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1912 and 1913 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1912 and 1913 United States Senate elections

← 1910/11 January 16, 1912 –
January 29, 1913
1914 →

32 of the 96 seats in the United States Senate
49 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JohnWKern.jpg
Jacob Harold Gallinger.jpg
Leader John W. Kern[a] Jacob H. Gallinger[b]
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Indiana New Hampshire
Seats before 43 52
Seats won 17 12
Seats after 47 45
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 7
Seats up 13 19
Seats won 17 12

US 1912 senate election map.svg
Results of the elections:
     Democratic gain      Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold
     No election

Majority conference chairman before election

Shelby Moore Cullom
Republican

Elected Majority conference chairman

John W. Kern
Democratic

In the United States Senate elections of 1912 and 1913, Democrats gained control of the Senate from the Republicans. Of the 22 seats up for election, 17 were won by Democrats, thereby gaining 4 seats from the Republicans. Two seats were unfilled by state legislators who failed to elect a new senator on time. They were the last Senate elections held before ratification of the 17th Amendment, which established direct elections for all seats in the Senate.

These elections coincided with Democrat Woodrow Wilson's victory in the presidential election amid a divide in the Republican Party. In the Senate, Joseph M. Dixon and Miles Poindexter defected from the Republican Party and joined Theodore Roosevelt's new Progressive Party. Dixon, however, lost his seat during this election.

Some states elected their senators directly even before passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election.

This was the first time in 20 years that the Democrats won a majority in the Senate.

Results summary

The Senate after the elections in 1912
The Senate after the elections in 1912
Parties Total Seats
Incumbents This election Result +/-
Not up Up Re-
elected
Held Gained Lost
  Democratic 43 30 13 5 5 Increase 7 Decrease 2 47 Increase 4
  Republican 52 33 19 6 4 Increase 2 Decrease 7 45 Decrease 7
Others 0 0 0 0 0 Steady Steady 0 Steady
Vacant 1 1 0 Steady Steady Increase 3 Steady 4 Increase 3
Total 96 64 32 11 9 Increase 12 Decrease 9 96 Decrease 3

Change in composition

Before the elections

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Ala.
Ran
D28
Ariz.
New seat
D38
S.C.
Ran
D37
Okla.
Ran
D36
N.C.
Ran
D35
Miss.
Ran
D34
Maine (sp)
Maine (reg)
Ran
D33
La.
Ran
D32
Ky.
Retired
D31
Ga.
Ran
D30
Ark.
Retired
D29
Ariz.
New seat
D39
Tex.
Retired
D40
Va. (reg)
Ran
D41
Va. (sp)
Ran
D42
W.Va.
Ran
V1
Colo. (sp)
Died
V2
Ill. (sp)
R52
Wyo.
Ran
R51
Tenn.
Retired
R50
S.D.
Ran
R49
R.I.
Retired
Majority →
R39
Mass.
Retired
R40
Mich.
Ran
R41
Minn.
Ran
R42
Mont.
Ran
R43
Neb.
Ran
R44
N.H.
Retired
R45
N.J.
Ran
R46
N.M. (1st)
New seat
R47
N.M. (1st)
New seat
N.M. (reg)
Ran
R48
Ore.
Ran
R38
Kan.
Ran
R37
Iowa
Ran
R36
Ill.
Ran
R35
Idaho
Ran
R34
Del.
Retired
R33
Colo.
Retired
R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Results of elections before the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Ala.
Re-elected
D28
Ariz.
Gain
D38
Mont.
Gain
D37
Miss.
Hold
D36
La.
Hold
D35
Ky.
Hold
D34
Kan.
Gain
D33
Del.
Gain
D32
Colo. (sp)
Gain
D31
Colo.
Gain
D30
Ark.
Hold
D29
Ariz.
Gain
D39
N.J.
Gain
D40
N.C.
Re-elected
D41
Okla.
Re-elected
D42
Ore.
Gain
D43
S.C.
Re-elected
D44
Tenn.
Gain
D45
Tex.
Hold
D46
Va. (reg)
Re-elected
D47
Va. (sp)
Elected[c]
V1
Ga.
D Loss
Majority ↑
R39
Neb.
Hold
R40
N.M. (1st)
Gain
R41
N.M. (1st)
Gain
N.M. (reg)
Re-elected
R42
R.I.
Hold
R43
S.D.
Hold
R44
W.Va.
Gain
R45
Wyo.
Re-elected
V4
N.H.
R Loss
V3
Ill. (reg)
R Loss
V2
Ill. (sp)
R38
Minn.
Re-elected
R37
Mich.
Re-elected
R36
Mass.
Hold
R35
Maine (sp)
Elected[c]
Maine (reg)
Gain
R34
Iowa
Re-elected
R33
Idaho
Re-elected
R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the next Congress, March 4, 1913

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
Ga.
Appointed
R39 R40 R41 R42 V4
Ill. (reg)
V3
Ill. (sp)
V2
W.Va.
Seated late
P1
Wash.
Changed
V1
N.H.
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Beginning of the first session, April 7, 1913

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8
D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9
D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28
D38 D37 D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29
D39 D40 D41 D42 D43 D44 D45 D46 D47 D48
Majority → D49
R39 R40 R41 R42 R43
Ill. (reg)
Gain
R44
Ill. (sp)
Gain
R45
W.Va.
Seated late
P1 D50
N.H.
Gain
R38 R37 R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29
R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26 R27 R28
R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8
Key
D# Democratic
P# Progressive
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Complete list of races

Special elections during the 62nd Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated in the 62nd Congress during 1912 or before March 4, 1913; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 1)
Claude A. Swanson Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 23, 1912.
New Mexico
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected March 27, 1912.
Republican gain.
New Mexico
(Class 2)
New seat New senator elected March 27, 1912.
Republican gain.
Winner was also subsequently elected to the next term, see below.
Arizona
(Class 1)
New seat New senator elected March 26, 1912, ratifying the popular selection made on December 12, 1911 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Arizona
(Class 3)
New seat New senator elected March 26, 1912, ratifying the popular selection made on December 12, 1911 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Maine
(Class 2)
Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected April 2, 1912.[3]
Colorado
(Class 3)
Vacant Charles J. Hughes Jr. (D) had died January 11, 1911.
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Tennessee
(Class 2)
Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 24, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Winner did not run for election to the following term, see below.
  • Green tickY William R. Webb (Democratic) 73 votes
  • M. T. Bryan (Democratic) 53 votes
  • J. A. Clements (Democratic) 1 vote
  • C. W. Tyler (Democratic) 1 vote[5]
Texas
(Class 2)
Rienzi Johnston Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Winner also elected to the next term, see below.
Idaho
(Class 3)
Kirtland I. Perky Democratic 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected January 24, 1913.
Republican gain.
Arkansas
(Class 2)
John N. Heiskell Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 27, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Winner did not run for election to the following term, see below.
Nevada
(Class 1)
William A. Massey Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected[e] January 28, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.

Races leading to the 63rd Congress

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1913; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic 1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent had already been re-elected early January 17, 1911, for the term beginning March 4, 1913.
Arkansas John N. Heiskell Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 29, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Colorado Simon Guggenheim Republican 1907 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[e]
Democratic gain.
Delaware Harry A. Richardson Republican 1907 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 29, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Georgia Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894
1900
1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent ran for re-election but the legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Incumbent was then appointed to begin the term.[4]
Augustus Bacon (Democratic)
Idaho William Borah Republican 1907 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1913.
Illinois Shelby M. Cullom Republican 1882
1888
1894
1901
1907
Incumbent lost renomination.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
A new senator was later elected, see below.
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist)
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic)
Frank H. Funk (Progressive)
J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic)
McDonald (Socialist)
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican)[4]
Iowa William S. Kenyon Republican 1911 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913.
Kansas Charles Curtis Republican 1907 (Special)
1907
Incumbent lost re-election.[e]
New senator elected January 28, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[e]
Democratic gain.
Kentucky Thomas H. Paynter Democratic 1906 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 16, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Louisiana Murphy J. Foster Democratic 1900
1904
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Maine Obadiah Gardner Democratic 1911 (Appointed)
1912 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 15, 1913.
Republican gain.
Massachusetts Winthrop M. Crane Republican 1904 (Appointed)
1905 (Special)
1907
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 14, 1913.
Republican hold.
Michigan William A. Smith Republican 1911 Incumbent re-elected January 14, 1913.
Minnesota Knute Nelson Republican 1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[e]
Mississippi LeRoy Percy Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 16, 1912.
Democratic hold.
Montana Joseph M. Dixon Republican 1907 Incumbent lost re-election as a Progressive.[e]
New senator elected January 14, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Democratic gain.
Nebraska Norris Brown Republican 1907 Incumbent lost renomination.[13]
New senator elected January 21, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.
Republican hold.
New Hampshire Henry E. Burnham Republican 1901
1907
Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
New senator was elected late, see below.
New Jersey Frank O. Briggs Republican 1907 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Democratic gain.
New Mexico Albert B. Fall Republican 1912 (New state) Incumbent re-elected June 6, 1912.
Legislature invalidated the election.
Incumbent then re-elected January 28, 1913.
January 28, 1913 election:
North Carolina Furnifold Simmons Democratic 1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913.
Oklahoma Robert L. Owen Democratic 1907 Incumbent re-elected January 21, 1913.[e]
Oregon Jonathan Bourne, Jr. Republican 1907 Incumbent lost renomination and then lost re-election as Popular Government candidate.
New senator elected January 21, 1913, ratifying the popular selection made in 1912 state elections.[e]
Democratic gain.
Rhode Island George P. Wetmore Republican 1894
1900
1907 (No election)
1908 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 21, 1913.[17]
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY LeBaron B. Colt (Republican) 88 votes
  • Addison P. Munroe (Democratic) 42 votes
  • George W. Parks (Progressive) 7 votes[10]
South Carolina Benjamin Tillman Democratic 1894
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 28, 1913.
South Dakota Robert J. Gamble Republican 1901
1907
Incumbent lost renomination.[18]
New senator elected January 22, 1913.
Republican hold.
Tennessee Newell Sanders Republican 1912 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 23, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Texas Rienzi Johnston Democratic 1913 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected January 28, 1913.
Democratic hold.
Virginia Thomas S. Martin Democratic 1893 (Early)
1899 (Early)
1906
Incumbent re-elected January 23, 1912.
West Virginia Clarence Watson Democratic 1911 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 21, 1913.[20]
Republican gain.
Winner took seat late.
Wyoming Francis E. Warren Republican 1890
1893 (Lost)
1895
1901
1907
Incumbent re-elected January 28, 1913.

Early election to the following Congress

In this early general election, the winner was seated in the 64th Congress, starting March 4, 1915.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 3)
John Thornton Democratic 1910 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early May 21, 1912.
Democratic hold.

Elections during the 63rd Congress

In these elections (some special, some merely late), the winners were seated in 1913 after March 4.

Some of those five elections late and some special, some by legislatures before ratification of the amendment and some popularly thereafter:

They are ordered here by election date, then by class.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in time.
New senator elected late March 13, 1913 on the 43rd ballot.[21]
Democratic gain.
Illinois
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in time.
New senator elected late March 26, 1913.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY J. Hamilton Lewis (Democratic) 164 votes
Frank H. Funk (Progressive) 22 votes
Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 9 votes
Bernard Berlyn (Socialist) 4 votes[4]
Illinois
(Class 3)
Vacant 1909 election of William Lorimer (R) had been voided July 13, 1912.
New senator elected March 26, 1913.
Republican gain.
Green tickY Lawrence Y. Sherman (Republican) 143 votes
Charles Boeschenstein (Democratic) 25 votes
Frank H. Funk (Republican) 22 votes
McDonald (Socialist) 4 votes
Scattering 2 votes[4]
Elected by popular vote after ratification of the 17th Amendment
Georgia
(Class 2)
Augustus Bacon Democratic 1894
1900
1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
1913 (Appointed)
Legislature had failed to elect in time so the incumbent was appointed to begin the term.
Interim appointee re-elected late June 15, 1913.
Green tickY Augustus Bacon (Democratic)
Unopposed.[4]
Maryland
(Class 1)
William P. Jackson Republican 1912 (Appointed) Appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
New senator elected November 4, 1913 to finish the term ending March 3, 1917.
Winner did not qualify until January 28, 1914.[23]
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Blair Lee (Democratic)
Thomas Parran Sr. (Republican)

Alabama

Incumbent Democrat John H. Bankhead had already been re-elected early January 17, 1911[24] for the 1913 term.

Arkansas

One-term incumbent Democrat Jeff Davis died January 3, 1913. Democratic Governor of Arkansas Joseph T. Robinson appointed John N. Heiskell January 6, 1913 to continue the term just until a special election.

Arkansas (Special)

Arkansas special election (class 2)

← 1909 January 24, 1913
 
WilliamMKavanaugh.jpg
Nominee William Kavanaugh Scattering
Party Democratic Other
Members' vote 77 58
Percentage 57.0% 43.0%

U.S. senator before election

John N. Heiskell
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

William Kavanaugh
Republican

John N. Heiskell was not a candidate in the special election. On January 29, 1913, the Arkansas Legislature elected Democratic businessman and former judge William Marmaduke Kavanaugh just to finish the term that would end in March 1913.

Arkansas (Regular)

Arkansas general election (class 2)

January 24, 1913 1918 →
 
Joseph T. Robinson cropped.jpg
Nominee Joseph T. Robinson Stephen Brundidge Jr.
Party Democratic Democratic
Members' vote 71 36
Percentage 53.0% 26.9%

U.S. senator before election

John N. Heiskell
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Joseph T. Robinson
Democratic

Neither Heiskell nor Kavanaugh were candidates in the general election. On January 29, 1913, the Arkansas Legislature elected the Democratic Governor Joseph T. Robinson to the next term. This would be the last senate election by a state legislature before the April 8, 1913 adoption of the 17th amendment. Robinson would later become leader of Senate Democrats and Senate majority leader.

Arizona

Arizona class 1 election

December 12, 1911,
March 26, 1912
1916 →
 
Henry Fountain Ashurst.jpg
Ralph H Cameron seated.jpg
Nominee Henry F. Ashurst Ralph H. Cameron
Party Democratic Republican
Electoral vote 54 0
Popular vote 10,872 9,640
Percentage 50.00% 44.33%

U.S. senator before election

none

Elected U.S. Senator

To be formally determined by the Arizona legislature

Arizona class 3 election

December 12, 1911,
March 26, 1912
1914 →
 
Marcus Aurelius Smith.jpg
Hoval A. Smith.jpg
Nominee Marcus A. Smith Hoval A. Smith
Party Democratic Republican
Electoral vote 54 0
Popular vote 10,598 9,228
Percentage 50.35% 43.85%

U.S. senator before election

none

Elected U.S. Senator

To be formally determined by the Arizona legislature

Arizona became a new state February 14, 1912, with senators in classes 1 (ending 1917) and 3 (ending 1915). For the initial senators there was a popular vote held December 12, 1911 — before statehood — and the newly formed state legislature effectively ratified the popular votes March 26, 1912: Democrat Henry F. Ashurst (class 1) and Democrat Marcus A. Smith (class 3).

Henry F. Ashurst was elected to the Territorial House of Representatives in 1897. He was re-elected in 1899, and became the territory's youngest speaker. In 1902, he was elected to the Territorial Senate. In 1911, Ashurst presided over Arizona's constitutional convention.[25] During the convention, he positioned himself for a U.S. Senate seat by avoiding the political fighting over various clauses in the constitution which damaged his rivals.[26]

Arizona general election (Class 1)[27]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry F. Ashurst 10,872 50.00%
Republican Ralph H. Cameron 9,640 44.33%
Socialist

E. Johnson 1,234 5.68%
Majority 1,232 5.67%
Turnout 21,746

Marcus A. Smith announced his candidacy for one of Arizona's two senate seats on September 24, 1911.[28] As the campaign began, Smith abandoned his long standing conservative stand and declared himself a "Progressive".[29]

Arizona general election (class 3)[30]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Marcus A. Smith 10,598 50.35%
Republican Hoval A. Smith 9,228 43.85%
Socialist

E. B. Simonton 1,221 5.80%
Majority 1,370 6.50%
Turnout 21,047

With the admission of Arizona as a state in 1912, the Arizona State Legislature confirmed the selection of Smith and Ashurst as the state's first U.S. senators on March 27, 1912,[31] taking office April 2, 1912.

Arizona Senate election, March 23, 1912
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry F. Ashurst 19 100%
Democratic Marcus A. Smith 19 100%
Arizona House of Representatives election, March 26, 1912
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry F. Ashurst 35 100%
Democratic Marcus A. Smith 35 100%

Colorado

On January 14, 1913, the Colorado General Assembly elected both of the state's senators: Democrat John F. Shafroth for the class 2 seat (ending 1919) and Democrat Charles S. Thomas for the class 3 seat (ending 1915).

Colorado (Regular)

One-term Republican incumbent Simon Guggenheim chose to retire in the term beginning March 4, 1913.

In the 1912 state elections, Democratic Governor of Colorado John F. Shafroth won the popular vote.

Colorado popular vote, class 2[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John F. Shafroth 118,260 47.34%
Republican Clyde Dawson 66,949 26.80%
Progressive Frank Catlin 58,649 23.48%
Prohibition Mary E. Miller 5,948 2.38%

The Colorado General Assembly ratified that decision January 14, 1913 by electing Thomas.

Colorado legislative vote, class 2 (combined votes of both houses)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John F. Shafroth 86 87.8%
Republican Clyde Dawson 11 11.2%
Progressive Frank Catlin 1 1.0%
Democratic gain from Republican

Colorado (Special)

Democrat Charles J. Hughes Jr. (D) had died January 11, 1911 and the seat remained vacant for two years because the Colorado General Assembly failed to elect a successor.[4]

In the 1912 state elections, Democrat Charles S. Thomas (former Governor of Colorado) won the popular vote,[citation needed] and the Colorado General Assembly ratified that decision January 14, 1913 by overwhelmingly voting for Thomas.

Colorado legislative vote, class 3 (combined votes of both houses)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Charles S. Thomas 88 88.9%
Republican Waterman 9 9.1%
Progressive Vincent 1 1.0%
Progressive Stevens 1 1.0%
Democratic gain from Vacant

Delaware

Incumbent Republican Harry A. Richardson retired after one term in office.

Democrat Willard Saulsbury Jr. had been a member of the Democratic National Committee since 1908 and had run for U.S. senator in 1899, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1907, and 1911, but Republicans controlled the state legislature and he was unsuccessful. In 1913, however, Democrats were in control of the legislature, Saulsbury was the preference of most Democrats, and he obtained the required majority January 29, 1913 after several days of balloting.

Delaware legislative election[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Willard Saulsbury Jr. 28 53.8%
Republican H. A. Richardson 11 21.2%
Republican John G. Townsend 5 9.6%
Republican Alfred I. du Pont 3 5.8%
Republican Alexander P. Corbit 3 5.8%
Republican Simeon S. Pennewill 1 1.9%
Republican Ruby R. Vale 1 1.9%

Georgia

Georgia late election

← 1911 (Special) June 15, 1913 1914 (Special) →
 
AugustusOctaviusBacon.jpg
Nominee Augustus Octavius Bacon
Party Democratic
Percentage Unopposed

U.S. senator before election

Augustus Octavius Bacon
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Augustus Octavius Bacon
Democratic

The Georgia General Assembly failed to elect a senator, as Democratic incumbent Augustus O. Bacon's term ended. The Governor of Georgia therefore appointed Bacon to begin the term, pending a late election.

On June 15, 1913 Bacon was elected by the general populace without opposition, becoming the first senator elected under the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Bacon died in early 1914, however, leading to another interim appointment and eventual special election.

Idaho

Idaho (Regular)

Idaho general election (class 2)

← 1907 January 14, 1913 1918 →
 
Williameborah.jpg
Kirtlandperky.jpg
Nominee William Borah Kirtland I. Perky
Party Republican Democratic
Members' vote 75 2
Percentage 94.9% 2.5%

U.S. senator before election

William Borah
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William Borah
Republican

First term Republican incumbent William Borah was easily re-elected over two Democratic challengers.

Idaho legislative election, class 2 (January 14, 1913)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William Borah 75 94.9%
Democratic Kirtland I. Perky 2 2.5%
Democratic George A. Tannahill 2 2.5%
Republican hold

Idaho (Special)

Idaho special election (class 3)

← 1909 January 24, 1913 1914 →
 
Jamesbrady.jpg
Nominee James H. Brady James F. Ailshie
Party Republican Republican
Members' vote 43 7
Percentage 53.8% 8.8%

 
Johnnugent.jpg
Nominee John F. Nugent
Party Democratic Scattering
Members' vote 5 25
Percentage 6.3% 38.7%

U.S. senator before election

James H. Brady
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

James H. Brady
Republican

Two-term incumbent Republican Weldon Heyburn died October 17, 1912. Democratic lawyer and former-Judge Kirtland I. Perky was appointed November 18, 1912 to continue the term pending a special election.

Perky was not a candidate in the special election, which was won by Republican former-Governor James H. Brady. Brady would win re-election in a popular vote in 1914.

Idaho legislative election, class 3 (January 24, 1913)[4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican James H. Brady 43 53.8%
Republican James F. Ailshie 7 8.8%
Democratic John F. Nugent 5 6.3%
Unknown James E. Babb 5 6.3%
Unknown Robert N. Dunn 4 5.0%
Unknown E. H. Dewey 4 5.0%
Republican J. T. Morrison 3 3.8%
Republican Burton L. French 2 2.5%
Democratic James Hanrahan 2 2.5%
Unknown C. A. Beale 1 1.3%
Unknown George Fields 1 1.3%
Unknown J. F. Maclane 1 1.3%
Unknown T. L. Burkland 1 1.3%
Unknown W. C. Courtney 1 1.3%
Republican gain from Democratic

Illinois

In the November 1912 state elections, the Republicans lost control of the state due to the Republican / Progressive split. But while the Democrats held a plurality of the Illinois General Assembly, they did not have a majority. The General Assembly took up the matter of electing the senators on February 1. The General Assembly therefore failed to elect until after the new congress began.

On March 26, in a compromise arranged by governor Dunne, the General Assembly elected Democrat J. Hamilton Lewis to fill the full-term seat and Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman to fill the two remaining years of a vacancy that had just recently opened.

Illinois (Regular)

Illinois general election (class 2)

← 1907 March 26, 1913 1918 →
 
Hamilton lewis.jpg
FrankHFunk.jpg
Nominee J. Hamilton Lewis Frank H. Funk
Party Democratic Progressive
Members' vote 164 22
Percentage 80.39% 10.78%

 
LawrenceSherman1912.PNG
Nominee Lawrence Y. Sherman[32]
Party Republican
Members' vote 9
Percentage 4.41%

U.S. senator before election

Shelby Moore Cullom
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

J. Hamilton Lewis
Democratic

On April 12, 1912, five-term Republican incumbent Shelby Moore Cullom lost renomination to Lieutenant Governor of Illinois Lawrence Y. Sherman in the Republican "advisory" primary, where the voters expressed their preference for senator but the decision was not binding on the General Assembly, which made the actual choice. Cullom had suffered politically over his support for the other Illinois senator, William Lorimer, who was embroiled in a scandal over alleged bribery in his 1909 election to the Senate.

Illinois Republican primary (April 12, 1912)[33]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman 178,063 46.16%
Republican Shelby Moore Cullom 129,375 33.54%
Republican Hugh S. Magill 78,344 20.31%

After his defeat, Cullom withdrew his name from consideration by the General Assembly.

The Illinois General Assembly eventually elected the Democratic nominee, Congressman J. Hamilton Lewis March 26, 1913.

Illinois legislative vote, class 2 (March 26, 1913)[34][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic J. Hamilton Lewis 164 80.39%
Progressive Frank H. Funk 22 10.78%
Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman 9 4.41%
Independent Abstaining 5 2.45%
Socialist

Bernard Berlyn 4 1.96%
Democratic gain from Republican

Illinois (Special)

Illinois special election (class 3)

← 1909 March 26, 1913 1914 →
 
LawrenceSherman1912.PNG
Nominee Lawrence Y. Sherman[32] Charles Boeschenstein
Party Republican Democratic
Members' vote 143 25
Percentage 70.10% 12.26%

 
FrankHFunk.jpg
Nominee Frank H. Funk
Party Progressive
Members' vote 22
Percentage 10.78%

U.S. senator before election


Vacant

Elected U.S. senator

Lawrence Y. Sherman
Republican

Three months after the primary in which Sherman defeated Cullom, the U.S. Senate invalidated Lorimer's 1909 election and declared the seat vacant.[35] The Illinois Attorney General, William H. Stead determined that the General Assembly had failed to properly elect Lorimer in 1909 and so the Governor could not appoint a replacement.[36] As a result, the General Assembly had a second Senate seat to fill.

Illinois special legislative vote, class 3 (March 26, 1913)[37][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Lawrence Y. Sherman 143 70.10%
Democratic Charles Boeschenstein 25 12.26%
Progressive Frank H. Funk 22 10.78%
Independent Abstaining 9 4.41%
Socialist

McDonald 4 1.96%
Democratic John Fitzpatrick 1 0.49%
Republican gain from Vacant

Iowa

Iowa election

← 1911 (Special) January 21, 1913 1918 →
 
William Squire Kenyon.jpg
DanielWHamilton.jpg
Nominee William S. Kenyon Daniel W. Hamilton
Party Republican Democratic
Members' vote 91 58

U.S. senator before election

William S. Kenyon
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William S. Kenyon
Republican

Incumbent Republican William S. Kenyon, who had just won a 1911 special election to the seat, was easily re-elected by the Iowa General Assembly over Democratic former congressman Daniel W. Hamilton.[4]

Iowa legislative vote (in Iowa Senate)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William S. Kenyon 29 61.70%
Democratic Daniel W. Hamilton 18 38.30%
Iowa legislative vote (in Iowa House)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican William S. Kenyon 62 60.78%
Democratic Daniel W. Hamilton 40 39.22%
Republican hold

Kansas

Kansas election

← 1907 January 29, 1913 1918 →
 
William Howard Thompson.jpg
WRStubbs.gif
Nominee William H. Thompson W. R. Stubbs
Party Democratic Republican
Electoral vote 160 3
Popular vote 172,601 151,647

 
Sen. Henry J. Allen of Kansas, 10-16-29 LCCN2016844141 (cropped half length).jpg
No image.svg
Nominee Henry J. Allen Allan W. Ricker
Party Progressive Socialist
Electoral vote 1 0
Popular vote 0 25,610

U.S. senator before election

Charles Curtis
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

William H. Thompson
Democratic

One-term incumbent Republican (and future Vice President) Charles Curtis lost renomination to Governor of Kansas Walter R. Stubbs, who then lost the general election to Democratic Judge William H. Thompson as Democrats took control of the Kansas Legislature in the 1912 state elections.

1912 Kansas popular election in Kansas[9]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William H. Thompson 172,601 49.34%
Republican W. R. Stubbs 151,647 43.35%
Socialist Allan W. Ricker 25,610 7.32%
Total votes 349,858 100.00%
Kansas Senate election, January 28, 1913[38]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William H. Thompson 40 100%
Turnout 40 100.0%
Kansas House of Representatives election, January 29, 1912[38]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William H. Thompson 120 96.8%
Republican W. R. Stubbs 3 2.4%
Progressive Henry J. Allen 1 0.8%
Turnout 124 99.2%
Democratic gain from Republican

Thompson would only serve one term, losing re-election in 1918.

Curtis, meanwhile, would go on to be re-elected in 1914 to the other seat for three terms before resigning to become U.S. Vice President.

Kentucky

Kentucky election

← 1906 January 16, 1912 1918 →
 
Ollie Murray James, senator from Kentucky.jpg
Edwin P Morrow.jpg
Nominee Ollie James Edwin P. Morrow
Party Democratic Republican
Members' vote 105 28

U.S. senator before election

Thomas H. Paynter
Democratic

Elected U.S. Senator

Ollie James
Democratic

One-term Democrat Thomas H. Paynter retired and Democratic Representative Ollie James was easily elected January 16, 1912.[1]

Kentucky legislative vote (in Kentucky Senate), January 9, 1912
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Ollie James 31 88.6%
Republican Edwin P. Morrow 4 11.4%
Kentucky legislative vote (in Kentucky House of Representatives), January 9, 1912
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Ollie James 74 75.5%
Republican Edwin P. Morrow 24 24.6%

The legislature formally elected James a second time January 16, 1912, to comply with a federal rule requiring an election on the second Tuesday after the meeting of the legislature.[1]

Louisiana

Louisiana senators
Joseph E. Ransdell
Class 2: starting March 4, 1913
Robert F. Broussard
Class 3: starting March 4, 1915

Louisiana held two elections May 21, 1912: an election for the class 2 term that would begin March 4, 1913 and an election for the class 3 term that would begin March 4, 1915.

Louisiana (Regular, class 2)

In the class 2 seat, Democrat Murphy J. Foster lost renomination to fellow-Democrat Joseph E. Ransdell, who later was elected unopposed to seat.

Louisiana (Regular, class 3)

In the class 3 seat, Democrat John Thornton retired. Fellow-Democrat Robert F. Broussard was elected unopposed.

Maine

Five-term incumbent Republican William P. Frye had died August 8, 1911 and Democrat Obadiah Gardner was appointed September 23, 1911 to continue the term, pending a special election. In this election cycle, Gardner would first win the election to finish the term and then lose re-election to the next term.

Maine (Special)

Maine special election

← 1907 April 2, 1912 1913 →
 
GARDNER, OBEDIAH. SENATOR LCCN2016858132 (cropped).jpg
Frederick Alton Powers portrait ca. 1900.jpg
Nominee Obadiah Gardner Frederick A. Powers
Party Democratic Republican
Members' vote 98 56
Percentage 66.2% 33.8%

U.S. senator before election

Obadiah Gardner
Democratic

Elected U.S. senator

Obadiah Gardner
Democratic

Democratic interim appointee Obadiah Gardner was elected April 2, 1912 to finish the term ending March 3, 1913.[3][1]

Maine Senate vote (April 2, 1912)
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Obadiah Gardner 20 76.9%
Republican Frederick A. Powers 6 23.1%
Maine House of Representatives vote (April 2, 1912)
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Obadiah Gardner 78 60.9%
Republican Frederick A. Powers 50 39.1%
Democratic hold

Maine (Regular)

Maine general election

← 1912 (Special) January 15, 1913 1918 →
 
ECBurleigh.jpg
GARDNER, OBEDIAH. SENATOR LCCN2016858132 (cropped).jpg
Nominee Edwin C. Burleigh Obadiah Gardner
Party Republican Democratic
Members' vote 91 82
Percentage 50.6% 45.6%

 
Nominee E.M. Thompson
Party Progressive
Members' vote 7
Percentage 3.9%

U.S. senator before election

Edwin C. Burleigh
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Obadiah Gardner
Democratic

Democrat Obadiah Gardner lost re-election January 15, 1913 to Republican Edwin C. Burleigh for the term starting March 4, 1913.

"There was no choice in the separate balloting on January 14. The next day in joint assembly, [Burleigh was elected]."[10]

Maine Legislature vote (January 15, 1913)
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Edwin C. Burleigh 91 50.6%
Democratic Obadiah Gardner 82 45.6%
Progressive E.M. Thompson 7 3.9%
Republican gain from Democratic

Maryland (Special)

Maryland special election

← 1910 November 4, 1913 1916 →
Turnout198,205
 
Blair lee I.jpg
Thomas Parran Sr. (Maryland Congressman).jpg
Nominee Blair Lee Thomas Parran Sr.
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 91 82
Percentage 50.6% 45.6%

 
Nominee George Wellington Robert Fields
Party Progressive Socialist

Popular vote 7,033 2,982
Percentage 3.55% 1.5%

 
Nominee Finley Hendrickson
Party Prohibition
Popular vote 2,405
Percentage 1.21%

U.S. senator before election

William P. Jackson
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Blair Lee
Democratic

Democrat Isidor Rayner died November 25, 1912 and Republican William P. Jackson was appointed to continue the term, pending a special election.

Democratic state senator Blair Lee was elected November 4, 1913.

1913 Maryland U.S. Senate special election[39]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Blair Lee 112,485 56.75%
Republican Thomas Parran Sr. 73,300 36.98%
Progressive George Wellington 7,033 3.55%
Socialist

Robert Fields 2,982 1.5%
Prohibition Finley Hendrickson 2,405 1.21%
Turnout 198,205
Democratic gain from Republican

Lee presented his credentials to serve as senator on December 5, 1913, but he did not qualify until January 28, 1914 because Jackson claimed that "since [Jackson] had been appointed under the original constitutional provision, [Jackson] was entitled to hold his seat until the regularly scheduled adjournment date of the Maryland state assembly."[23] The Senate considered Jackson's challenge but eventually rejected it and seated Lee.

Lee would only serve this one term, as he lost renomination in 1916.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts election

← 1905 (Special) January 14, 1913 1918 →
 
John Wingate Weeks, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
Nominee John W. Weeks Sherman L. Whipple
Party Republican Democratic
Members' vote 160 80
Percentage 58.82% 29.41%

 
Nominee John Graham Brooks Scattering
Party Progressive Other
Members' vote 5 27
Percentage 1.84% 13.61%

U.S. senator before election

Winthrop M. Crane
Republican

Elected U.S. Senator

John W. Weeks
Republican

Republican Winthrop M. Crane, who was first appointed in 1904, retired. Republican congressman from Newton, Massachusetts, John W. Weeks, was elected January 14, 1913 to succeed him. Republican Eben Sumner Draper had been considered a candidate for the seat, but the Republican party, then under the control of its hardline conservative faction (and in control of the legislature), chose Weeks instead.[40]

1913 Republican nominating caucus[41]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John W. Weeks 97 60.25%
Republican Samuel Walker McCall 57 35.40%
Republican Curtis Guild Jr. 5 3.11%
Republican George P. Lawrence 1 0.62%
Republican Robert Luce 1 0.62%
Total votes 161 100.00%
Massachusetts legislative vote (in Massachusetts Senate)[42][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John W. Weeks 26 66.67%
Democratic Sherman L. Whipple 11 28.21%
Democratic John A. Keliher 1 2.56%
Democratic Joseph C. Pelletier 1 2.56%
Massachusetts legislative vote (in Massachusetts House of Representatives)[42][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican John W. Weeks 134 57.51%
Democratic Sherman L. Whipple 69 29.61%
Progressive John Graham Brooks 5 2.15%
Democratic John F. Meaney 3 1.29%
Democratic James B. Carroll 3 1.29%
Democratic Charles A. DeCourey 3 1.29%
Democratic Charles Sumner Hamlin 2 0.86%
Democratic John A. Thayer 2 0.86%
Democratic John F. Fitzgerald 2 0.86%
Republican Curtis Guild Jr. 1 0.43%
Republican Robert Luce 1 0.43%
Democratic Philip J. O'Connell 1 0.43%
Unknown Olney 1 0.43%
Democratic Joseph Henry O'Neil 1 0.43%
Unknown Peters 1 0.43%
Unknown Pratt 1 0.43%
Unknown Sawyer 1 0.43%
Unknown Sweeney 1 0.43%
Unknown Williams 1 0.43%

Weeks would only serve for one six-year term. He would lose re-election in 1918 to Democrat David I. Walsh.

Michigan

One-term Republican William A. Smith was re-elected January 14, 1913.

He would retire after this term.

Minnesota

Three-term Republican Knute Nelson was overwhelmingly supported in a 1912 popular election.

The Minnesota Legislature unanimously ratified the popular vote January 21, 1913:

Nelson later would be re-elected again in 1918 to a fifth term, before his 1923 death.

Mississippi

One-term Democrat LeRoy Percy lost renomination in mid-1911 to white supremacist James K. Vardaman, who was then elected January 16, 1912 to the seat, unopposed.[1]

Percy had won in 1910 (to finish a vacant term) despite Vardaman's support of a plurality of legislators (all white). The fractured remainder sought to thwart his extreme racial policies. A majority united behind Percy to block Vardaman's election. Percy had advocated education for blacks and worked to improve race relations by appealing to the planters' sense of noblesse oblige. Disenfranchisement of blacks made the Democratic primary became the deciding competitive race for state and local offices in Mississippi.

In this rematch, Vardaman's campaign was managed by Lieutenant Governor of Mississippi (and future-senator) Theodore Bilbo, who emphasized class tensions and racial segregation. The tactics attacked Percy as a representative of the aristocracy of the state and for taking a progressive stance on race relations.

Mississippi Democratic primary (August 1, 1911)[43]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James K. Vardaman 79,389 59.96%
Democratic C. H. Alexander 31,490 23.78%
Democratic LeRoy Percy (Incumbent) 21,521 16.26%

Vardaman, however, would only serve one term, losing renomination in 1918, primarily due to his vote against entry into World War I.

Montana

One-term Republican Joseph M. Dixon ran for re-election as a Progressive, but lost to Democrat Thomas J. Walsh.

Montana popular election (November 5, 1912)[12]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Thomas J. Walsh 28,421 41.17%
Progressive Joseph M. Dixon (Incumbent) 22,161 32.10%
Republican Henry C. Smith 18,450 26.73%

The Montana Legislature then unanimously elected Walsh January 14, 1913.[10]

Walsh would be re-elected four more times and serve for 20 years until his 1933 death. Dixon, meanwhile, would go on to become Governor of Montana from 1921 to 1925.

Nebraska

First-term Republican Norris Brown lost renomination to George W. Norris, who was then elected January 21, 1913.

Nebraska Democratic primary (April 19, 1912)[13]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Ashton C. Shallenberger 27,581 57.61%
Democratic William H. Thompson 11,993 25.05%
Democratic Willis E. Reed 5,244 10.95%
Democratic Robert F. Smith 3,061 6.39%
Nebraska Republican primary (April 19, 1912)[13]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George W. Norris 38,893 53.98%
Republican Norris Brown (Incumbent) 33,156 46.02%
Nebraska popular vote (November 5, 1912)[44]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George W. Norris 126,022
Democratic Ashton C. Shallenberger

Despite the Democratic majority, the Nebraska legislature elected Republican Norris unanimously, upholding the popular vote.[45]

"The Democratic Legislature will be called upon to elect a Republican for United States Senator. Ninety-five per cent. [sic] of the candidates for the Legislature, in accordance with the Oregon plan, signed "Statement No. 1," which provides that, in the event of election, they will vote for the candidate for United States Senator who obtains the preference vote of the people. Although Congressman Norris, a Progressive Republican, has won the preference vote, returns indicate that a Democratic legislature has been elected."[46]

Norris would serve for thirty years, winning two more elections as a Republican and one as an Independent but losing re-election in 1942.

Nevada (Special)

Senator Key Pittman

Republican senator George S. Nixon died June 5, 1912. Republican former-judge William A. Massey was appointed July 1, 1912 to continue the term that would end in 1917, pending a special election. In November 1912, Massey lost the popular vote for the special election to Democratic attorney Key Pittman was elected by the Nevada Legislature January 28, 1913.

Nevada popular vote (November 5, 1912)[6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Key Pittman 7,942 39.78%
Republican William A. Massey (Incumbent) 7,853 39.34%
Socialist

George A. Steele 7,853 13.73%
Progressive Sardis Summerfield 1,428 7.15%

Pittman had a small plurality in the November 1912 popular vote, but the legislature elected him almost unanimously.

Nevada Senate vote (January 28, 1913)[47]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Key Pittman 20 90.9%
Socialist George A. Steele 2 9.1%
Nevada House of Representatives vote (January 28, 1913)[48]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Key Pittman 50 98.0%
Socialist George A. Steele 1 2.0%
Democratic gain from Republican

Massey died the next year, and Pittman would go on to serve for 27 more years and win re-election four times, serving as President pro tempore throughout the New Deal.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire election

← 1907 March 26, 1913 (late) 1918 →
 
HenryFHollis.jpg
GJHBartlett.jpg
Nominee Henry F. Hollis John H. Bartlett
Party Democratic Republican
Members' vote 189 121
Percentage 50.94% 32.62%

 
Henry Brewer Quinby.png
Nominee Henry B. Quinby Scattering
Party Republican Other
Members' vote 18 43
Percentage 4.85% 11.59%

U.S. senator before election

Henry E. Burnham
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

Henry F. Hollis
Democratic

Two-term Republican Henry E. Burnham decided to retire. The New Hampshire legislature failed to elect a new senator after 42 votes, so the March 4, 1913 term begin with the seat vacant.

Finally, on March 26, 1913 on the 43rd vote, Democrat Henry F. Hollis was elected with the required majority, albeit slight. Hollis was a former candidate for U.S. House of Representatives (in 1900), and twice for Governor of New Hampshire (in 1902 and 1904).

New Hampshire legislative vote, class 2 (March 13, 1913)[22][10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Henry F. Hollis 189 50.94%
Republican John H. Bartlett 121 32.62%
Republican Henry B. Quinby 18 4.85%
Republican Edward N. Pearson 14 3.77%
Progressive Robert P. Bass 12 3.24%
Republican Sherman E. Burroughs 5 1.35%
Democratic Gordon Woodbury 3 0.81%
Democratic Clarence E. Carr 2 0.54%
Unknown William D. Swart 2 0.54%
Republican Thomas Chalmers 1 0.27%
Republican William Eaton Chandler 1 0.27%
Republican John Scammon 1 0.27%
Unknown Bertram Ellis 1 0.27%
Unknown Henry C. Wells 1 0.27%
Democratic gain from Republican

Hollis would retire after a single term and be replaced, in a popular vote, by Republican Henry W. Keyes.

New Jersey

One-term incumbent Republican Frank O. Briggs lost re-election to Democratic state judge (and former member of the U.S. House) William Hughes. The New Jersey Legislature elected Hughes January 28, 1913.

New Jersey Senate election, January 28, 1913[49]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William Hughes 12 57.14%
Republican Frank O. Briggs (Incumbent) 9 42.86%
New Jersey General Assembly election, January 28, 1913[49]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William Hughes 51 86.44%
Republican Frank O. Briggs (Incumbent) 8 13.56%
New Jersey Legislative election, January 28, 1913[49][10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William Hughes 63 78.75%
Republican Frank O. Briggs (Incumbent) 17 21.25%
Democratic gain from Republican

Briggs, died just a few months later on May 8, 1913. Hughes would not serve the complete term, dying January 30, 1918, just before the next scheduled election.

New Mexico

New Mexico (Initial)

New Mexico became a new state January 6, 1912, with senators in classes 1 (ending 1917) and 2 (ending 1913). On March 27, 1912, the state elected its initial senators on the eighth ballot:[50] Republican Thomas B. Catron, an early advocate for New Mexico statehood who had marshaled the territorial Republican Party to lobby Republicans at the national level for New Mexico's admission to the Union,[51][52][53] and Republican Albert B. Fall, a powerful attorney, former territorial attorney general, future Secretary of the Interior, and instigator of the Teapot Dome scandal)

Catron made a personal alliance with Fall, ensuring that each of them would be elected. This alliance antagonized New Mexicans of Spanish heritage, who had hoped that one of their own would become a Senator.[54]

New Mexico (Regular)

Fall's term would end in March 1913, so he was up for re-election shortly after his initial term began.

The bitterness over Catron and Fall's alliance made Fall a target of the local Republican Party, as they believed Fall had not contributed sufficiently to their efforts to secure New Mexico's statehood, and was not worthy of their nomination. The selection of Catron and Fall also disappointed Hispanics, who had hoped that one of their own would be selected. Fall was also severely disliked by Democrats.

After various votes, the legislature re-elected Fall January 28, 1913. Governor McDonald, on the advice of his Democratic legal advisor, Summers Burkhart, said that the legislature's procedure had been illegal, and failed to sign the credentialing papers in an attempt to oust Fall by forcing a special session of the legislature and a new vote.[55] The attempt failed; Fall won the special legislative election.[56]

North Carolina

Two-term Democrat Furnifold Simmons was easily re-elected January 21, 1913. Simmons was a staunch segregationist, white supremacist and a leading perpetrator of the Wilmington insurrection of 1898.

North Carolina Democratic primary (November 5, 1912[f])[57]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Furnifold Simmons (Incumbent) 84,687 57.18%
Democratic William W. Kitchin (Governor) 47,010 31.74%
Democratic Walter Clark (State judge) 16,418 11.09%
North Carolina legislative election (January 22, 1913)[58][10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Furnifold Simmons (Incumbent) 144 88.34%
Republican Cyrus Thompson (N.C. Secretary of State) 19 11.66%

Simmons would be re-elected twice more after this and serve until 1931, when he fell out with the national Democratic Party.

Oklahoma

One term Democrat Robert L. Owen was re-elected over token opposition from Governor of Oklahoma Charles N. Haskell in the Democratic primary and perennial Republican candidate Joseph T. Dickerson.

Oklahoma Democratic primary (August 6, 1912)[59]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert L. Owen (Incumbent) 80,204 64.32%
Democratic Charles N. Haskell 44,483 35.68%
Turnout 7.52%
Oklahoma popular election (November 5, 1912)[15]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Robert L. Owen (Incumbent) 126,418 50.43%
Republican Joseph T. Dickerson 83,429 33.28%
Socialist John Wills 40,860 16.3%
Turnout 15.13%

Owen was formally and unanimously elected by the Oklahoma Legislature January 21, 1913.[60][10]

Owen would run for U.S. president (failing to achieve his party's nomination), and then serve a third and final term as the young state's initial Class 2 senator, retiring in 1925.

Oregon

Senator Harry Lane
Senator Harry Lane

One-term Republican Jonathan Bourne Jr. had championed direct-election of senators but lost renomination as a Republican. He then ran in the popular election as a "Popular Government" candidate, but also lost re-election. Democratic Mayor of Portland Harry Lane was elected.

The ballot was cluttered. In addition to the Lane and Ben Selling, candidate of the conservative wing of the Republican Party, progressive Republicans had other electoral alternatives, including the candidate and the incumbent senator Jonathan Bourne Jr., who had failed to win the renomination of the Republican party and ran as the "Popular Government" nominee as a result. Meanwhile, Benjamin F. Ramp stood for the Socialists and yet another candidate was the nominee of the Prohibition Party.[61] Each of these six candidates took more than 5% of the vote — a fact which enabled the Lane to win election with a plurality of the vote in solidly Republican Oregon.[61] Intent on proving himself a man of the people, Harry Lane set what might be a record for campaign frugality in his victorious effort, with his entire race run for $75 plus travel expenses.[62]

Oregon popular vote, class 2 (November 5, 1912)[16]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Harry Lane 40,172 30.07%
Republican Ben Selling 38,453 28.79%
Popular Government Jonathan Bourne Jr. 25,929 19.41%
Socialist Benjamin F. Ramp 11,093 8.31%
Progressive A. E. Clark 11,083 8.30%
Prohibition B. Lee Paget 6,848 5.13%
Democratic gain from Republican

The Oregon Legislature thereupon elected Lane to the seat January 21, 1913,[10] ratifying the popular selection made in the November 1912 elections.

Election by the Oregon Senate, January 21, 1913[63]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Harry Lane 28 93.3%
Republican Ben Selling 2 6.7%

Both senators voting for Selling declared that they voted to protest a new system of nomination.

Election by the Oregon House of Representatives election, January 21, 1913[64]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Harry Lane 59 98.3%
Republican Ben Selling 1 1.7%

Lane died in office on May 23, 1917.

Rhode Island

Three-term Republican George P. Wetmore retired and was replaced by Republican judge LeBaron Colt January 21, 1913.

Election by the Rhode Island Senate, January 21, 1913[65]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican LeBaron Colt 32 82.1%
Democratic Addison P. Munroe 5 12.8%
Progressive George W. Parks 2 5.1%
Turnout 39 100%

Both senators voting for Selling declared that they voted to protest a new system of nomination.

Election by the Rhode Island House of Representatives election, January 21, 1913[65]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican LeBaron Colt 56 56.0%
Democratic Addison P. Munroe 37 37.0%
Progressive George W. Parks 7 7.0%
Turnout 100 100%

The following day, the Joint Assembly formally declared Colt elected. Colt resigned February 7, 1913 from the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, in which he'd served since 1891.

When asked concerning his ideas on national issues Judge Colt replied that he was still a member of the court, and until his resignation he did not think it would be dignified or courteous to talk upon the subject."[17]

Colt would be re-elected in 1918, and die near the end of that second term on August 18, 1824.

South Carolina

The South Carolina race was mostly a Democratic primary election held the previous summer on August 27, 1912. The Democratic Party of South Carolina organized primary elections for the U.S. Senate beginning in 1896 and the General Assembly would confirm the choice of the Democratic voters.

Incumbent Democrat Benjamin Tillman, serving since 1895, drew opposition in the Democratic primary for the first time during his career. He had long avoided any opposition because of his influence in the Democratic Party in the state, but by 1912 he had moderated his positions and lost the radical edge that had allowed him to build up a hard core following of support. The radicals in the state electorate had thrown their support to Coleman Livingston Blease in the gubernatorial election of 1910 and the Bleasites were determined to knock his chief opponent, Tillman, out of office. W. Jasper Talbert emerged as the candidate of the Bleasites and Nathaniel B. Dial entered the race as an alternative to the two. The voters of the state split their support between the Tillmanite and Bleasite factions as both Tillman and Blease won their respective primaries.

Tillman won the Democratic primary.

South Carolina Democratic primary[66]
Candidate Votes %
Benjamin Tillman 73,148 52.7
W. Jasper Talbert 37,141 26.8
Nathaniel B. Dial 28,476 20.5

Tillman was then re-elected January 28, 1913 by the General Assembly for another six-year term.

Election by the South Carolina legislature:

South Dakota

Two-term Republican Robert J. Gamble lost renomination.

South Dakota Republican primary, June 4, 1912[68]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Thomas Sterling 25,896 35.00%
Republican Robert J. Gamble (Incumbent) 25,161 34.01%
Republican Richard Olsen Richards 16,983 22.96%
Republican Melvin Grigsby 5,941 8.03%
Turnout 73,981 12.67%

Republican Thomas Sterling was then elected January 22, 1913 with 97 votes[19]

Tennessee

One-term Democrat Robert Love Taylor died March 31, 1912 and Republican Newell Sanders was appointed in his place, pending a special election. Sanders was not a candidate either election

The Tennessee legislature elected two senators: one to the next term and one to finish the current term.

Tennessee (Regular)

Democratic judge John K. Shields was elected January 23, 1913 to the next term beginning March 4, 1913. He had not been a candidate in the special election.

General election by the Tennessee Legislature, January 23, 1913 (Seventh Ballot)[69]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic John K. Shields 69 52.7%
Ind. Democratic Charles T. Cates Jr. 61 46.6%
Present but not voting 1 0.8%
Turnout 130 96%

Shields would be re-elected in 1918, but lose renomination in 1924.

Tennessee (Special)

Democrat William R. Webb, the founder of the Webb School and former Confederate soldier, was elected January 23, 1913 to finish the term ending March 3, 1913. Webb was not a candidate in the general election.

Special election by the Tennessee Legislature, January 24, 1913[70]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic William R. Webb 73 57.0%
Democratic M. T. Bryan 53 41.4%
Democratic J. A. Clement 1 0.8%
Democratic C. W. Tyler 1 0.8%
Turnout 128 96%

The election was then made unanimous by motion of the joint convention.[70]

Texas

Two-term Democrat Joseph Weldon Bailey resigned January 3, 1913 and Democrat Rienzi M. Johnston was appointed January 4, 1913 to continue the term, pending a special election. In fact, Texas held would hold two elections January 28, 1913: a special election for the term ending March 3, 1913, and a general election for the next term starting March 4, 1913, both were won by Democratic congressman Morris Sheppard.

Texas (Special)

There was a Democratic Primary July 27, 1912. Morris Shppard, C. B. Randell, Mat Zollner, and Jake Wolters were candidates. Sheppard received a plurality of the (approximately 8,000) votes.[71]

Appointee Rienzi M. Johnston ran for but lost election to finish the shortened term.

Special election by the Texas Legislature, January 29, 1913[72]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Morris Sheppard 104 60.8%
Democratic Rienzi M. Johnston 66 38.6%
Democratic Choice B. Randell 1 0.6%

Following his brief 25-day Senate term, Johnston returned to Houston and resumed his role as editor of the Houston Post. He retired from the newspaper business in 1919.[73]

Texas (Regular)

Perhaps due to the overwhelming support for the special election, Sheppard had no opposition in the subsequent general election.

Special election by the Texas Legislature, January 29, 1913[74]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Morris Sheppard 172 100.0%

Sheppard would win re-election four times, serving until his death in 1941.

Virginia

Virginia held non-binding primaries September 7, 1911 for both the class 2 seat held by Democrat Thomas S. Martin, who was running for re-election, and the class 1 seat held by Democrat Claude Swanson, who had been appointed to fill a vacancy.[75]

Virginia (Special)

Democrat John W. Daniel died June 29, 1910, and Democrat Claude A. Swanson, a former Governor of Virginia and former Congressman, was appointed August 1, 1910 to finish the term ending March 1911 and again appointed February 28, 1911 to begin the 1911–1917 term, pending a special election.

Swanson won the class 1 Democratic primary for the term ending in 1917 with 67,495 votes over (future senator) Carter Glass's 28,757 votes.[76]

On January 24, 1912, the Virginia General Assembly unanimously elected Swanson.[77][78]

Virginia Senate election, January 23, 1912[79]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Claude A. Swanson 34 100%
Virginia House of Delegates election, January 23, 1912[79]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Claude A. Swanson 83 100%

Virginia (Regular)

Three-term incumbent Democrat Thomas S. Martin won the Democratic primary for the class 2 term ending in 1919, receiving 57,120 votes to 25,005 for William Atkinson Jones.

On January 24, 1912, the Virginia General Assembly unanimously elected Martin.[77][78]

Virginia Senate election, January 23, 1912[79]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Thomas S. Martin 34 100%
Virginia House of Delegates election, January 23, 1912[79]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Thomas S. Martin 85 100%

West Virginia

Senator Nathan Goff Jr.
Senator Nathan Goff Jr.

Democrat Clarence Watson had been elected in 1911 to finish a vacant term, but he lost re-election February 21, 1913 to Republican federal judge Nathan Goff Jr. after multiple deadlocked ballots.

Election in the joint assembly of the West Virginia Legislature, February 21, 1913[20]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Nathan Goff Jr. 60 56.6%
Democratic Clarence W. Watson 43 40.6%
Democratic Robert W. Dailey 1 0.9%
Democratic John W. Davis 1 0.9%
Democratic John W. Hamilton 1 0.9%

Goff would remain a judge until April 1, 1913 before taking his Senate seat. He would only serve the one term, retiring in 1918.

Wyoming

Four-term Republican Francis E. Warren was re-elected January 28, 1913.

Election in the Wyoming Senate, January 28, 1913 [80]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Francis E. Warren 16 61.5%
Democratic John B. Kendrick 10 38.5%
Election in the Wyoming House of Representatives, January 28, 1913 [81]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Francis E. Warren 29 51.8%
Democratic John B. Kendrick 27 48.2%
Not voting 1

Kendrick would be elected to the other seat in 1916.

Warren would be re-elected two more times, becoming the Dean of the United States Senate, and serve until his death in 1929.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ as Democratic Conference Chairman
  2. ^ as Republican Conference Chairman
  3. ^ a b Appointee elected
  4. ^ a b [sic], probably "William J. Mills"
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Senator was selected by some form of direct voting and then subsequently elected by state legislatures.
  6. ^ Date might be incorrect, as it is the date of the general popular election.

References

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Sources

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