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1914 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1914 United States Senate elections

← 1912/13 November 3, 1914 1916 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JohnWKern.jpg
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
Leader John W. Kern[a] Jacob H. Gallinger[b]
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Indiana New Hampshire
Seats before 53 42
Seats after 56 39
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 3
Seats up 17 16
Races won 20 13

  Third party
 
Party Progressive
Seats before 1
Seats after 1
Seat change Steady
Seats up 0
Races won 0

1914 United States Senate elections results map.svg
Results of the elections:
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican hold
     No election

Majority conference chairman before election

John W. Kern
Democratic

Elected Majority conference chairman

John W. Kern
Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1914, with the ratification of the 17th Amendment in 1913, were the first time that all seats up for election were popularly elected instead of chosen by their state legislatures. These elections occurred in the middle of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson's first term.

Gains and losses

Three seats held by Republicans were won by Democrats:

One incumbent senator, not up for re-election, later changed from Progressive to Republican.

Senate Party Division, 64th Congress (1915–1917)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (55 seats)
  • Minority Party: Republican (41 seats)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 96

Change in composition

Before the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ariz.
Ran
D37
Ala. (sp)
Died
Ala. (reg)
Retired
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ark.
Ran
D40
Colo.
Ran
D41
Fla.
Ran
D42
Ga. (reg)
Ran
D43
Ga. (sp)
Retired
D44
Ind.
Ran
D45
Ky. (sp)
Ran
Ky. (reg)
Retired
D46
La.
Retired
D47
Md.
Ran
D48
Mo.
Ran
Majority → D49
Nev.
Ran
R39
Utah
Ran
R40
Vt.
Ran
R41
Wash.
Ran
R42
Wisc.
Ran
P1 D53
S.C.
Ran
D52
Ore.
Ran
D51
Okla.
Ran
D50
N.C.
Ran
R38
S.D.
Ran
R37
Pa.
Ran
R36
Ohio
Retired
R35
N.D.
Ran
R34
N.Y.
Retired
R33
N.H.
Ran
R32
Kan.
Ran
R31
Iowa
Ran
R30
Ill.
Ran
R29
Idaho
Ran
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27
Calif.
Retired
R28
Conn.
Ran
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Elections results

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
Ariz.
Re-elected
D37
Ala. (sp)
Hold
Ala. (reg)
Hold
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39
Ark.
Re-elected
D40
Calif.
Gain
D41
Colo.
Re-elected
D42
Fla.
Re-elected
D43
Ga. (reg)
Re-elected
D44
Ga. (sp)
Hold
D45
Ind.
Re-elected
D46
Ky. (sp)
Elected[c]
Ky. (reg)
Hold
D47
La.
Hold
D48
Md.
Re-elected
Majority → D49
Mo.
Re-elected
R39
Wash.
Re-elected
P1 D56
Wisc.
Gain
D55
S.D.
Gain
D54
S.C.
Re-elected
D53
Ore.
Re-elected
D52
Okla.
Re-elected
D51
N.C.
Re-elected
D50
Nev.
Re-elected
R38
Vt.
Re-elected
R37
Utah
Re-elected
R36
Pa.
Re-elected
R35
Ohio
Hold
R34
N.D.
Re-elected
R33
N.Y.
Hold
R32
N.H.
Re-elected
R31
Kan.
Hold
R30
Iowa
Re-elected
R29
Ill.
Re-elected
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27
Conn.
Re-elected
R28
Idaho
Re-elected
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
R39 R40
Gain[d]
D56 D55 D54 D53 D52 D51 D50
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Summary of races

Special elections during the 63rd Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated once elected and qualified; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama
(Class 3)
Vacant Joseph F. Johnston (D) died August 8, 1913.
New senator elected May 11, 1914.
Democratic hold.
Georgia
(Class 2)
William West Democratic 1914 (Appointed) Appointee retired.
New senator elected November 3, 1914.
Democratic hold.
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Johnson N. Camden Jr. Democratic 1914 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 3, 1914.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.

Races leading to the 64th Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1915; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Francis S. White Democratic 1914 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Arizona Marcus A. Smith Democratic 1912 Incumbent re-elected.
Arkansas James Paul Clarke Democratic 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
California George Clement Perkins Republican 1893 (Appointed)
1895 (Special)
1897
1903
1909
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Colorado Charles S. Thomas Democratic 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Connecticut Frank B. Brandegee Republican 1905 (Special)
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
Florida Duncan U. Fletcher Democratic 1909 (Appointed)
1909 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Georgia M. Hoke Smith Democratic 1911 (Special). Incumbent re-elected.
Idaho James H. Brady Republican 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Illinois Lawrence Y. Sherman Republican 1913 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Indiana Benjamin F. Shively Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
Iowa Albert B. Cummins Republican 1908 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Albert B. Cummins (Republican) 48.19%
  • Maurice Connolly (Democratic) 39.16%
  • Otis Spurgeon (Independent) 5.73%
  • Casper Schenk (Progressive) 3.53%
  • I. S. McCullis (Socialist) 1.98%
  • M. L. Christian (Prohibition) 1.41%[14]
Kansas Joseph L. Bristow Republican 1909 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.[15]
Republican hold.
Kentucky Johnson N. Camden Jr. Democratic 1914 (Appointed)
1914 (Special)
Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic hold.
Louisiana John Thornton Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator had already been elected early May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Maryland John W. Smith Democratic 1908 (Special)
1908
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John W. Smith (Democratic) 50.99%
  • Edward C Carrington Jr. (Republican) 43.89%
  • V. Milton Reichard (Progressive) 1.71%
  • Charles Develin (Socialist) 1.51%
  • Richard H. Holme (Prohibition) 1.46%
  • Robert W. Stevens (Labor) 0.45%[20]
Missouri William J. Stone Democratic 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William J. Stone (Democratic) 50.41%
  • Thomas J. Akins (Republican) 41.58%
  • Arthur N. Sager (Progressive) 4.47%
  • Thomas E. Greene (Socialist) 2.76%
  • Orange J. Hill (Prohibition) 0.59%
  • J. W. Molineaux (Socialist Labor) 0.2%[21]
Nevada Francis G. Newlands Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
New Hampshire Jacob Gallinger Republican 1891
1897
1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
New York Elihu Root Republican 1909 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
North Carolina Lee Slater Overman Democratic 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
North Dakota Asle Gronna Republican 1911 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio Theodore E. Burton Republican 1909 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Republican hold.
Oklahoma Thomas Gore Democratic 1907 (New state)
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Thomas Gore (Democratic) 47.98%
  • John B. Campbell (Republican) 29.44%
  • W. D. Cope (Socialist) 20.99%
  • Luther Kyle (Prohibition) 1.59%[27]
Oregon George Chamberlain Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania Boies Penrose Republican 1897
1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina Ellison D. Smith Democratic 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
South Dakota Coe I. Crawford Republican 1909 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.
Utah Reed Smoot Republican 1903
1909
Incumbent re-elected.
Vermont William P. Dillingham Republican 1900 (Special)
1902
1908
Incumbent re-elected.
Washington Wesley Livsey Jones Republican 1909 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin Isaac Stephenson Republican 1907 (Special)
1909
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected.
Democratic gain.

Closest races

Nineteen races had a margin of victory under 10%:

State Party of winner Margin
Nevada Democratic 0.19%
Wisconsin Democratic (flip) 0.31%
Kansas Republican 0.77%
Colorado Democratic 1.31%
Illinois Republican 1.70%
Utah Republican 2.75%
California Democratic (flip) 2.78%
South Dakota Democratic (flip) 3.85%
New York Republican 4.98%
Idaho Republican 5.75%
New Hampshire Republican 7.03%
Indiana Democratic 7.04%
Maryland Democratic 7.10%
Connecticut Republican 7.69%
Missouri Democratic 8.83%[e]
Iowa Republican 9.03%
Kentucky (regular) Democratic 9.36%
Oregon Democratic 9.55%
Ohio Republican 9.57%

Alabama

Democrat Joseph F. Johnston died August 8, 1913. Democrat Henry D. Clayton was appointed August 12, 1913, but his appointment was challenged and withdrawn. Democrat Franklin P. Glass was appointed November 17, 1913, but the Senate refused to seat him.[35]

Alabama (Special)

Alabama special election

← 1907 May 11, 1914 1914 →
 
Francis S. White.jpeg
Nominee Francis S. White
Party Democratic
Popular vote 102,326
Percentage 99.94%

U.S. senator before election

Joseph F. Johnston
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Francis S. White
Democratic

Democrat Francis S. White was elected May 11, 1914 to finish the current term that would end in 1915.

Alabama special election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Francis S. White 102,326 99.94
Others 58 0.06
Majority 102,268 99.89
Total votes 102,384 100.00
Democratic hold

Alabama (Regular)

Alabama election

 
Oscar W. Underwood.jpg
Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Oscar Underwood Alex C. Birch
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 163,338 12,320
Percentage 90.20% 6.80%

U.S. senator before election

Francis S. White
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Oscar Underwood
Democratic

After White retired, House Majority Leader Oscar Underwood was elected to a new term.

Alabama election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Oscar Underwood 163,338 90.20
Republican Alex C. Birch 12,320 6.80
Progressive Adolphus P. Longshore 4,263 2.35
Socialist S. F. Hinton 1,159 0.64
Majority 151,018 83.40
Total votes 181,080 100.00
Democratic hold

Arizona

Arizona election

← 1912
1920 →
 
Marcus Aurelius Smith.jpg
Don Lorenzo Hubbell.jpg
Nominee Marcus A. Smith Don Lorenzo Hubbell
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 25,800 9,183
Percentage 53.23% 18.95%

 
Eugene Chafin photo.jpg
Nominee Eugene W. Chafin Bert Davis
Party Prohibition Socialist

Popular vote 7,293 3,582
Percentage 15.05% 7.39%

 
Nominee J. Bernard Nelson
Party Progressive
Popular vote 2,608
Percentage 5.38%

U.S. senator before election

Marcus A. Smith
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Marcus A. Smith
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Marcus A. Smith was elected in 1912 with 50% of the vote and sought re-election. Although he easily defeated his primary challenger, he faced a large field of candidates in the general election. State Senator and trader Don Lorenzo Hubbell was the Republican nominee. Third party candidates included Eugene W. Chafin of the Prohibition Party, who ran for president under the party's nomination, as well as Socialist Bert Davis and Progressive J. Bernard Nelson.

Smith received over half of the vote, defeating each candidate by a wide margin. He was elected to his second term.

Arizona election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Marcus A. Smith (incumbent) 25,800 53.23
Republican Don Lorenzo Hubbell 9,183 18.95
Prohibition Eugene W. Chafin 7,293 15.05
Socialist Bert Davis 3,582 7.39
Progressive J. Bernard Nelson 2,608 5.38
Majority 16,617 34.29
Total votes 48,466 100.00
Democratic hold

Arkansas

Arkansas election

 
AR Clarke John.jpg
Blank2x3.svg
Nominee James P. Clarke Harry H. Myers
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 33,449 11,222
Percentage 74.88% 25.12%

U.S. senator before election

James P. Clarke
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

James P. Clarke
Democratic

Arkansas general election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James P. Clarke (incumbent) 33,449 74.88
Republican Harry H. Myers 11,222 25.12
Majority 22,227 49.76
Total votes 44,671 100.00
Democratic hold

California

California election

← 1909
1920 →
 
JamesDPhelan.jpg
Francis Joseph Heney cph.3b10277.jpg
Nominee James Duval Phelan Francis J. Heney
Party Democratic Progressive
Popular vote 279,896 255,232
Percentage 31.59% 28.81%

 
JosephRKnowland.jpg
Untermann-Ernest-1909.jpg
Nominee Joseph R. Knowland Ernest Untermann
Party Republican Socialist
Popular vote 254,159 56,805
Percentage 28.69% 6.41%

U.S. senator before election

George Clement Perkins
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

James Duval Phelan
Democratic

Incumbent Republican George Clement Perkins was first elected in an 1895 special election and was re-elected for three more terms. He did not seek re-election.

U.S. Representative Joseph R. Knowland was the Republican nominee for this seat in 1914. He was challenged by the Democratic nominee, former mayor of San Francisco James Duval Phelan, and the Progressive nominee Francis J. Heney, the former attorney general of the Arizona Territory.

Phelan defeated Heney and Knowland by slim margins and less than a third of the vote.

California election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James Duval Phelan 279,896 31.59
Progressive Francis J. Heney 255,232 28.81
Republican Joseph R. Knowland 254,159 28.69
Socialist Ernest Untermann 56,805 6.41
Prohibition Frederick F. Wheeler 39,921 4.51
Majority 24,664 2.78
Total votes 886,013 100.00
Democratic gain from Republican

Colorado

Colorado election

 
Charles Spalding Thomas.jpg
Hubert Work.png
Nominee Charles S. Thomas Hubert Work
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 102,037 98,728
Percentage 40.30% 38.99%

 
Nominee Benjamin Griffith James C. Griffiths
Party Progressive Socialist
Popular vote 27,072 13,943
Percentage 10.69% 5.51%

U.S. senator before election

Charles S. Thomas
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Charles S. Thomas
Democratic

Colorado election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Charles S. Thomas (incumbent) 102,037 40.30
Republican Hubert Work 98,728 38.99
Progressive Benjamin Griffith 27,072 10.69
Socialist James C. Griffiths 13,943 5.51
Independent George J. Kindel 11,433 4.52
Majority 3,309 1.31
Total votes 253,213 100.00
Democratic hold

Connecticut

Connecticut election

← 1909
1920 →
 
Frank Bosworth Brandegee.jpg
Simeon E. Baldwin.jpg
Nominee Frank B. Brandegee Simeon Eben Baldwin
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 89,983 76,081
Percentage 49.77% 42.08%

U.S. senator before election

Frank B. Brandegee
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Frank B. Brandegee
Republican

Connecticut election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Frank B. Brandegee (incumbent) 89,983 49.77
Democratic Simeon Eben Baldwin 76,081 42.08
Progressive Herbert Smith 6,853 3.79
Socialist George Spiess 5,890 3.26
Prohibition Frederick Platt 1,356 0.75
Socialist Labor Clarence Warner 650 0.36
Majority 13,902 7.69
Total votes 180,813 100.00
Republican hold

Florida

Florida election

 
Duncanupshawfletcher.jpg
Nominee Duncan U. Fletcher
Party Democratic
Popular vote 22,761
Percentage 100.00%

U.S. senator before election

Duncan U. Fletcher
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Duncan U. Fletcher
Democratic

Incumbent Democrat Duncan Fletcher was elected in a special election after being appointed when William Hall Milton retired after a year in office. He sought re-election to a full term, facing competition only in the primary.

Democratic primary
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Duncan U. Fletcher (incumbent) 32,042 59.59
Democratic J. N. C. Stockton 21,733 40.42
Majority 10,309 19.17
Total votes 53,775 100.00

Georgia

There were two elections due to the February 14, 1914 death of Democrat Augustus Octavius Bacon. It was the first time that both of Georgia's Senate seats have been up for election at the same time.

Georgia (Special)

Georgia special election

← 1913
1918 →
 
Senator Thomas Hardwick.jpg
Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Thomas W. Hardwick Rufe G. Hutchens
Party Democratic Progressive
Popular vote 62,589 28,169
Percentage 68.96% 31.04%

U.S. senator before election

William S. West
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Thomas W. Hardwick
Democratic

Democrat William West was appointed to continue the term pending a special election, in which he was not a candidate.

Democrat Thomas W. Hardwick was elected November 3, 1914 to finish the term that would end in 1919 and served until losing renomination in 1918.

Georgia election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Thomas W. Hardwick 62,589 68.96
Progressive Rufe G. Hutchens 28,169 31.04
Majority 34,420 37.93
Total votes 90,758 100.00
Democratic hold

Georgia (Regular)

Georgia election

 
Portrait of Hoke Smith.jpg
Blank2x3.svg
Nominee M. Hoke Smith C. W. McClure
Party Democratic Progressive
Popular vote 61,789 28,441
Percentage 68.48% 31.52%

U.S. senator before election

M. Hoke Smith
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

M. Hoke Smith
Democratic

Democrat M. Hoke Smith, who had first won in a 1911 special election, was re-elected and would serve until his 1920 renomination loss.

Georgia election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic M. Hoke Smith (incumbent) 61,789 68.48
Progressive C. W. McClure 28,441 31.52
Majority 33,348 36.96
Total votes 90,230 100.00
Democratic hold

Idaho

Idaho election

 
Jamesbrady.jpg
JamesHHawley.jpg
Nominee James H. Brady James H. Hawley
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 47,486 41,266
Percentage 43.89% 38.14%

 
Nominee Paul Clagstone Calistus Cooper
Party Progressive Socialist
Popular vote 10,321 7,888
Percentage 9.54% 7.29%

U.S. senator before election

James H. Brady
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

James H. Brady
Republican

Idaho election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican James H. Brady (incumbent) 47,486 43.89
Democratic James H. Hawley 41,266 38.14
Progressive Paul Clagstone 10,321 9.54
Socialist Calistus Cooper 7,888 7.29
Prohibition W. M. Duthie 1,237 1.14
Majority 6,220 5.75
Total votes 108,198 100.00
Republican hold

Illinois

Illinois election

 
Lawrence Yates Sherman (1).jpg
Roger Sullivan by Bain (1).jpg
Nominee Lawrence Y. Sherman Roger C. Sullivan
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 390,661 373,403
Percentage 38.46% 36.76%

 
RaymondRobins01 (1).jpg
Nominee Raymond Robins
Party Progressive
Popular vote 203,027
Percentage 19.99%

U.S. senator before election

Lawrence Y. Sherman
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Lawrence Y. Sherman
Republican

1914 United States Senate election in Illinois[36]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman (incumbent) 390,661 38.46
Democratic Roger C. Sullivan 373,403 36.76
Progressive Raymond Robins 203,027 19.99
Socialist Adolph Germer 39,889 3.93
Prohibition George W. Woolsey 6,750 0.67
Socialist Labor John M. Frances 2,078 0.21
Majority 17,258 1.70
Total votes 1,015,808 100.00
Republican hold

Indiana

Indiana election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg

 
Shively, Benjamin Franklin.jpg
Blank2x3.svg
Nominee Benjamin F. Shively Hugh Thomas Miller
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 272,249 226,766
Percentage 42.14% 35.10%

 
Albert J. Beveridge cph.3b04505.jpg
Nominee Albert J. Beveridge
Party Progressive
Popular vote 108,581
Percentage 16.81%

U.S. senator before election

Benjamin F. Shively
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Benjamin F. Shively
Democratic

Indiana election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Benjamin F. Shively (incumbent) 272,249 42.14
Republican Hugh Thomas Miller 226,766 35.10
Progressive Albert J. Beveridge 108,581 16.81
Socialist Stephen N. Reynolds 21,719 3.36
Prohibition Sumner W. Haynes 13,860 2.15
Socialist Labor James Matthews 2,884 0.45
Majority 45,483 7.04
Total votes 646,059 100.00
Democratic hold

Iowa

Iowa election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg

← 1909
1920 →
 
Portrait of Albert B. Cummins.jpg
Maurice Connolly.png
Nominee Albert B. Cummins Maurice Connolly
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 205,832 167,251
Percentage 48.19% 39.16%

 
Nominee Otis Spurgeon
Party Independent
Popular vote 24,490
Percentage 5.73%

U.S. senator before election

Albert B. Cummins
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Albert B. Cummins
Republican

Iowa election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Albert B. Cummins (incumbent) 205,832 48.19
Democratic Maurice Connolly 167,251 39.16
Independent Otis Spurgeon 24,490 5.73
Progressive Casper Schenk 15,058 3.53
Socialist I. S. McCullis 8,462 1.98
Prohibition M. L. Christian 6,009 1.41
Majority 36,581 9.03
Total votes 427,102 100.00
Republican hold

Kansas

Kansas election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg

← 1908
1920 →
 
Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg
GeorgeANeeley.jpg
Nominee Charles Curtis George A. Neeley
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 180,823 176,929
Percentage 35.53% 34.77%

 
VictorMurdock.jpg
Nominee Victor Murdock
Party Progressive
Popular vote 116,755
Percentage 22.94%

U.S. senator before election

Joseph Little Bristow
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Charles Curtis
Republican

Kansas election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Charles Curtis 180,823 35.53
Democratic George A. Neeley 176,929 34.77
Progressive Victor Murdock 116,755 22.94
Socialist

Christian B. Hoffman 24,502 4.82
Prohibition Earle R. Delay 9,885 1.94
Majority 3,894 0.77
Total votes 508,894 100.00
Republican hold

Kentucky

There were 2 elections to the same seat due to the May 23, 1914 death of one-term Republican William O. Bradley.

Kentucky (Special)

Kentucky special election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg

← 1908
1914 →
 
Johnson-Camden,-Jr..jpg
Bullitt-large.jpg
Nominee Johnson N. Camden Jr. William Marshall Bullitt
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 177,797 133,139
Percentage 53.99% 40.43%

U.S. senator before election

Johnson N. Camden Jr.
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Johnson N. Camden Jr.
Democratic

Democrat Johnson N. Camden was appointed June 16, 1914 to continue Bradley's term, pending a special election. He was challenged by U.S. Solicitor General William Marshall Bullitt.

Camden was elected in November to finish the term ending 1915.

Kentucky special election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Johnson N. Camden Jr. (incumbent) 177,797 53.99
Republican William Marshall Bullitt 133,139 40.43
Progressive George Nicholas 13,641 4.14
Socialist Frank E. Seeds 4,770 1.45
Majority 44,658 13.56
Total votes 329,347 100.00
Democratic hold

Kentucky (Regular)

Kentucky election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg

 
J. C. W. Beckham.jpg
AugustusEWillson.jpg
Nominee John C. W. Beckham Augustus E. Willson
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 176,605 144,758
Percentage 51.89% 42.53%

U.S. senator before election

Johnson N. Camden Jr.
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

John C. W. Beckham
Democratic

Democratic appointee Johnson N. Camden was not a candidate for the next term, instead returning to agricultural activities on a farm.

In this race, two former governors of Kentucky fought for the seat. The Democratic nominee was John C. W. Beckham, who was sworn in after the assassination of William Goebel in 1900. The Republican nominee was Augustus E. Willson, who flipped the seat in 1907 after Beckham's term ended.

Beckham won the election, and would continue to serve until his re-election loss.

Kentucky election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic J. C. W. Beckham 176,605 51.89
Republican Augustus E. Willson 144,758 42.53
Progressive Burton Vance 14,108 4.15
Socialist H. J. Robertson 4,890 1.44
Majority 31,847 9.36
Total votes 340,361 100.00
Democratic hold

Louisiana

Senator Robert F. Broussard had already been elected on May 21, 1912 indirectly by the state legislature.

Maryland

Maryland election

← 1908
1920 →
 
John Walter Smith, photo portrait head and shoulders.jpg
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Nominee John Walter Smith Edward Carrington
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 110,204 94,864
Percentage 50.99% 43.89%

U.S. senator before election

John Walter Smith
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

John Walter Smith
Democratic

Maryland elections
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John Walter Smith (incumbent) 110,204 50.99
Republican Edward Carrington 94,864 43.89
Progressive V. Milton Reichard 3,697 1.71
Socialist Charles E. Develin 3,255 1.51
Prohibition Richard Henry Holme 3,144 1.46
Labor

Robert W. Stevens 969 0.45
Majority 15,340 7.10
Total votes 216,133 100.00
Democratic hold

Missouri

Missouri election

 
William Joel Stone.jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee William J. Stone Thomas Akins
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 311,616 257,054
Percentage 50.41% 41.58%

U.S. senator before election

William J. Stone
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

William J. Stone
Democratic

Missouri election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William J. Stone (incumbent) 311,616 50.41
Republican Thomas Akins 257,054 41.58
Progressive Arthur N. Sager 27,609 4.47
Socialist Thomas E. Greene 17,061 2.76
Prohibition Orange J. Hill 3,636 0.59
Socialist Labor J. W. Molineaux 1,251 0.20
Majority 54,562 8.83
Total votes 618,227 100.00
Democratic hold

Nevada

Nevada election

 
Portrait of Francis G. Newlands.jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee Francis G. Newlands Samuel Platt
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 8,078 8,038
Percentage 37.46% 37.27%

 
Nominee Ashley Miller
Party Socialist
Popular vote 5,451
Percentage 25.28%

U.S. senator before election

Francis G. Newlands
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Francis G. Newlands
Democratic

Nevada election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Francis G. Newlands (incumbent) 8,078 37.46
Republican Samuel Platt 8,038 37.27
Socialist Ashley G. Miller 5,451 25.28
Majority 40 0.19
Total votes 21,567 100.00
Democratic hold

New Hampshire

New Hampshire election

 
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
RaymondBartlettStevens.jpg
Nominee Jacob H. Gallinger Raymond B. Stevens
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 42,113 36,382
Percentage 51.66% 44.63%

U.S. senator before election

Jacob H. Gallinger
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Jacob H. Gallinger
Republican

New Hampshire election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Jacob Harold Gallinger (incumbent) 42,113 51.66
Democratic Raymond Bartlett Stevens 36,382 44.63
Prohibition Benjamin F. Grier 1,938 2.38
Socialist William H. Wilkins 1,089 1.34
Majority 5,731 7.03
Total votes 81,522 100.00
Republican hold

New York

New York election

← 1909
1920 →
 
James W. Wadsworth, Jr.jpg
JamesWGerard.jpg
Nominee James W. Wadsworth James W. Gerard
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 639,112 571,419
Percentage 47.04% 42.06

U.S. senator before election

Elihu Root
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

James W. Wadsworth
Republican

New York election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. 639,112 47.04
Democratic James Watson Gerard 571,419 42.06
Progressive Bainbridge Colby 61,977 4.56
Socialist Charles Edward Russell 55,266 4.07
Prohibition Francis E. Baldwin 27,813 2.05
Socialist Labor Erwin A. Aucher 3,064 0.23
Majority 67,693 4.98
Total votes 1,358,651 100.00
Republican hold

North Carolina

North Carolina election

← 1909
1920 →
 
OVERMAN, LEE S. SENATOR LCCN2016862467 (cropped).jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee Lee S. Overman A. A. Whitener
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 121,342 87,101
Percentage 58.10% 41.70%

U.S. senator before election

Lee S. Overman
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Lee S. Overman
Democratic

North Carolina election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Lee S. Overman (incumbent) 121,342 58.10
Republican Adolphus A. Whitener 87,101 41.70
Socialist Henry J. Oliver 425 0.20
Majority 34,241 16.39
Total votes 208,868 100.00
Democratic hold

North Dakota

North Dakota election

 
A.J. Gronna LCCN2014684980 (cropped).jpg
WilliamEPurcell.jpg
Nominee Asle Gronna William E. Purcell
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 48,732 29,640
Percentage 55.82% 33.95

 
Nominee W. H. Brown
Party Socialist
Popular vote 6,231
Percentage 7.14

U.S. senator before election

Asle Gronna
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Asle Gronna
Republican

North Dakota election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Asle Gronna (incumbent) 48,732 55.82
Democratic William E. Purcell 29,640 33.95
Socialist W. H. Brown 6,231 7.14
Independent Sever Serumgard 2,707 3.10
Majority 19,092 21.87
Total votes 87,310 100.00
Republican hold

Ohio

Ohio election

← 1909
1920 →
 
Warren G Harding portrait as senator June 1920.jpg
Timothy Sylvester Hogan (circa 1912).png
Nominee Warren G. Harding Timothy S. Hogan
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 526,115 423,742
Percentage 49.16% 39.60%

 
Garford 2349965084 f3c8520a68 o.jpg
Nominee Arthur L. Garford
Party Progressive
Popular vote 67,509
Percentage 6.31%

Ohio Senatorial Election Results by County, 1914.svg
County results

U.S. senator before election

Theodore E. Burton
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Warren G. Harding
Republican

Republican nominee Warren G. Harding, future President of the United States, defeated Democratic nominee Timothy S. Hogan to succeed retiring incumbent Republican Senator Theodore E. Burton.[37]

Initially, Harding was not interested in running for U.S. Senate, due to the divisive remnants of the 1912 elections between the conservative and progressive factions of the Republican party. Harry Daugherty, an Ohio political boss, was interested in running for the seat himself upon learning of incumbent Senator Theodore Burton's plans to retire upon the expiration of his term, but party leaders advised him not to run. Instead, Daugherty unsuccessfully attempted to stage a draft movement to convince Harding to run for the seat. After the death of Amos Kling, the father of Harding's wife Florence, she encouraged her husband to run. The precise reasoning for this is unknown, but some in Marion, the Hardings' home town, believe that Harding had agreed not to seek higher office as part of a reuniting "truce" between Florence and her father, or that Kling had convinced Harding that it would behoove him to further his business rather than run for public office.[38]

Although Daugherty claimed it was him who had convinced Harding to run for the Senate, Harding's friend and attorney Hoke Donithen, who eventually became Harding's campaign manager, may have played a role in his decision to run. Retiring Senator Theodore Burton also claimed credit, saying to his biographer that Daugherty did not agree to throw his support behind Harding until after learning he had backed him.[38]

The Republican primary was a three-way contest between Harding, former U.S. Senator and ex-mentor Joseph B. Foraker[39] and Ralph Cole. Rather than antagonizing his opponents, Harding notably tried to keep and make friends within the Republican party, to the frustration of those running against him. Ralph Cole, in his frustration, said, "If he is not going to fight someone, why did he enter the contest?"[38] Harding eventually defeated both of his opponents in the primary, garnering 88,540 votes. Foraker finished in second with 76,817 votes, ahead of Cole with 52,237.[38]

In the general election campaign, Harding faced Democratic nominee Timothy Hogan and Progressive candidate Arthur Garford. Hogan was subject to anti-Catholic sentiment among voters, which Harding himself did not exhibit during the course of the election. Harding's supporters accused Hogan of wanting to "deliver Ohio to the Pope."[40] Harding downplayed the issue of World War I, despite the fact that the election took place just after the outbreak of the war, due to the high German immigrant population. Harding ultimately won the election and subsequently became the first United States Senator from Ohio to be popularly elected, following the passage of the 17th Amendment to the Constitution.[39]

Harding's victory in his bid for the Senate seat raised speculation that he would seek higher office, specifically the Presidency, although Harding himself did not show any interest in doing so at the time. He told family and friends after being elected to the Senate that he would return to his previous career in newspaper publishing at The Marion Daily Star after serving in the Senate.[38]

Ohio election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Warren G. Harding 526,115 49.16
Democratic Timothy S. Hogan 423,742 39.60
Progressive Arthur Lovett Garford 67,509 6.31
Socialist F. K. Hitchens 52,803 4.93
Majority 102,373 9.57
Total votes 1,070,169 100.00
Republican hold

Oklahoma

Oklahoma election

← 1909
1920 →
 
ThomasGore3c32246u crop.jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee Thomas Gore John H. Burford
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 119,443 73,292
Percentage 47.98% 29.44%

 
Nominee Patrick S. Nagle
Party Socialist
Popular vote 52,259
Percentage 20.99%

U.S. senator before election

Thomas Gore
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Thomas Gore
Democratic

Oklahoma election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Thomas Gore (incumbent) 119,443 47.98
Republican John H. Burford 73,292 29.44
Socialist Patrick S. Nagle 52,259 20.99
Progressive W. O. Cromwell 3,966 1.59
Majority 46,151 18.54
Total votes 248,960 100.00
Democratic hold

Oregon

Oregon election

← 1909
1920 →
 
Portrait of George Earle Chamberlain.jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee George E. Chamberlain R. A. Booth
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 111,748 88,297
Percentage 45.50% 35.95%

 
Nominee William "Bill" Hanley
Party Progressive
Popular vote 26,220
Percentage 10.68%

U.S. senator before election

George E. Chamberlain
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

George E. Chamberlain
Democratic

Oregon election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic George E. Chamberlain (incumbent) 111,748 45.50
Republican R. A. Booth 88,297 35.95
Progressive William "Bill" Hanley 28,220 10.68
Socialist Benjamin Franklin Ramp 10,666 4.34
Prohibition H. S. Stine 8,649 3.52
Majority 23,451 9.55
Total votes 245,580 100.00
Democratic hold

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania election

← 1909
1920 →
 
Boies Penrose.jpg
Gifford Pinchot 3c03915u.jpg
Nominee Boies Penrose Gifford Pinchot
Party Republican Progressive
Popular vote 519,810 269,265
Percentage 46.75% 24.22%

 
Alexander Mitchell Palmer.jpg
Nominee Alexander M. Palmer
Party Democratic
Popular vote 266,436
Percentage 23.96%

U.S. senator before election

Boies Penrose
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Boies Penrose
Republican

Pennsylvania election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Boies Penrose (incumbent) 519,810 46.75
Progressive Gifford Pinchot 269,265 24.22
Democratic Alexander Mitchell Palmer 266,436 23.96
Socialist Fred W. Whiteside 37,950 3.41
Prohibition Madison F. Larkin 17,685 1.59
Industrial A. S. Landis 680 0.06
Write-in 106 0.01
Majority 250,545 22.53
Total votes 1,111,932 100.00
Republican hold

South Carolina

South Carolina election

← 1909
1920 →
 
Senator Ellison DuRant Smith.jpg
Nominee Ellison D. Smith
Party Democratic
Popular vote 32,950
Percentage 99.73%

U.S. senator before election

Ellison D. Smith
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Ellison D. Smith
Democratic

South Carolina election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Ellison D. Smith (incumbent) 32,950 99.73
Socialist J. H. Roberts 89 0.27
Majority 32,861 99.46
Total votes 33,039 100.00
Democratic hold

South Dakota

South Dakota election
Flag of South Dakota (1909–1963).svg

← 1909
1920 →
 
ESJohnson.jpg
Burke 14886r.jpg
Nominee Edwin S. Johnson Charles H. Burke
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 48,076 44,244
Percentage 48.32% 44.47%

U.S. senator before election

Coe I. Crawford
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Edwin S. Johnson
Democratic

South Dakota election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Edwin S. Johnson 48,076 48.32
Republican Charles H. Burke 44,244 44.47
Socialist E. P. Johnson 2,674 2.69
Prohibition O. W. Butterfield 2,406 2.42
Independent H. L. Loucks 2,104 2.11
Majority 3,832 3.85
Total votes 99,504 100.00
Democratic gain from Republican

Utah

Utah election

← 1909
1920 →
 
Reed Smoot, bw photo portrait, Bain News Service.jpg
James Henry Moyle.jpg
Nominee Reed Smoot James Moyle
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 56,281 53,128
Percentage 49.08% 46.33%

U.S. senator before election

Reed Smoot
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Reed Smoot
Republican

Utah election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Reed Smoot (incumbent) 56,281 49.08
Democratic James Moyle 53,128 46.33
Socialist J. F. Parsons 5,257 4.59
Majority 3,163 2.75
Total votes 114,666 100.00
Republican hold

Vermont

Vermont election

← 1908
1920 →
 
William Paul Dillingham (1843-1923) in 1904 (cropped).jpg
Portrait of Charles A. Prouty.jpg
Nominee William P. Dillingham Charles A. Prouty
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 35,137 26,763
Percentage 56.05% 42.69%

U.S. senator before election

William P. Dillingham
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

William P. Dillingham
Republican

Vermont election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William P. Dillingham (incumbent) 35,137 56.05
Democratic Charles A. Prouty 26,763 42.69
Socialist James H. Canfield 772 1.23
Write-in 20 0.03
Majority 8,374 13.36
Total votes 62,692 100.00
Republican hold

Washington

Washington election
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg

← 1909
1920 →
 
Wesley Livsey Jones.jpg
3x4.svg
Nominee Wesley L. Jones William W. Black
Party Republican Democratic
Popular vote 130,479 91,733
Percentage 37.79% 26.57%

 
Hanson-Ole-1919.jpg
Nominee Ole Hanson Adam H. Barth
Party Progressive Socialist
Popular vote 83,282 30,234
Percentage 24.12% 8.76%

U.S. senator before election

Wesley L. Jones
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Wesley L. Jones
Republican

Washington election
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Wesley Livsey Jones (incumbent) 130,479 37.79
Democratic William Wilson Black 91,733 26.57
Progressive Ole Hanson 83,282 24.12
Socialist Adam H. Barth 30,234 8.76
Prohibition Arthur S. Caton 9,551 2.77
Majority 38,746 11.22
Total votes 345,279 100.00
Republican hold

Wisconsin

Wisconsin election

 
SenatorHusting.jpg
Francis E. McGovern.jpg
Nominee Paul O. Husting Francis E. McGovern
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 134,925 133,969
Percentage 43.81% 43.50%

 
Seidell-Emil-1910.jpg
Nominee Emil Seidel
Party Socialist
Popular vote 29,774
Percentage 9.67%

U.S. senator before election

Isaac Stephenson
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Paul O. Husting
Democratic

Wisconsin election
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Paul O. Husting 134,925 43.81
Republican Francis E. McGovern 133,969 43.50
Socialist Emil Seidel 29,774 9.67
Prohibition Charles L. Hill 9,276 3.01
Write-in 58 0.02
Majority 956 0.31
Total votes 308,002 100.00
Democratic gain from Republican

See also

Notes

  1. ^ as Democratic Conference Chairman
  2. ^ as Republican Conference Chairman
  3. ^ Appointee elected
  4. ^ Miles Poindexter of Washington changed from Progressive to Republican.
  5. ^ Missouri was the "tipping-point state".

References

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  2. ^ "Container Detail Page". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  3. ^ "AL Senate Race - Nov 08, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  4. ^ "AZ US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  5. ^ "AR US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  6. ^ "CA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  7. ^ "CO US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  8. ^ "CT US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  9. ^ "FL US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  10. ^ "GA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  11. ^ "ID US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  12. ^ "IL US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  13. ^ "IN US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  14. ^ "IA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  15. ^ "BRISTOW, Joseph Little - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. March 3, 1915. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  16. ^ "KS US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  17. ^ "KY US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  18. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1912, p. 457.
  19. ^ "LA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  20. ^ "MD US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  21. ^ "MO US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  22. ^ "NV US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  23. ^ "NH US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  24. ^ "NC US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  25. ^ "ND US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  26. ^ "OH US Senate Race - Nov 08, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  27. ^ "OK US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  28. ^ "OR US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  29. ^ "SD US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  30. ^ "CRAWFORD, Coe Isaac - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  31. ^ "UT US Senate 2 Race - Nov 02, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  32. ^ "VT US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  33. ^ "WA US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  34. ^ "WI US Senate Race - Nov 03, 1914". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  35. ^ Byrd, p. 340.
  36. ^ "OFFICIAL VOTE OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS CAST AT THE GENERAL ELECTION HELD ON NOVEMBER 3, 1914" (PDF). Illinois State Board of Elections. Retrieved December 19, 2020.[permanent dead link]
  37. ^ Dubin, Michael J. (1998). 1788 United States congressional elections-1997 : the official results of the elections of the 1st through 105th congresses. Jefferson, NC [u.a.]: McFarland. p. 407. ISBN 0786402830.
  38. ^ a b c d e Dean, John W. (2004). Warren G. Harding (1. ed.). New York: Times Books. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0805069569. 1914 harding hogan.
  39. ^ a b Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove: Warren G. Harding In His Times. Easton Press. ISBN 0-07-054338-0.
  40. ^ "Life Before the Presidency". American President: Warren Gamaliel Harding. American President: A Reference Resource. Retrieved June 12, 2012.

Bibliography

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