radical third-party nominee, veteran Wisconsin Senator Robert M. La Follette, who on July 4 confirmed his previous plan to run a third-party campaign when nominated by the “Conference for Progressive Political Action”.[10] La Follette on Labor Day, August 22, said he hoped to carry Illinois because he believed gubernatorial candidate Len Small would not aid the Coolidge ticket.[11] Democratic nominee John W. Davis, a conservative Southern Democrat from West Virginia, spent four days in Chicago conferring with party leaders from half-a-dozen other states,[12] but did not campaign downstate. Coolidge was urged to campaign in the state[13] after suspicions La Follette would be a severe threat in Chicago and other German-American communities.[14] Coolidge did not respond, and Dawes was viciously criticised by La Follette's running mate, Montana Senator Burton K. Wheeler, for being associated with the Central Trust Company and Lorimer Street State Savings Bank.[15]

At the beginning of the campaign it was considered possible that Davis could carry Illinois if there was a strong enough vote for La Follette.[16] However, as early as mid-August it was thought that the Coolidge-Dawes ticket was certain of carrying Illinois,[17] and in mid-September it seemed likely Coolidge was a clear first with La Follette running ahead of Davis,[18] a result that would be repeated in a survey during the second week of October.[19]

After polls in mid-October suggested a trend toward him, Davis intended to campaign downstate, but never did so. As election day neared, it became clearer that Coolidge would carry Illinois, although at the beginning of the fourth week of October it was thought he would win by only half Harding's 1920 margin, even with La Follette abandoning his campaigns in the Corn Belt.[20] Polls on October 29 further confirmed Illinois as in Coolidge's hands,[21]

Ultimately Coolidge won by substantially more than the mid-October predictions, although by less than Harding had in 1920. Davis did regain seven of the thirteen counties that defected to the GOP for the first time in 1920, but still did worse than any other major party nominee in Illinois presidential election history except William Howard Taft in 1912.[5] La Follette ran third below Davis, running far below his performance in his adjacent home state of Wisconsin and other states to the northwest, but nonetheless performed extremely well for a third party in German Catholic precincts and in industrial areas of the Upper Mississippi Valley adjacent to Iowa. The Wisconsin Senator did carry one county – German Catholic Clinton – which was the nation's southeasternmost county to vote for La Follette.

Coolidge maintained the dominance that Warren Harding had enjoyed in 1920, despite losing substantial German Catholic and Mississippi Valley industrial support to La Folette.[22]

Results

Presidential Candidate Running Mate Party Electoral Vote (EV) Popular Vote (PV)[1]
Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts (incumbent) Charles G. Dawes Republican 29 1,453,321 58.84%
John W. Davis Charles W. Bryan Democratic 0 576,975 23.36%
Robert M. La Follette Burton K. Wheeler Progressive 0 432,027 17.49%
William Z. Foster Benjamin Gitlow Workers’ Party America 0 2,622 0.11%
Herman P. Faris Marie C. Brehm Prohibition 0 2,367 0.10%
Frank T. Johns Verne L. Reynolds Socialist Labor 0 2,334 0.09%
William Wallace John C. Lincoln Commonwealth Land 0 421 0.02%

Results by county

County John Calvin Coolidge
Republican
John William Davis
Democratic
Robert Marion La Follette, Sr.
Progressive
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast[23]
# % # % # % # % # %
Adams 9,985 40.92% 8,628 35.35% 5,693 23.33% 98 0.40% 1,357 5.56% 24,404
Alexander 4,465 58.10% 2,639 34.34% 573 7.46% 8 0.10% 1,826 23.76% 7,685
Bond 3,644 56.88% 2,143 33.45% 585 9.13% 35 0.55% 1,501 23.43% 6,407
Boone 4,872 75.37% 348 5.38% 1,235 19.11% 9 0.14% 3,637[a] 56.27% 6,464
Brown 1,637 41.49% 2,149 54.46% 139 3.52% 21 0.53% -512 -12.98% 3,946
Bureau 9,457 60.38% 1,995 12.74% 4,169 26.62% 42 0.27% 5,288[a] 33.76% 15,663
Calhoun 1,136 48.12% 1,115 47.23% 100 4.24% 10 0.42% 21 0.89% 2,361
Carroll 4,559 60.93% 603 8.06% 2,301 30.75% 19 0.25% 2,258[a] 30.18% 7,482
Cass 3,139 41.23% 2,909 38.21% 1,547 20.32% 18 0.24% 230 3.02% 7,613
Champaign 14,244 62.81% 5,221 23.02% 3,149 13.89% 63 0.28% 9,023 39.79% 22,677
Christian 7,398 46.08% 5,826 36.29% 2,741 17.07% 91 0.57% 1,572 9.79% 16,056
Clark 4,731 51.55% 4,203 45.79% 211 2.30% 33 0.36% 528 5.75% 9,178
Clay 3,432 49.60% 2,987 43.17% 479 6.92% 21 0.30% 445 6.43% 6,919
Clinton 2,358 29.69% 1,693 21.32% 3,876 48.80% 15 0.19% -1,518[a] -19.11% 7,942
Coles 8,342 54.90% 5,544 36.49% 1,275 8.39% 33 0.22% 2,798 18.42% 15,194
Cook 688,973 61.87% 226,141 20.31% 196,149 17.61% 2,389 0.21% 462,832 41.56% 1,113,652
Crawford 4,830 51.25% 4,223 44.81% 364 3.86% 8 0.08% 607 6.44% 9,425
Cumberland 2,698 51.09% 2,384 45.14% 190 3.60% 9 0.17% 314 5.95% 5,281
De Witt 5,173 58.77% 2,752 31.27% 846 9.61% 31 0.35% 2,421 27.51% 8,802
DeKalb 10,500 76.40% 1,540 11.20% 1,654 12.03% 50 0.36% 8,846[a] 64.36% 13,744
Douglas 4,046 55.65% 2,315 31.84% 874 12.02% 35 0.48% 1,731 23.81% 7,270
DuPage 16,917 72.81% 1,893 8.15% 4,378 18.84% 45 0.19% 12,539[a] 53.97% 23,233
Edgar 6,297 52.31% 5,222 43.38% 500 4.15% 18 0.15% 1,075 8.93% 12,037
Edwards 2,750 69.59% 1,047 26.49% 140 3.54% 15 0.38% 1,703 43.09% 3,952
Effingham 3,159 39.18% 3,814 47.30% 1,070 13.27% 20 0.25% -655 -8.12% 8,063
Fayette 5,010 48.43% 4,668 45.13% 627 6.06% 39 0.38% 342 3.31% 10,344
Ford 4,672 70.53% 1,093 16.50% 849 12.82% 10 0.15% 3,579 54.03% 6,624
Franklin 6,779 39.59% 5,791 33.82% 4,304 25.14% 247 1.44% 988 5.77% 17,121
Fulton 8,664 48.35% 5,011 27.96% 4,150 23.16% 96 0.54% 3,653 20.38% 17,921
Gallatin 1,792 39.16% 2,385 52.12% 368 8.04% 31 0.68% -593 -12.96% 4,576
Greene 3,527 39.73% 4,648 52.35% 687 7.74% 16 0.18% -1,121 -12.63% 8,878
Grundy 4,337 63.97% 742 10.94% 1,681 24.79% 20 0.29% 2,656[a] 39.17% 6,780
Hamilton 2,659 44.02% 3,168 52.44% 200 3.31% 14 0.23% -509 -8.43% 6,041
Hancock 6,678 51.83% 5,189 40.27% 963 7.47% 55 0.43% 1,489 11.56% 12,885
Hardin 1,378 49.06% 1,358 48.34% 70 2.49% 3 0.11% 20 0.71% 2,809
Henderson 2,879 72.87% 803 20.32% 257 6.50% 12 0.30% 2,076 52.54% 3,951
Henry 13,159 72.39% 1,944 10.69% 3,027 16.65% 49 0.27% 10,132[a] 55.73% 18,179
Iroquois 7,498 64.07% 2,303 19.68% 1,873 16.01% 28 0.24% 5,195 44.39% 11,702
Jackson 6,424 49.30% 4,707 36.12% 1,845 14.16% 54 0.41% 1,717 13.18% 13,030
Jasper 3,030 47.37% 3,144 49.15% 201 3.14% 22 0.34% -114 -1.78% 6,397
Jefferson 5,406 44.57% 6,258 51.59% 436 3.59% 30 0.25% -852 -7.02% 12,130
Jersey 2,460 44.44% 2,723 49.19% 335 6.05% 18 0.33% -263 -4.75% 5,536
Jo Daviess 4,864 50.36% 1,477 15.29% 3,279 33.95% 39 0.40% 1,585[a] 16.41% 9,659
Johnson 2,468 60.59% 1,408 34.57% 188 4.62% 9 0.22% 1,060 26.03% 4,073
Kane 32,717 76.34% 3,517 8.21% 6,517 15.21% 107 0.25% 26,200[a] 61.13% 42,858
Kankakee 12,462 67.47% 2,488 13.47% 3,438 18.61% 83 0.45% 9,024[a] 48.85% 18,471
Kendall 3,513 79.68% 432 9.80% 455 10.32% 9 0.20% 3,058[a] 69.36% 4,409
Knox 12,968 65.89% 2,617 13.30% 4,044 20.55% 51 0.26% 8,924[a] 45.35% 19,680
Lake 18,229 75.48% 2,008 8.31% 3,671 15.20% 242 1.00% 14,558[a] 60.28% 24,150
LaSalle 21,417 60.47% 6,216 17.55% 7,686 21.70% 98 0.28% 13,731[a] 38.77% 35,417
Lawrence 4,607 51.50% 4,103 45.87% 167 1.87% 68 0.76% 504 5.63% 8,945
Lee 8,363 69.36% 2,367 19.63% 1,289 10.69% 38 0.32% 5,996 49.73% 12,057
Livingston 9,695 64.53% 2,911 19.37% 2,387 15.89% 32 0.21% 6,784 45.15% 15,025
Logan 7,063 57.16% 3,708 30.01% 1,537 12.44% 48 0.39% 3,355 27.15% 12,356
Macon 16,458 60.22% 6,670 24.40% 4,120 15.07% 83 0.30% 9,788 35.81% 27,331
Macoupin 8,571 39.24% 6,134 28.08% 6,959 31.86% 177 0.81% 1,612[a] 7.38% 21,841
Madison 19,926 47.61% 12,863 30.74% 8,965 21.42% 97 0.23% 7,063 16.88% 41,851
Marion 5,889 44.01% 4,768 35.63% 2,671 19.96% 53 0.40% 1,121 8.38% 13,381
Marshall 3,776 58.41% 1,836 28.40% 823 12.73% 30 0.46% 1,940 30.01% 6,465
Mason 3,522 52.72% 2,536 37.96% 604 9.04% 18 0.27% 986 14.76% 6,680
Massac 3,227 71.44% 920 20.37% 350 7.75% 20 0.44% 2,307 51.07% 4,517
McDonough 7,505 60.99% 4,016 32.63% 746 6.06% 39 0.32% 3,489 28.35% 12,306
McHenry 8,751 67.24% 1,372 10.54% 2,864 22.01% 28 0.22% 5,887[a] 45.23% 13,015
McLean 16,550 55.95% 6,826 23.07% 6,132 20.73% 74 0.25% 9,724 32.87% 29,582
Menard 2,931 56.18% 1,954 37.45% 319 6.11% 13 0.25% 977 18.73% 5,217
Mercer 5,618 68.30% 1,699 20.66% 890 10.82% 18 0.22% 3,919 47.65% 8,225
Monroe 2,390 48.35% 1,369 27.70% 1,173 23.73% 11 0.22% 1,021 20.66% 4,943
Montgomery 8,022 47.26% 5,622 33.12% 3,225 19.00% 106 0.62% 2,400 14.14% 16,975
Morgan 8,223 55.40% 5,721 38.54% 877 5.91% 23 0.15% 2,502 16.86% 14,844
Moultrie 3,001 53.10% 2,403 42.52% 225 3.98% 23 0.41% 598 10.58% 5,652
Ogle 8,449 71.61% 1,591 13.48% 1,727 14.64% 32 0.27% 6,722[a] 56.97% 11,799
Peoria 25,243 58.55% 6,343 14.71% 11,306 26.22% 220 0.51% 13,937[a] 32.33% 43,112
Perry 3,693 39.76% 3,007 32.37% 2,536 27.30% 53 0.57% 686 7.39% 9,289
Piatt 3,799 64.31% 1,733 29.34% 354 5.99% 21 0.36% 2,066 34.98% 5,907
Pike 4,989 45.59% 5,424 49.57% 481 4.40% 49 0.45% -435 -3.98% 10,943
Pope 2,161 66.51% 978 30.10% 106 3.26% 4 0.12% 1,183 36.41% 3,249
Pulaski 3,355 61.57% 1,700 31.20% 390 7.16% 4 0.07% 1,655 30.37% 5,449
Putnam 1,364 61.50% 260 11.72% 586 26.42% 8 0.36% 778[a] 35.08% 2,218
Randolph 4,527 41.61% 3,734 34.32% 2,591 23.81% 28 0.26% 793 7.29% 10,880
Richland 3,082 50.07% 2,749 44.66% 295 4.79% 29 0.47% 333 5.41% 6,155
Rock Island 20,563 57.69% 3,631 10.19% 11,320 31.76% 133 0.37% 9,243[a] 25.93% 35,647
Saline 6,084 47.03% 4,037 31.21% 2,743 21.20% 73 0.56% 2,047 15.82% 12,937
Sangamon 23,443 51.58% 12,640 27.81% 9,054 19.92% 309 0.68% 10,803 23.77% 45,446
Schuyler 2,729 46.21% 2,860 48.43% 298 5.05% 19 0.32% -131 -2.22% 5,906
Scott 2,227 50.49% 1,994 45.21% 180 4.08% 10 0.23% 233 5.28% 4,411
Shelby 5,605 48.13% 5,265 45.21% 717 6.16% 59 0.51% 340 2.92% 11,646
St. Clair 23,380 45.85% 14,921 29.26% 12,468 24.45% 225 0.44% 8,459 16.59% 50,994
Stark 2,698 71.07% 784 20.65% 310 8.17% 4 0.11% 1,914 50.42% 3,796
Stephenson 8,638 53.27% 2,452 15.12% 5,088 31.38% 38 0.23% 3,550[a] 21.89% 16,216
Tazewell 7,488 52.11% 3,375 23.49% 3,470 24.15% 37 0.26% 4,018[a] 27.96% 14,370
Union 2,579 39.16% 3,783 57.44% 216 3.28% 8 0.12% -1,204 -18.28% 6,586
Vermilion 17,822 54.64% 6,424 19.70% 8,073 24.75% 296 0.91% 9,749[a] 29.89% 32,615
Wabash 2,564 45.61% 2,442 43.44% 589 10.48% 26 0.46% 122 2.17% 5,621
Warren 6,912 65.07% 2,440 22.97% 1,225 11.53% 46 0.43% 4,472 42.10% 10,623
Washington 3,444 56.43% 1,717 28.13% 917 15.03% 25 0.41% 1,727 28.30% 6,103
Wayne 4,937 52.70% 4,247 45.34% 164 1.75% 20 0.21% 690 7.37% 9,368
White 3,780 44.71% 4,377 51.77% 278 3.29% 19 0.22% -597 -7.06% 8,454
Whiteside 11,532 74.04% 1,957 12.56% 2,057 13.21% 30 0.19% 9,475[a] 60.83% 15,576
Will 22,780 64.16% 4,707 13.26% 7,902 22.26% 116 0.33% 14,878[a] 41.90% 35,505
Williamson 9,366 45.27% 6,117 29.57% 5,114 24.72% 92 0.44% 3,249 15.70% 20,689
Winnebago 21,978 71.32% 2,228 7.23% 6,434 20.88% 174 0.56% 15,544[a] 50.44% 30,814
Woodford 4,290 57.48% 1,828 24.49% 1,326 17.77% 20 0.27% 2,462 32.98% 7,464
Totals 1,453,321 58.84% 576,975 23.36% 432,027 17.49% 7,744 0.31% 876,346 35.48% 2,470,067

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa In this county where La Follette ran second ahead of Davis, margin given is Coolidge vote minus La Follette vote and percentage margin Coolidge percentage minus La Follette percentage.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "OFFICIAL VOTE OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS CAST AT THE GENERAL ELECTION, November 4, 1924 JUDICIAL ELECTIONS, 1923-1924 SPECIAL ELECTIONS 1923-1924 PRIMARY ELECTION GENERAL PRIMARY, April 8, 1924 PRESIDENTIAL PREFERENCE, APRIL 8, 1924" (PDF). Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  2. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 341-344 ISBN 978-0-691-16324-6
  3. ^ Wells, Damon; Stephen Douglas: The Last Years, 1857–1861, p. 285 ISBN 0292776357
  4. ^ Copeland, James E.; ‘Where Were the Kentucky Unionists and Secessionists’; The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, volume 71, no. 4 (October, 1973), pp. 344-363
  5. ^ a b "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Illinois". Dave Leip’s U.S. Election Atlas.
  6. ^ Schattschneider, Elmer Eric; The Semisovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America, pp. 76-84 ISBN 0030133661
  7. ^ Hough, Jerry F.; Changing Party Coalitions: The Mystery of the Red State-Blue State Alignment, pp. 86-87 ISBN 0875864090
  8. ^ Menendez, Albert J.; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868-2004, p. 52 ISBN 0786422173
  9. ^ ‘Dawes Wins on 3rd Ballot: Gets 682 1/2 to 234 1/2 for Hoover on Opening of Night Session’; New York Times, June 13, 1924, p. 1
  10. ^ Richardson, Danny G.; Others: “Fighting Bob” La Follette and the Progressive Movement: Third-Party Politics in the 1920s, p. 180 ISBN 0595481264
  11. ^ ‘La Follette Opens Drive on Labor Day: Campaign Will Start With a Radio Speech From Washington. Hope to Carry Illinois: Leaders Say Small Won’t Support Coolidge – To Talk Finances Today’; New York Times, August 23, 1924, p. 1
  12. ^ ‘Davis Optimistic as He Departs on Tour in the West: Situation in Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa Better Than Figured’; The Washington Post, September 6, 1924, p. 2
  13. ^ Price, Harry N.; ‘Middle West Trips Urged on Coolidge by Close Adversers: Sentiment for La Follette Is Growing There’; The Washington Post, September 13, 1924, p. 4
  14. ^ Bohn, Frank; ‘Forecast of Election in All the States: Political Analyst Asserts That La Follette Vote Will Be Decisive Factor in Large Cities of North and West – Predicts Victory for Davis’; New York Times, September 14, 1924, p. XX4
  15. ^ ‘Wheeler Assails Dawes in Chicago: Goes Into Rival's Connection With Lorimer and Bank That Failed’; New York Times, September 21, 1924, p. 3
  16. ^ ‘Electoral Arthmetic’, New York Times, July 13, 1924, p. E2
  17. ^ ‘Republicans Admit Their “Sure” States Fail of Majority: Those Now Counted as Certain for Coolidge Have Only 206 Electoral Votes’; New York Times, August 11, 1924, p. 1
  18. ^ ‘Coolidge Is Leading in a Test Ballot: First 25,000 in Literary Digest Poll Puts Davis Third. La Follette Now Second; But It Is Explained the Returns Thus Far Are Too Scattered to Be Typical’; New York Times, September 19, 1924, p. 3
  19. ^ ‘Davis Percentage Increases in Poll: But Coolidge Still Leads With 808,340 Out of Total of 1,451,591 Votes. La Follette Is Second: Democratic Candidate Has 10 States Thus Far, Coolidge 31 and La Follette Only 1’; New York Times, October 10, 1924, p. 3
  20. ^ ‘Illinois Is Likely to Go to Coolidge: Davis Seems to Have Greater Hold on Farmers Than La Follette’; New York Times, October 22, 1924, p. 2
  21. ^ Lawrence, David; ‘Decisive Victory for Coolidge Predicted: David Lawrence Tells What He Learned in Journey Through All Northern and Western States’; Boston Daily Globe; October 31, 1924, p. 1A
  22. ^ Menendez; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, p. 59
  23. ^ Illinois State Board of Elections; Official Vote of the State of Illinois Cast at the General Election November 4, 1924 (highest elector for each slate)
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