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1912 and 1913 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1912 and 1913 United States Senate elections

← 1910/11 January 16, 1912 –
January 29, 1913
1914 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
(as well as special elections)
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JohnWKern.jpg
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
Leader John W. Kern[a] Jacob H. Gallinger[b]
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Indiana New Hampshire
Seats before 43 52
Seats won 17 12
Seats after 47 45
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 7
Seats up 13 19

US 1912 senate election map.svg
Results including special elections
     Democratic gains      Republican gains
     Democratic holds      Republican holds

Majority conference chairman before election

Shelby Moore Cullom
Republican

Elected Majority conference chairman

John W. Kern
Democratic

In the United States Senate elections of 1912 and 1913, Democrats gained control of the Senate from the Republicans. Of the 22 seats up for election, 17 were won by Democrats, thereby gaining 4 seats from the Republicans. Two seats were unfilled by state legislators who failed to elect a new senator on time.

These elections coincided with Democrat Woodrow Wilson's victory in the presidential election amid a divide in the Republican Party. In the Senate, Joseph M. Dixon and Miles Poindexter defected from the Republican Party and joined Theodore Roosevelt's new Progressive Party. Dixon, however, lost his seat during this election.

Some states elected their senators directly even before passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election.

This was the first time in 20 years that the Democrats won a majority in the Senate.

Results summary

The Senate after the elections in 1912
The Senate after the elections in 1912
Parties Total Seats
Incumbents This election Result +/-
Not up Up Re-
elected
Held Gained Lost
  Democratic 43 30 13 5 5 Increase 7 Decrease 2 47 Increase 4
  Republican 52 33 19 6 4 Increase 2 Decrease 7 45 Decrease 7
Others 0 0 0 0 0 Steady Steady 0 Steady
Vacant 1 1 0 Steady Steady Increase 3 Steady 4 Increase 3
Total 96 64 32 11 9 Increase 12 Decrease 9 96 Decrease 3

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the March 1912 elections to elect senators from the new states of New Mexico and Arizona.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
S.C.
Ran
D37
Okla.
Ran
D36
N.C.
Ran
D35
Miss.
Ran
D34
Maine
Ran
D33
La.
Ran
D32
Ga.
Ran
D31
Ala.
Ran
D30 D29
D39
Va.
Ran
D40
W.Va.
Ran
D41
Ark.
Retired
D42
Ky.
Retired
D43
Tex.
Retired
V1
Colo.
R52
Tenn.
Retired
R51
R.I.
Retired
R50
N.H.
Retired
R49
Mass.
Retired
Majority → R48
Del.
Retired
R39
Minn.
Ran
R40
Mont.
Ran
R41
Neb.
Ran
R42
N.J.
Ran
R43
N.M.
Ran
R44
Ore.
Ran
R45
S.Dak.
Ran
R46
Wyo.
Ran
R47
Colo.
Retired
R38
Mich.
Ran
R37
Kan.
Ran
R36
Iowa
Ran
R35
Ill.
Ran
R34
Idaho
Ran
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Result of the general elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38
La.
Hold
D37
Ky.
Hold
D36
Ark.
Hold
D35
Va.
Re-elected
D34
S.C.
Re-elected
D33
Okla.
Re-elected
D32
N.C.
Re-elected
D31
Ala.
Re-elected
D30 D29
D39
Miss.
Hold
D40
Tex.
Hold
D41
Colo.
Gain
D42
Del.
Gain
D43
Kan.
Gain
D44
Mont.
Gain
D45
N.J.
Gain
D46
Ore.
Gain
D47
Tenn.
Gain
V1
Ga.
D Loss
Majority ↑
R39
Wyo.
Re-elected
R40
Mass.
Hold
R41
Neb.
Hold
R42
R.I.
Hold
R43
S.Dak.
Hold
R44
Maine
Gain
R45
W.Va.
Gain
V4
N.H.
R Loss
V3
Ill.2
R Loss
V2
Ill.3
R38
N.M.
Re-elected
R37
Minn.
Re-elected
R36
Mich.
Re-elected
R35
Iowa
Re-elected
R34
Idaho
Re-elected
R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
Ga.
Appointed
R39 R40 R41 R42 V4
W.Va.
Seated late
V2
Ill.2
V1
Ill.3
P1
Wa.
Changed
V3
N.H.
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the first session, April 7, 1913

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
R39 R40 R41 R41 R43
W.Va.
Seated late
R44
Ill.2
Gain
R45
Ill.3
Gain
P1 D50
N.H.
Gain
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key:
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Complete list of races

Special elections during the 62nd Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated in the 62nd Congress during 1912 or before March 4, 1913; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 1)
Claude A. Swanson Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 23, 1912.
New Mexico
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected March 27, 1912.
Republican gain.
New Mexico
(Class 2)
New seat New senator elected March 27, 1912.
Republican gain.
Winner was also subsequently elected to the next term, see below.
Arizona
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected March 26, 1912, ratifying the popular selection made in December 12, 1911 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Arizona
(Class 3)
New seat New senator elected March 26, 1912, ratifying the popular selection made in December 12, 1911 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Maine
(Class 2)
Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected April 2, 1912.[3]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Vacant Charles J. Hughes Jr. (D) had died January 11, 1911.
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Winner did not run for election to the following term, see below.
  • Green tickY William R. Webb (Democratic) 73 votes
  • M. T. Bryan (Democratic) 53 votes
  • J. A. Clements (Democratic) 1 vote
  • C. W. Tyler (Democratic) 1 vote[5]
Texas
(Class 2)
Rienzi Johnston Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Idaho
(Class 3)
Kirtland I. Perky Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected January 24, 1913.
Republican gain.
Arkansas
(Class 2)
John N. Heiskell Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 27, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Winner did not run for election to the following term, see below.
Nevada
(Class 1)
William A. Massey Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected[d] January 28, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.

Races leading to the 63rd Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1913; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic 1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent had already been re-elected early January 17, 1911, for the term beginning March 4, 1913.
Arkansas John N. Heiskell Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 29, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Colorado Simon Guggenheim Republican 1907 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[d]
Democratic gain.
Delaware Harry A. Richardson Republican 1907 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 29, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Georgia Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894
1900
1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent ran for re-election but the legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Incumbent was then appointed to begin the term.[4]
Augustus Bacon (Democratic)
Idaho William Borah Republican 1907 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1913.
Illinois Shelby M. Cullom Republican 1882
1888
1894
1901
1907
Incumbent lost renomination.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
A new senator was later elected, see below.
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist)
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic)
Frank H. Funk (Progressive)
J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic)
McDonald (Socialist)
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican)[4]
Iowa William S. Kenyon Republican 1911 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913.
Kansas Charles Curtis Republican 1907 (Special)
1907
Incumbent lost re-election.[d]
New senator elected January 28, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[d]
Democratic gain.
Kentucky Thomas H. Paynter Democratic 1906 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 16, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Louisiana Murphy J. Foster Democratic 1900
1904
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Maine Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed)
1912 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 15, 1913.
Republican gain.
Massachusetts Winthrop M. Crane Republican 1904 (Appointed)
1905 (Special)
1907
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 14, 1913.
Republican hold.
Michigan William A. Smith Republican 1911 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1913.
Minnesota Knute Nelson Republican 1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[d]
Mississippi LeRoy Percy Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 16, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Montana Joseph M. Dixon Republican 1907 Incumbent lost re-election as a Progressive.[d]
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Nebraska Norris Brown Republican 1907 Incumbent lost renomination.[13]
New senator elected January 21, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Republican hold.
New Hampshire Henry E. Burnham Republican 1901
1907
Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
New senator was elected late, see below.
Robert P. Bass (Progressive)
Sherman E. Burroughs (Republican)
Clarence Carr (Democratic)
Henry F. Hollis (Democratic)
John H. Bartlett (Republican)
Edward N. Pearson (Republican)
William Swart (Independent)
Henry B. Quinby (Republican)
Gordon Woodbury (Democratic)
New Jersey Frank O. Briggs Republican 1907 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Democratic gain.
New Mexico Albert B. Fall Republican 1912 (New state) Incumbent re-elected June 6, 1912.
Legislature invalidated the election.
Incumbent then re-elected January 28, 1913.
January 28, 1913 election:
North Carolina Furnifold Simmons Democratic 1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913.
Oklahoma Robert L. Owen Democratic 1907 Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913.[d]
Oregon Jonathan Bourne, Jr. Republican 1907 Incumbent lost renomination and then lost re-election as Popular Government candidate.
New senator elected, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[d]
Democratic gain.
Rhode Island George P. Wetmore Republican 1894
1900
1907 (No election)
1908 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 21, 1913.[17]
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY LeBaron B. Colt (Republican) 88 votes
  • Addison P. Munroe (Democratic) 42 votes
  • George W. Parks (Progressive) 7 votes[10]
South Carolina Benjamin Tillman Democratic 1894
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 28, 1913.
South Dakota Robert J. Gamble Republican 1901
1907
Incumbent lost renomination.[18]
New senator elected January 22, 1913.
Republican hold.
Tennessee Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Texas Rienzi Johnston Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Virginia Thomas S. Martin Democratic 1893 (Early)
1899 (Early)
1906
Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1912.
West Virginia Clarence Watson Democratic 1911 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Republican gain.
Winner took seat late.
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican 1890
1893 (Lost)
1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 28, 1913.

Early election to the following Congress

In this early general election, the winner was seated in the 64th Congress, starting March 4, 1915.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 3)
John Thornton Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.

Elections during the 63rd Congress

In these elections (some special, some merely late), the winners were seated in 1913 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in time.
New senator  elected late March 13, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Henry F. Hollis (Democratic) 189 votes
John H. Bartlett (Republican) 121 votes
Henry B. Quinby (Republican) 18 votes
Edward N. Pearson (Republican) 14 votes
Robert P. Bass (Progressive) 12 votes
Scattering 17 votes[10][21]
Illinois
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in time.
New senator  elected late March 26, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic) 164 votes
Frank H. Funk (Progressive) 22 votes
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 9 votes
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist) 4 votes[4]
Illinois
(Class 3)
Vacant 1909 election of William Lorimer (R) had been voided July 13, 1912.
New senator elected March 26, 1913.
Republican gain.
Green tickY Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 143 votes
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic) 25 votes
Frank H. Funk (Republican) 22 votes
McDonald (Socialist) 4 votes
Scattering 2 votes[4]
Elected by popular vote after ratification of the 17th Amendment
Georgia
(Class 2)
Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894
1900
1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
1913 (Appointed)
Legislature had failed to elect in time so the incumbent was appointed to begin the term.
Interim appointee re-elected late July 15, 1913.
Green tickY Augustus Bacon (Democratic)
Unopposed.[4]
Maryland
(Class 1)
William P. Jackson Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
New senator elected November 4, 1913 to finish the term ending March 3, 1917.
Winner did not qualify until January 28, 1914.[22]
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Blair Lee (Democratic)
[data unknown/missing]

Alabama

Incumbent Democrat John H. Bankhead had already been re-elected early January 17, 1911[23] for the 1913 term.

Arkansas

Arkansas senators
William M. Kavanaugh,
until March 3, 1913
Joseph T. Robinson,
from March 4, 1913

One-term incumbent Democrat Jeff Davis died January 3, 1913. Democratic Governor of Arkansas Joseph T. Robinson appointed John N. Heiskell January 6, 1913 to continue the term just until a special election.

Arkansas (Special)

John N. Heiskell was not a candidate in the special election. On January 29, 1913, the Arkansas Legislature elected Democratic businessman and former judge William Marmaduke Kavanaugh just to finish the term that would end in March 1913.

Arkansas (General)

Neither Heiskell nor Kavanaugh were candidates in the general election. On January 29, 1913, the Arkansas Legislature elected the Democratic Governor Joseph T. Robinson to the next term. This would be the last senate election by a state legislature before the April 8, 1913 adoption of the 17th amendment. Robinson would later become leader of Senate Democrats and Senate majority leader.

Arizona

Arizona class 1 election

December 12, 1911 1916 →
 
Henry Fountain Ashurst.jpg
Ralph H Cameron seated.jpg
Nominee Henry F. Ashurst Ralph H. Cameron
Party Democratic Republican
Electoral vote 54[e] 0
Popular vote 10,872 9,640
Percentage 50.00% 44.33%

Elected U.S. Senator

To be formally determined by the Arizona legislature

Arizona class 3 election

December 12, 1911 1914 →
 
Marcus Aurelius Smith.jpg
Hoval A. Smith.jpg
Nominee Marcus A. Smith Hoval A. Smith
Party Democratic Republican
Electoral vote 54[e] 0
Popular vote 10,598 9,228
Percentage 50.35% 43.85%

Elected U.S. Senator

To be formally determined by the Arizona legislature

Arizona became a new state February 14, 1912, with senators in classes 1 (ending 1917) and 3 (ending 1915). For the initial senators there was a popular vote held December 12, 1911 — before statehood — and the newly-formed state legislature effectively ratified the popular votes March 26, 1912: Democrat Henry F. Ashurst (class 1) and Democrat Marcus A. Smith (class 3).

Henry F. Ashurst was elected to the Territorial House of Representatives in 1897. He was re-elected in 1899, and became the territory's youngest speaker. In 1902, he was elected to the Territorial Senate. In 1911, Ashurst presided over Arizona's constitutional convention.[24] During the convention, he positioned himself for a U.S. Senate seat by avoiding the political fighting over various clauses in the constitution which damaged his rivals.[25]

Arizona general election (Class 1)[26]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry F. Ashurst 10,872 50.00%
Republican Ralph H. Cameron 9,640 44.33%
Socialist

E. Johnson 1,234 5.68%
Majority 1,232 5.67%
Turnout 21,746

Marcus A. Smith announced his candidacy for one of Arizona's two senate seats on September 24, 1911.[27] As the campaign began, Smith abandoned his long standing conservative stand and declared himself a "Progressive".[28]

Arizona general election (class 3)[29]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Marcus A. Smith 10,598 50.35%
Republican Hoval A. Smith 9,228 43.85%
Socialist

E. B. Simonton 1,221 5.80%
Majority 1,370 6.50%
Turnout 21,047

With the admission of Arizona as a state in 1912, the Arizona State Legislature confirmed the selection of Smith and Ashurst as the state's first U.S. senators on March 27, 1912,[30] taking office April 2, 1912.

Arizona Senate election, March 23, 1912
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry F. Ashurst 19 100%
Democratic Marcus A. Smith 19 100%
Arizona House of Representatives election, March 26, 1912
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry F. Ashurst 35 100%
Democratic Marcus A. Smith 35 100%

Colorado

On January 14, 1913, the Colorado General Assembly elected both of the state's senators: Democrat John F. Shafroth for the class 2 seat (ending 1919) and Democrat Charles S. Thomas for the class 3 seat (ending 1915).

Colorado (General)

One-term Republican incumbent Simon Guggenheim chose to retire in the term beginning March 4, 1913.

In the 1912 state elections, Democratic Governor of Colorado John F. Shafroth won the popular vote.

Colorado popular vote, class 2[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John F. Shafroth 118,260 47.34%
Republican Clyde Dawson 66,949 26.80%
Progressive Frank Catlin 58,649 23.48%
Prohibition Mary E. Miller 5,948 2.38%

The Colorado General Assembly ratified that decision January 14, 1913 by electing Thomas.

Colorado legislative vote, class 2 (combined votes of both houses)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John F. Shafroth 86 87.8%
Republican Clyde Dawson 11 11.2%
Progressive Frank Catlin 1 1.0%
Democratic gain from Republican

Colorado (Special)

Democrat Charles J. Hughes Jr. (D) had died January 11, 1911 and the seat remained vacant for two years because the Colorado General Assembly failed to elect a successor.[4]

In the 1912 state elections, Democrat Charles S. Thomas (former Governor of Colorado) won the popular vote,[citation needed] and the Colorado General Assembly ratified that decision January 14, 1913 by overwhelmingly voting for Thomas.

Colorado legislative vote, class 3 (combined votes of both houses)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Charles S. Thomas 88 88.9%
Republican Waterman 9 9.1%
Progressive Vincent 1 1.0%
Progressive Stevens 1 1.0%
Democratic gain from Vacant

Delaware

Incumbent Republican Harry A. Richardson retired after one term in office.

Democrat Willard Saulsbury Jr. had been a member of the Democratic National Committee since 1908 and had run for U.S. senator in 1899, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1907, and 1911, but Republicans controlled the state legislature and he was unsuccessful. In 1913, however, Democrats were in control of the legislature, Saulsbury was the preference of most Democrats, and he obtained the required majority January 29, 1913 after several days of balloting.

Delaware legislative election[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Willard Saulsbury Jr. 28 53.8%
Republican H. A. Richardson 11 21.2%
Republican John G. Townsend 5 9.6%
Republican Alfred I. du Pont 3 5.8%
Republican Alexander P. Corbit 3 5.8%
Republican Simeon S. Pennewill 1 1.9%
Republican Ruby R. Vale 1 1.9%

Georgia

The Georgia General Assembly failed to elect a senator, as Democratic incumbent Augustus O. Bacon's term ended. The Governor of Georgia therefore appointed Bacon to begin the term, pending a late election.

On June 15, 1913 Bacon was elected by the general populace without opposition, becoming the first senator elected under the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Idaho

Idaho (General)

Idaho general election (class 2)

← 1907 January 14, 1913 1924 →

Needed to Win: Majority of the votes cast in each house
  Majority party Minority party
 
Williameborah.jpg
Kirtlandperky.jpg
Party Republican Democratic
Members' vote 75 2
Percentage 94.9% 2.5%

U.S. senator before election

William Borah
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William Borah
Republican

First term Republican incumbent William Borah was easily re-elected over two Democratic challengers.

Idaho legislative election, class 2 (January 14, 1913)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William Borah 75 94.9%
Democratic Kirtland I. Perky 2 2.5%
Democratic George A. Tannahill 2 2.5%
Republican hold

Idaho (Special)

Idaho special election (class 3)

← 1909 January 24, 1913 1914 →

Needed to Win: Majority of the votes cast in each house
  Majority party Minority party
 
Jamesbrady.jpg
Party Republican Republican
Members' vote 43 7
Percentage 53.8% 8.8%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Johnnugent.jpg
Party Democratic Scattering
Members' vote 5 25
Percentage 6.3% 38.7%

U.S. senator before election

James H. Brady
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

James H. Brady
Republican

Two-term incumbent Republican Weldon Heyburn died October 17, 1912. Democratic lawyer and former-Judge Kirtland I. Perky was appointed November 18, 1912 to continue the term pending a special election.

Perky was not a candidate in the special election, which was won by Republican former-Governor James H. Brady. Brady would win re-election in a popular vote in 1914.

Idaho legislative election, class 3 (January 24, 1913)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican James H. Brady 43 53.8%
Republican James F. Ailshie 7 8.8%
Democratic John F. Nugent 5 6.3%
Unknown James E. Babb 5 6.3%
Unknown Robert N. Dunn 4 5.0%
Unknown E. H. Dewey 4 5.0%
Republican J. T. Morrison 3 3.8%
Republican Burton L. French 2 2.5%
Democratic James Hanrahan 2 2.5%
Unknown C. A. Beale 1 1.3%
Unknown George Fields 1 1.3%
Unknown J. F. Maclane 1 1.3%
Unknown T. L. Burkland 1 1.3%
Unknown W. C. Courtney 1 1.3%
Republican gain from Democratic

Illinois

In the November 1912 state elections, the Republicans lost control of the state due to the Republican / Progressive split. But while the Democrats held a plurality of the Illinois General Assembly, they did not have a majority. The General Assembly took up the matter of electing the senators on February 1. The General Assembly therefore failed to elect until after the new congress began.

On March 26, in a compromise arranged by governor Dunne, the General Assembly elected Democrat J. Hamilton Lewis to fill the full-term seat and Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman to fill the two remaining years of a vacancy that had just recently opened.

Illinois (General)

On April 12, 1912, five-term Republican incumbent Shelby Moore Cullom lost renomination to Lieutenant Governor of Illinois Lawrence Y. Sherman in the Republican "advisory" primary, where the voters expressed their preference for senator but the decision was not binding on the General Assembly, which made the actual choice. Cullom had suffered politically over his support for the other Illinois senator, William Lorimer, who was embroiled in a scandal over alleged bribery in his 1909 election to the Senate.

Illinois Republican primary (April 12, 1912)[31]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman 178,063 46.16%
Republican Shelby Moore Cullom 129,375 33.54%
Republican Hugh S. Magill 78,344 20.31%

After his defeat, Cullom withdrew his name from consideration by the General Assembly.

The Illinois General Assembly eventually elected the Democratic nominee, Congressman J. Hamilton Lewis March 26, 1913.

Illinois legislative vote, class 2 (March 26, 1913)[32][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic J. Hamilton Lewis 164 80.39%
Progressive Frank H. Funk 22 10.78%
Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman 9 4.41%
Independent Abstaining 5 2.45%
Socialist

Bernard Berlyn 4 1.96%
Democratic gain from Republican

Illinois (Special)

Three months after the primary in which Sherman defeated Cullom, the U.S. Senate invalidated Lorimer's 1909 election and declared the seat vacant.[34] The Illinois Attorney General, William H. Stead determined that the General Assembly had failed to properly elect Lorimer in 1909 and so the Governor could not appoint a replacement.[35] As a result, the General Assembly had a second Senate seat to fill.

Illinois special legislative vote, class 3 (March 26, 1913)[36][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lawrence Yates Sherman 143 70.10%
Democratic Charles Boeschenstein 25 12.26%
Progressive Frank H. Funk 22 10.78%
Independent Abstaining 9 4.41%
Socialist

McDonald 4 1.96%
Democratic John Fitzpatrick 1 0.49%
Republican gain from Vacant

Iowa

Iowa election

← 1911 (Special) [data unknown/missing] 1918 →

Needed to Win: Majority of the votes cast in each house
  Majority party Minority party
 
William Squire Kenyon.jpg
DanielWHamilton.jpg
Party Republican Democratic
Members' vote 91[f] 58[g]

U.S. senator before election

William S. Kenyon
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William S. Kenyon
Republican

Incumbent Republican William S. Kenyon, who had just won a 1911 special election to the seat, was easily re-elected by the Iowa General Assembly over Democratic former congressman Daniel W. Hamilton.[4]

Iowa legislative vote (in Iowa Senate)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William S. Kenyon 29 61.70%
Democratic Daniel W. Hamilton 18 38.30%
Iowa legislative vote (in Iowa House)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William S. Kenyon 62 60.78%
Democratic Daniel W. Hamilton 40 39.22%
Republican hold

Kansas

Kansas election

← 1907 January 29, 1913 1918 →
 
William Howard Thompson.jpg
WRStubbs.gif
Nominee William H. Thompson W. R. Stubbs
Party Democratic Republican
Electoral vote 160[h] 3[i]
Popular vote 172,601 151,647

 
Sen. Henry J. Allen of Kansas, 10-16-29 LCCN2016844141 (cropped half length).jpg
No image.svg
Nominee Henry J. Allen Allan W. Ricker
Party Progressive Socialist
Electoral vote 1[j] 0
Popular vote 0 25,610

U.S. senator before election

Charles Curtis
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William H. Thompson
Democratic

One-term incumbent Republican (and future Vice President) Charles Curtis lost renomination to Governor of Kansas Walter R. Stubbs, who then lost the general election to Democratic Judge William H. Thompson as Democrats took control of the Kansas Legislature in the 1912 state elections.

Kansas popular election in Kansas, 1912[37]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William H. Thompson 172,601 49.34%
Republican W. R. Stubbs 151,647 43.35%
Socialist Allan W. Ricker 25,610 7.32%
Total votes 349,858 100.00%
Kansas Senate election, January 28, 1913[38]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William H. Thompson 40 100%
Turnout 40 100.0%
Kansas House of Representatives election, January 29, 1912[38]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William H. Thompson 120 96.8%
Republican W. R. Stubbs 3 2.4%
Progressive Henry J. Allen 1 0.8%
Turnout 124 99.2%
Democratic gain from Republican

Thompson would only serve one term, losing re-election in 1918.

Curtis, meanwhile, would go on to be re-elected in 1914 to the other seat for three terms before resigning to become U.S. Vice President.

Kentucky

Louisiana

Louisiana held two elections May 21, 1912: an election for the class 2 term that would begin March 4, 1913 and an election for the class 3 term that would begin March 4, 1915.

Louisiana (General, class 2)

In the class 2 seat, Democrat Murphy J. Foster lost renomination to fellow-Democrat Joseph E. Ransdell, who later was elected unopposed to seat.

Louisiana (General, class 3)

In the class 3 seat, Democrat John Thornton retired. Fellow-Democrat Robert F. Broussard was elected unopposed.

Maine

Democratic interim appointee Obadiah Gardner was elected to April 2, 1912 finish the term.

Maine (Special)

Democratic interim appointee Obadiah Gardner was elected April 2, 1912 to finish the term ending March 3, 1913.

Maine (General)

Democrat Obadiah Gardner was re-elected January 15, 1913 for the term starting March 4, 1913.

Maryland (Special)

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada (Special)

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

Initial election

New Mexico became a new state January 6, 1912, with senators in classes 1 (ending 1917) and 2 (ending 1913). On March 27, 1912, the state elected its initial senators on the eighth ballot[39]: Republican Thomas B. Catron, an early advocate for New Mexico statehood who had marshaled the territorial Republican Party to lobby Republicans at the national level for New Mexico's admission to the Union,[40][41][42] and Republican Albert B. Fall, a powerful attorney, former territorial attorney general, future Secretary of the Interior, and instigator of the Teapot Dome scandal)

Catron made a personal alliance with Fall, ensuring that each of them would be elected. This alliance antagonized New Mexicans of Spanish heritage, who had hoped that one of their own would become a Senator.[43]

General election

Fall's term would end in March 1913, so he was up for re-election shortly after his initial term began.

The bitterness over Catron and Fall's alliance made Fall a target of the local Republican Party, as they believed Fall had not contributed sufficiently to their efforts to secure New Mexico's statehood, and was not worthy of their nomination. The selection of Catron and Fall also disappointed Hispanics, who had hoped that one of their own would be selected. Fall was also severely disliked by Democrats.

After various votes, the legislature re-elected Fall. Governor McDonald, on the advice of his Democratic legal advisor, Summers Burkhart, said that the legislature's procedure had been illegal, and failed to sign the credentialing papers in an attempt to oust Fall by forcing a special session of the legislature and a new vote.[44] The attempt failed; Fall won the special legislative election.[45]

North Carolina

Oklahoma

Oregon

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Republican interim appointee Newell Sanders retired and Tennessee legislature elected two senators January 23, 1913: one to finish the term and one to the next term.

Tennessee (Special)

Republican interim appointee Newell Sanders retired and Democrat William R. Webb was elected January 23, 1913 to finish the term ending March 3, 1913.

Tennessee (General)

Republican interim appointee Newell Sanders retired and Democrat John K. Shields was elected January 23, 1913 to the next term beginning March 4, 1913.

Texas

Texas held two elections January 23, 1913: a special election for the term ending March 3, 1913, and a general election for the next term starting March 4, 1913.

Texas (Special)

Texas (General)

Virginia

Virginia held non-binding primaries September 7, 1911 for both the class 2 seat held by Democrat Thomas S. Martin, who was running for re-election, and the class 1 seat held by Democrat Claude Swanson, who had been appointed to fill a vacancy.[46]

Virginia (Special)

Democrat John W. Daniel died June 29, 1910, and Democrat Claude A. Swanson, a former Governor of Virginia and former Congressman, had been appointed February 28, 1911 to begin the 1911–1917 term, pending a special election.

Swanson won the class 1 Democratic primary for the term ending in 1917 with 67,495 votes over (future senator) Carter Glass's 28,757 votes.[47]

On January 24, 1912, the Virginia General Assembly unanimously elected Swanson.[48][49]

Virginia Senate election, January 23, 1912[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Claude A. Swanson 34 100%
Virginia House of Delegates election, January 23, 1912[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Claude A. Swanson 83 100%

Virginia (General)

Three-term incumbent Democrat Thomas S. Martin won the Democratic primary for the class 2 term ending in 1919, receiving 57,120 votes to 25,005 for William Atkinson Jones.

On January 24, 1912, the Virginia General Assembly unanimously elected Martin.[48][49]

Virginia Senate election, January 23, 1912[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Thomas S. Martin 34 100%
Virginia House of Delegates election, January 23, 1912[50]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Thomas S. Martin 85 100%

West Virginia

Wyoming

See also

Notes

  1. ^ as Democratic Conference Chairman
  2. ^ as Republican Conference Chairman
  3. ^ [sic], probably "William J. Mills"
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Senator was selected by some form of direct voting and then subsequently elected by state legislatures.
  5. ^ a b All 19 senators and 35 members of the House of Representatives
  6. ^ 29 Senate votes, 62 House votes
  7. ^ 18 Senate votes, 40 House votes
  8. ^ All 40 senators and 120 of the 124 members of the House of Representatives
  9. ^ 3 members of the House of Representatives
  10. ^ 1 member of the House of Representatives
  11. ^ [sic], probably "William J. Mills"

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k United States Senators Chosen, 1912, p. 457.
  2. ^ a b "AZ US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  3. ^ Byrd, p. 118.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x United States Senators Chosen, 1913, p. 458.
  5. ^ a b c d e f United States Senators Chosen, 1913, p. 460.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - NV US Senate - Special Race - Nov 05, 1912". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  7. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1913, pp. 458–459.
  8. ^ "KS US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m United States Senators Chosen, 1913, p. 459.
  10. ^ "MN US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  11. ^ "MT US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  12. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  13. ^ "NE US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  14. ^ "OK US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  15. ^ "OR US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  16. ^ The New York Times, January 22, 1913, p. 4.
  17. ^ "SD US Senate - R Primary". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
  18. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1913, pp. 459–460.
  19. ^ "Anti-Saloon Men Heard at Richmond". Washington Gerald. Washington, DC. January 25, 1912. p. 1.
  20. ^ "NH US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
  21. ^ "U.S. Senate: The Election Case of William P. Jackson v. Blair Lee of Maryland (1914)". www.senate.gov. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  22. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 455.
  23. ^ "Henry Fountain Ashurst Dead; Former Senator from Arizona". New York Times. June 1, 1962. p. 27.
  24. ^ Johnston, Alva (December 25, 1937). "The Dean of Inconsistency". The Saturday Evening Post. 210: 23, 38–40.
  25. ^ "Our Campaigns - AZ US Senate Race - Mar 27, 1912". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  26. ^ Fazio 1970, p. 55.
  27. ^ Goff 1985, p. 145.
  28. ^ "Our Campaigns - AZ US Senate Race - Dec 12, 1911". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  29. ^ Goff 1989, p. 60.
  30. ^ "IL US Senate-R Primary". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
  31. ^ "IL US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
  32. ^ Taylor, Julius F. "The Broad Ax". Illinois Digital Newspaper Collections. Retrieved June 22, 2015.
  33. ^ "Lorimer ousted by decisive vote". The New York Times. July 14, 1912.
  34. ^ "Lorimer never elected". The New York Times. July 18, 1912.
  35. ^ "IL US Senate Special". Our Campaigns. Retrieved March 27, 2020.
  36. ^ "KS US Senate". Our Campaigns. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
  37. ^ a b Senate Journal. Proceedings of the Senate of the State of Kansas. Eighteenth biennial session, Topeka, January 14 to March 17, 1913. Topeka, Kansas: W. C. Austin, State Printer. 1913.
  38. ^ "NEW MEXICO SENATORS". The New York Times. March 28, 1912. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  39. ^ Prince, Le Baron Bradford (1910). New Mexico's Struggle for Statehood. p. 91.
  40. ^ Larson, Robert W. New Mexico's Quest for Statehood, 1846-1912. p. 98.
  41. ^ McCord, Richard (2009). Santa Fe Living Treasures: Our Elders, Our Hearts. p. 52.
  42. ^ "New Mexico Natives Bitter Over Defeat" (PDF). The New York Times. April 7, 1912.
  43. ^ Twitchell, Ralph Emerson (1911). The Leading Facts of New Mexican History. V. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press. p. 122. OCLC 3828708.
  44. ^ Twitchell, p. 203.
  45. ^ "Martin-Swanson Majority Swells". Newport Daily Press. Newport News, Virginia. September 9, 1911. p. 1.
  46. ^ Bell, James B. (1911). Congressional Directory, 62nd Congress, 2nd Session. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 107.
  47. ^ a b "Return Martin to Senate: Virginia Assembly Re-Elects him Senator, also Elects Swanson". Belvidere Daily Republican. Belvidere, IL. January 25, 1912. p. 1.
  48. ^ a b "Returned to United States Senate by Vieginia". New Philadelphia Daily Times. New Philadelphia, Ohio. January 25, 1912. p. 8.
  49. ^ a b c d Journal of the House of Delegates of Virginia. 1912. p. 184.

Sources

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