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1920 United States presidential election in Illinois

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1920 United States presidential election in Illinois

← 1916 November 2, 1920 1924 →

All 29 Illinois votes to the Electoral College
 
Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing-crop.jpg
James M. Cox 1920.jpg
Nominee Warren G. Harding James M. Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Ohio Ohio
Running mate Calvin Coolidge Franklin D. Roosevelt
Electoral vote 29 0
Popular vote 1,420,480 534,395
Percentage 67.81% 25.51%

Illinois Presidential Election Results 1920.svg
County Results

President before election

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Elected President

Warren G. Harding
Republican

The 1920 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 2, 1920, as part of the 1920 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose twenty-nine representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Election information

The general election coincided with the general election for other federal offices (Senate and House), as well as those for state offices.[1]

Background

A strongly Democratic state during the Second Party System, Illinois became Republican-leaning after the Civil War due to a combination of strong Free Soil Party heritage amongst its Yankee northern counties with the wartime conversion of some Virginian-settled rock-ribbed Democratic Southern Illinois counties[2] to Unionist Republicanism[3] à la Appalachia.[4] Between the Civil War and World War I, partisanship in Illinois – like in the Border States – largely re-fought the war, with the result that although the Democratic Party gained at least 43 percent of the statewide vote via Southern and German Catholic support in every election up to 1900, they never gained an absolute majority and carried the state's electoral votes only in 1892.[5]

Due to the Democratic Party's growing Populist and prohibitionist leanings, a decline in Democratic support after 1900 in its German Central Illinois strongholds transformed Illinois into a powerfully Republican state at all levels.[6] Even Woodrow Wilson in 1912 when the GOP was mortally divided carried the state by only a very narrow margin.

Turnout

The total vote in the state-run primary elections (Democratic, Republican, Socialist) was 408,586.[1]

The total vote in the general election was 2,094,714.[1]

Primaries

Both major parties, as well as the Socialist Party, held non-binding state-run preferential primaries on April 13.[1]

Democratic

1920 Illinois Democratic presidential primary

← 1916 April 13, 1920 (1920-04-13) 1924 →
 
Edward Irving Edwards (1).jpg
William Gibbs McAdoo, formal photo portrait, 1914 (1).jpg
Wm. Jennings Bryan LCCN2016851700 (1).jpg
Candidate Edward I. Edwards William G. McAdoo William Jennings Bryan
Home state New Jersey California Nebraska
Popular vote 180,544 3,401 1,879
Percentage 98.93% 18.37% 10.15%

The 1920 Illinois Democratic presidential primary was held on April 13, 1920 in the U.S. state of Illinois as one of the Democratic Party's state primaries ahead of the 1920 presidential election.

The popular vote was a non-binding "beauty contest". Delegates were instead elected by direct votes by congressional district on delegate candidates.[1] Delegate candidates either were listed on the ballot with their preference on for a particular presidential candidate, or were listed as expressing no preference.[1]

1920 Illinois Democratic presidential primary[1]
Candidate Votes %
Edward I. Edwards (write-in) 6,117 33.04
William G. McAdoo (write-in) 3,401 18.37
William J. Bryan (write-in) 1,879 10.15
Woodrow Wilson (incumbent) (write-in) 879 4.75
Champ Clark (write-in) 536 2.90
James M. Cox (write-in) 259 1.40
James Hamilton Lewis (write-in) 38 0.21
Scattering 5,405 29.19
Total votes 18,514 100

Republican

1920 Illinois Republican presidential primary

← 1916 April 13, 1920 (1920-04-13) 1924 →
 
Frank O Lowden portrait (1).jpg
Leonard Wood 1903 (1).jpg
Hiram Johnson 2 (1).jpg
Candidate Frank Orren Lowden Leonard Wood Hiram Johnson
Home state Illinois New Hampshire California
Popular vote 197,073 132,522 56,242
Percentage 50.54% 33.98% 14.42

The 1920 Illinois Republican presidential primary was held on April 13, 1920 in the U.S. state of Illinois as one of the Republican Party's state primaries ahead of the 1920 presidential election.

The preference vote was a "beauty contest". Delegates were instead selected by direct-vote in each congressional districts on delegate candidates.[1] Delegate candidates either were listed on the ballot with their preference on for a particular presidential candidate, or were listed as expressing no preference.[1]

1920 Illinois Republican presidential primary[1]
Candidate Votes %
Frank O. Lowden 197,073 50.54
Leonard Wood 132,522 33.98
Hiram W. Johnson (write-in) 56,242 14.42
Herbert Hoover (write-in) 2,274 0.58
William Hale Thompson (write-in) 686 0.18
Scattering 1,169 0.30
Total votes 389,966 100

Socialist

1920 Illinois Socialist presidential primary

← 1916 April 13, 1920 (1920-04-13)
 
EugeneVictorDebs (1).jpg
Candidate Eugene V. Debs
Home state Indiana
Popular vote 102
Percentage 96.23%

The 1920 Illinois Socialist presidential primary was held on April 13, 1920 in the U.S. state of Illinois as one of the Socialist Party's state primaries ahead of the 1920 presidential election.

1920 Illinois Socialist presidential primary[1]
Candidate Votes %
Eugene V. Debs 102 96.23
Scattering 4 3.77
Total votes 106 100

General election

Harding's managers were always confident he would carry the Prairie State as all but three GOP nominees had since that party was formed.[7] However, actual polls in Illinois vacillated, with a straw ballot in The Farm Journal even placing Cox at 45 percent in this strong Republican state.[8] As election day neared, estimates of a Republican plurality of “at least 264,000” were made via a national survey of newspaper editors.[9]

As it turned out, the editorial estimate was shown extremely conservative by the very earliest reports on polling day, which showed Harding winning by three-to-one.[10] Ultimately, Harding did not finish with so large a margin as this, but nonetheless he carried Illinois by 42.30 percentage points. This constitutes the biggest margin by which Illinois has been carried in the state's presidential election history, the best performance by any Republican candidate,[5] and the third-best vote percentage overall behind Andrew Jackson’s two efforts in 1828 and 1832. Harding carried all but three counties, and was the first-ever Republican victor in the following counties: Calhoun, Cass, Clinton, Effingham, Gallatin, Hamilton, Jasper, Jersey, Mason, Pike, Schuyler, Wabash and White.[11]

Despite Illinois’ position within the core of reliable Republican states in the “System of 1896”, at the beginning of the 1920 presidential campaign former Progressive Illinois Republican Harold L. Ickes came out against Republican nominee Warren Harding and supported the Democratic nominee, Ohio Governor James Cox.[12] Cox would visit the state on two occasions during his national fall campaign tour, once in September[13] and once in October.[14] In the first campaign, Cox claimed that Harding wanted to fund his campaign by imposing an onerous levy upon the coal dealers of Chicago, and said the Democrats were making every effort to win the state,[13] despite it having been Charles Evans Hughes’ fifth-strongest nationwide in 1916.[15] In the second, Cox criticised Harding’s stand on the League of Nations,[14] and argued that it would benefit American business and spiritual morals to enter therein.

At the end of the third week of October, another Illinois Republican leader in Morton D. Hull followed Ickes in deserting Harding and endorsing Cox, this time exclusively over the issue of the League of Nations.[16]

Results

Presidential Candidate Running Mate Party Electoral Vote (EV) Popular Vote (PV)[1]
Warren G. Harding of Ohio Calvin Coolidge Republican 29 1,420,480 67.81%
James M. Cox Franklin D. Roosevelt Democratic 0 534,395 25.51%
Eugene V. Debs Seymour Stedman Socialist 0 74,747 3.57%
Parley P. Christensen Max S. Hayes Farmer-Labor 0 49,630 2.37%
Aaron S. Watkins Leigh Colvin Prohibition 0 11,216 0.54%
William Wesley Cox August Gillhaus Socialist Labor 0 3,471 0.17%
Robert Macauley Richard Barnum Single Tax 0 775 0.04%

Results by county

County Warren Gamaliel Harding
Republican
James Middleton Cox
Democratic
Eugene Victor Debs
Socialist
Parley Parker Christensen
Farmer-Labor
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast[17]
# % # % # % # % # % # %
Adams 12,852 57.07% 7,222 32.07% 373 1.66% 1,877 8.33% 197 0.87% 5,630 25.00% 22,521
Alexander 5,287 61.92% 3,167 37.09% 58 0.68% 5 0.06% 22 0.26% 2,120 24.83% 8,539
Bond 3,662 64.67% 1,533 27.07% 45 0.79% 191 3.37% 232 4.10% 2,129 37.59% 5,663
Boone 5,386 89.39% 496 8.23% 104 1.73% 10 0.17% 29 0.48% 4,890 81.16% 6,025
Brown 1,590 45.08% 1,866 52.91% 7 0.20% 5 0.14% 59 1.67% -276 -7.83% 3,527
Bureau 9,968 74.94% 2,354 17.70% 607 4.56% 186 1.40% 187 1.41% 7,614 57.24% 13,302
Calhoun 1,367 64.82% 703 33.33% 14 0.66% 4 0.19% 21 1.00% 664 31.48% 2,109
Carroll 5,194 86.65% 606 10.11% 87 1.45% 65 1.08% 42 0.70% 4,588 76.54% 5,994
Cass 3,956 54.06% 2,861 39.10% 53 0.72% 374 5.11% 74 1.01% 1,095 14.96% 7,318
Champaign 15,573 71.83% 5,247 24.20% 159 0.73% 409 1.89% 293 1.35% 10,326 47.63% 21,681
Christian 7,535 52.75% 5,398 37.79% 347 2.43% 741 5.19% 264 1.85% 2,137 14.96% 14,285
Clark 5,312 55.35% 4,181 43.57% 33 0.34% 7 0.07% 64 0.67% 1,131 11.78% 9,597
Clay 3,683 59.90% 2,358 38.35% 75 1.22% 9 0.15% 24 0.39% 1,325 21.55% 6,149
Clinton 4,564 63.71% 1,661 23.19% 241 3.36% 630 8.79% 68 0.95% 2,903 40.52% 7,164
Coles 8,563 58.76% 5,811 39.87% 86 0.59% 9 0.06% 105 0.72% 2,752 18.88% 14,574
Cook 635,197 71.12% 197,499 22.11% 52,475 5.88% 4,966 0.56% 3,000 0.34% 437,698 49.01% 893,137
Crawford 5,188 55.02% 4,092 43.39% 52 0.55% 2 0.02% 96 1.02% 1,096 11.62% 9,430
Cumberland 3,095 58.18% 2,162 40.64% 11 0.21% 3 0.06% 49 0.92% 933 17.54% 5,320
DeKalb 10,374 83.93% 1,700 13.75% 163 1.32% 43 0.35% 81 0.66% 8,674 70.17% 12,361
DeWitt 5,001 60.68% 3,079 37.36% 52 0.63% 39 0.47% 71 0.86% 1,922 23.32% 8,242
Douglas 4,885 65.21% 2,308 30.81% 51 0.68% 148 1.98% 99 1.32% 2,577 34.40% 7,491
DuPage 12,280 82.00% 2,084 13.92% 349 2.33% 121 0.81% 142 0.95% 10,196 68.08% 14,976
Edgar 6,750 53.29% 5,694 44.95% 136 1.07% 6 0.05% 81 0.64% 1,056 8.34% 12,667
Edwards 3,002 79.21% 742 19.58% 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 46 1.21% 2,260 59.63% 3,790
Effingham 4,176 57.47% 2,985 41.08% 43 0.59% 16 0.22% 47 0.65% 1,191 16.39% 7,267
Fayette 5,758 58.48% 3,824 38.84% 108 1.10% 45 0.46% 111 1.13% 1,934 19.64% 9,846
Ford 4,995 82.40% 958 15.80% 22 0.36% 30 0.49% 57 0.94% 4,037 66.60% 6,062
Franklin 7,608 51.11% 4,894 32.88% 584 3.92% 1,630 10.95% 170 1.14% 2,714 18.23% 14,886
Fulton 9,523 59.25% 5,293 32.93% 743 4.62% 248 1.54% 265 1.65% 4,230 26.32% 16,072
Gallatin 2,184 49.94% 2,000 45.74% 37 0.85% 116 2.65% 36 0.82% 184 4.21% 4,373
Greene 3,685 47.96% 3,776 49.15% 63 0.82% 110 1.43% 49 0.64% -91 -1.18% 7,683
Grundy 4,647 80.05% 803 13.83% 82 1.41% 225 3.88% 48 0.83% 3,844 66.22% 5,805
Hamilton 3,220 54.71% 2,591 44.02% 27 0.46% 24 0.41% 24 0.41% 629 10.69% 5,886
Hancock 7,379 57.75% 5,125 40.11% 64 0.50% 32 0.25% 178 1.39% 2,254 17.64% 12,778
Hardin 1,555 61.54% 943 37.32% 8 0.32% 10 0.40% 11 0.44% 612 24.22% 2,527
Henderson 2,747 76.65% 740 20.65% 23 0.64% 14 0.39% 60 1.67% 2,007 56.00% 3,584
Henry 12,379 78.96% 2,530 16.14% 436 2.78% 129 0.82% 203 1.29% 9,849 62.82% 15,677
Iroquois 9,186 77.79% 2,429 20.57% 35 0.30% 20 0.17% 139 1.18% 6,757 57.22% 11,809
Jackson 8,003 59.96% 4,575 34.28% 75 0.56% 590 4.42% 104 0.78% 3,428 25.68% 13,347
Jasper 3,279 51.63% 2,971 46.78% 41 0.65% 6 0.09% 54 0.85% 308 4.85% 6,351
Jefferson 5,711 53.57% 4,772 44.77% 64 0.60% 30 0.28% 83 0.78% 939 8.81% 10,660
Jersey 2,873 57.90% 1,999 40.29% 23 0.46% 20 0.40% 47 0.95% 874 17.61% 4,962
Jo Daviess 6,098 76.25% 1,604 20.06% 203 2.54% 28 0.35% 64 0.80% 4,494 56.20% 7,997
Johnson 2,972 70.91% 1,137 27.13% 38 0.91% 28 0.67% 16 0.38% 1,835 43.78% 4,191
Kane 26,832 82.82% 4,323 13.34% 756 2.33% 278 0.86% 209 0.65% 22,509 69.48% 32,398
Kankakee 12,853 79.33% 2,828 17.46% 82 0.51% 353 2.18% 85 0.52% 10,025 61.88% 16,201
Kendall 3,459 87.99% 439 11.17% 8 0.20% 3 0.08% 22 0.56% 3,020 76.83% 3,931
Knox 12,559 73.85% 2,852 16.77% 233 1.37% 1,184 6.96% 177 1.04% 9,707 57.08% 17,005
Lake 15,712 82.28% 2,321 12.15% 787 4.12% 159 0.83% 117 0.61% 13,391 70.12% 19,096
LaSalle 23,751 73.23% 6,626 20.43% 927 2.86% 943 2.91% 187 0.58% 17,125 52.80% 32,434
Lawrence 4,720 54.17% 3,707 42.54% 100 1.15% 7 0.08% 180 2.07% 1,013 11.62% 8,714
Lee 7,615 78.94% 1,715 17.78% 173 1.79% 38 0.39% 105 1.09% 5,900 61.17% 9,646
Livingston 10,382 74.83% 3,101 22.35% 74 0.53% 195 1.41% 122 0.88% 7,281 52.48% 13,874
Logan 6,957 64.79% 3,232 30.10% 199 1.85% 198 1.84% 152 1.42% 3,725 34.69% 10,738
Macon 16,486 65.27% 7,917 31.35% 378 1.50% 236 0.93% 240 0.95% 8,569 33.93% 25,257
Macoupin 8,700 44.68% 5,936 30.49% 1,208 6.20% 3,320 17.05% 306 1.57% 2,764 14.20% 19,470
Madison 19,249 57.82% 10,149 30.48% 1,000 3.00% 2,613 7.85% 281 0.84% 9,100 27.33% 33,292
Marion 6,620 52.06% 4,351 34.22% 157 1.23% 1,379 10.85% 208 1.64% 2,269 17.85% 12,715
Marshall 3,734 67.61% 1,568 28.39% 108 1.96% 80 1.45% 33 0.60% 2,166 39.22% 5,523
Mason 3,842 58.40% 2,595 39.44% 43 0.65% 29 0.44% 70 1.06% 1,247 18.95% 6,579
Massac 3,731 82.98% 688 15.30% 14 0.31% 29 0.65% 34 0.76% 3,043 67.68% 4,496
McDonough 7,221 63.18% 3,930 34.38% 118 1.03% 30 0.26% 131 1.15% 3,291 28.79% 11,430
McHenry 9,885 85.10% 1,536 13.22% 104 0.90% 28 0.24% 63 0.54% 8,349 71.88% 11,616
McLean 16,680 65.27% 6,411 25.09% 133 0.52% 1,904 7.45% 427 1.67% 10,269 40.18% 25,555
Menard 2,882 59.19% 1,864 38.28% 30 0.62% 24 0.49% 69 1.42% 1,018 20.91% 4,869
Mercer 5,531 74.58% 1,574 21.22% 90 1.21% 102 1.38% 119 1.60% 3,957 53.36% 7,416
Monroe 2,955 70.11% 932 22.11% 42 1.00% 271 6.43% 15 0.36% 2,023 48.00% 4,215
Montgomery 7,429 52.92% 4,756 33.88% 216 1.54% 1,365 9.72% 273 1.94% 2,673 19.04% 14,039
Morgan 8,169 62.87% 4,447 34.23% 151 1.16% 114 0.88% 112 0.86% 3,722 28.65% 12,993
Moultrie 3,279 55.76% 2,513 42.73% 24 0.41% 17 0.29% 48 0.82% 766 13.02% 5,881
Ogle 9,322 82.99% 1,720 15.31% 75 0.67% 13 0.12% 103 0.92% 7,602 67.68% 11,233
Peoria 24,541 66.00% 9,453 25.42% 712 1.91% 2,174 5.85% 302 0.81% 15,088 40.58% 37,182
Perry 4,598 58.47% 2,478 31.51% 101 1.28% 544 6.92% 143 1.82% 2,120 26.96% 7,864
Piatt 4,283 68.16% 1,903 30.28% 34 0.54% 4 0.06% 60 0.95% 2,380 37.87% 6,284
Pike 5,564 54.12% 4,279 41.62% 178 1.73% 68 0.66% 191 1.86% 1,285 12.50% 10,280
Pope 2,486 77.42% 687 21.40% 24 0.75% 8 0.25% 6 0.19% 1,799 56.03% 3,211
Pulaski 4,002 62.85% 2,276 35.74% 45 0.71% 8 0.13% 37 0.58% 1,726 27.10% 6,368
Putnam 1,623 74.04% 362 16.51% 72 3.28% 119 5.43% 16 0.73% 1,261 57.53% 2,192
Randolph 6,180 62.54% 3,181 32.19% 135 1.37% 305 3.09% 81 0.82% 2,999 30.35% 9,882
Richland 3,026 57.05% 2,174 40.99% 41 0.77% 5 0.09% 58 1.09% 852 16.06% 5,304
Rock Island 21,908 71.32% 5,208 16.95% 2,221 7.23% 1,123 3.66% 259 0.84% 16,700 54.36% 30,719
Saline 6,722 52.96% 3,500 27.58% 70 0.55% 2,321 18.29% 79 0.62% 3,222 25.39% 12,692
Sangamon 21,820 59.42% 11,000 29.95% 752 2.05% 2,691 7.33% 460 1.25% 10,820 29.46% 36,723
Schuyler 2,800 53.86% 2,258 43.43% 24 0.46% 8 0.15% 109 2.10% 542 10.43% 5,199
Scott 2,075 52.25% 1,786 44.98% 19 0.48% 44 1.11% 47 1.18% 289 7.28% 3,971
Shelby 6,351 53.93% 5,113 43.42% 68 0.58% 33 0.28% 211 1.79% 1,238 10.51% 11,776
St. Clair 21,681 51.34% 14,032 33.23% 1,326 3.14% 4,851 11.49% 341 0.81% 7,649 18.11% 42,231
Stark 2,750 79.57% 661 19.13% 13 0.38% 16 0.46% 16 0.46% 2,089 60.45% 3,456
Stephenson 9,570 74.64% 2,772 21.62% 272 2.12% 99 0.77% 108 0.84% 6,798 53.02% 12,821
Tazewell 7,679 62.69% 3,640 29.71% 229 1.87% 546 4.46% 156 1.27% 4,039 32.97% 12,250
Union 3,119 45.55% 3,660 53.45% 25 0.37% 5 0.07% 38 0.55% -541 -7.90% 6,847
Vermilion 18,175 61.74% 8,634 29.33% 389 1.32% 1,714 5.82% 527 1.79% 9,541 32.41% 29,439
Wabash 2,871 52.40% 2,514 45.88% 23 0.42% 10 0.18% 61 1.11% 357 6.52% 5,479
Warren 6,309 69.41% 2,236 24.60% 105 1.16% 280 3.08% 160 1.76% 4,073 44.81% 9,090
Washington 4,519 70.76% 1,102 17.26% 66 1.03% 654 10.24% 45 0.70% 3,417 53.51% 6,386
Wayne 4,908 60.50% 3,137 38.67% 25 0.31% 2 0.02% 41 0.51% 1,771 21.83% 8,113
White 4,494 51.23% 4,148 47.29% 89 1.01% 5 0.06% 36 0.41% 346 3.94% 8,772
Whiteside 10,923 81.74% 1,927 14.42% 125 0.94% 220 1.65% 168 1.26% 8,996 67.32% 13,363
Will 21,746 76.37% 5,410 19.00% 490 1.72% 682 2.40% 146 0.51% 16,336 57.37% 28,474
Williamson 10,118 56.73% 4,728 26.51% 296 1.66% 2,402 13.47% 290 1.63% 5,390 30.22% 17,834
Winnebago 19,913 79.23% 3,355 13.35% 1,175 4.67% 507 2.02% 184 0.73% 16,558 65.88% 25,134
Woodford 4,929 69.06% 1,977 27.70% 76 1.06% 69 0.97% 86 1.20% 2,952 41.36% 7,137
Totals 1,420,480 67.81% 534,395 25.51% 74,747 3.57% 49,630 2.37% 15,462 0.74% 886,085 42.30% 2,094,714

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "OFFICIAL VOTE OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS CAST AT THE General Election, Nov. 2, 1920 Delegates to Constitutional Convention Questions of Public Policy, Nov, 4, 1919 Judicial Elections, 1919-1920 PRIMARY ELECTIONS General Primary, Sept, 15, 1920 Delegates to the Constitutional Convention, Sept. 10, 1919 Presidential Preference April 13, 1920" (PDF). Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  2. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 341-344 ISBN 978-0-691-16324-6
  3. ^ Wells, Damon; Stephen Douglas: The Last Years, 1857–1861, p. 285 ISBN 0292776357
  4. ^ Copeland, James E.; ‘Where Were the Kentucky Unionists and Secessionists’; The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, volume 71, no. 4 (October, 1973), pp. 344-363
  5. ^ a b "Presidential General Election Results Comparison – Illinois". Dave Leip’s U.S. Election Atlas.
  6. ^ Schattschneider, Elmer Eric; The Semisovereign People: A Realist's View of Democracy in America, pp. 76-84 ISBN 0030133661
  7. ^ Price, Harry N.; ‘Harding Back Home: Speaks to First Voters Today From His Front Porch’; The Washington Post, October 18, 1920, p. 1
  8. ^ ‘Farm Vote Favors Harding: Farm Journal Poll Puts Cox Ahead, However, in Illinois and Indiana’; New York Times, October 22, 1920, p. 4
  9. ^ ‘Harding 363 Votes, Cox 168, Is Result Obtained From Estimates by 47 Editors: Maryland, Kentucky, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Montana, Utah and Arizona, With Solid South, Are Only States Conceded to Democratic Candidate in Nation-Wide Canvass’; Washington Post, October 31, 1920, p. 1
  10. ^ ‘Illinois for G.O.P. by Half a Million: Harding Gets 3 to 1 Vote Over Cox – Carries Cook County by 150,000’; Washington Post, November 3, 1920, p. 1
  11. ^ Menendez, Albert J.; The Geography of Presidential Elections in the United States, 1868-2004, pp. 180-184 ISBN 0786422173
  12. ^ ‘H.L. Ickes Deserts Harding as “Unfit”: Ex-Progressive Leader and Illinois Republican Delegate Comes Out for Cox’; New York Times, August 19, 1920, p. 11
  13. ^ a b ‘Cox Gives Leads for Fund Inquiry: Charges That the Republicans Fixed $80,000 Levy for Chicago Coal Dealers Last Summer’; New York Times, September 6, 1920, p. 1
  14. ^ a b ‘Harding Is Wabbler Cox Says in Attack: Declares Senator Presents the “Most Pitiable Spectacle” in Our Political History’; New York Times, October 13, 1920, p. 3
  15. ^ "1916 Presidential Election Statistics". Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  16. ^ ‘Hull, Illinois Leader, Repudiates Harding: Former Congressman Announces His Support of Cox on League of Nations Issue’; New York Times, October 21, 1920, p. 1
  17. ^ Illinois State Board of Elections; Official Vote of the State of Illinois Cast at the General Election November 2, 1920 (highest elector for each slate)
This page was last edited on 12 October 2020, at 00:19
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