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1910 and 1911 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1910 and 1911 United States Senate elections

← 1908/09 January 18, 1910 –
March 2, 1911
1912/13 →

34 of the 92 seats in the United States Senate
47 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Picture of Shelby M. Cullom.jpg
Thomas Staples Martin.jpg
Leader Shelby Moore Cullom[a] Thomas S. Martin[b]
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Illinois Virginia
Seats before 59 33
Seats won 15 13
Seats after 50 40
Seat change Decrease 9 Increase 7
Seats up 24 6

Majority conference chairman before election

Eugene Hale
Republican

Elected Majority conference chairman

Shelby Moore Cullom
Republican

Although the 17th Amendment was not passed until 1913, some states elected their senators directly before its passage. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election.

Results

Senate Party Division, 62nd Congress (1911–1913):

  • Majority Party: Republican (50 seats)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (40 seats)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Vacant: 2
  • Total Seats: 92

Four seats were added in early 1912 for new states: Arizona (which elected 2 Democrats) and New Mexico (which elected 2 Republicans).

Change in composition

Before the elections

At the beginning of 1910.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
Ala.
Ran
D26
La. (sp)
Ran
R57
Retired
R58
Retired
R59
Retired
D33
Retired
D32
Ran
D31
Ran
D30
Ran
D29
N.D. (sp)
Ran
D28
Miss. (sp)
Retired
D27
Miss. (reg)
Ran
R56
Retired
R55
Retired
R54
Retired
R53
Retired
R52
Ran
R51
Ran
R50
Ran
R49
Ran
R48
Ran
R47
Ran
Majority →
R37
Ran
R38
Ran
R39
Ran
R40
Ran
R41
Ran
R42
Ran
R43
Ran
R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R36
Ran
R35
W.Va. (sp)
Ran
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Elections results

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25
Ala.
Re-elected
D26
La. (sp)
Elected[c]
D36
Gain
D35
Gain
D34
Gain
D33
Gain
D32
Hold
D31
Hold
D30
Re-elected
D29
W.Va. (sp)
Gain
D28
Miss. (sp)
Hold
D27
Miss. (reg)
Hold
D37
Gain
D38
Gain
D39
Gain
D40
Gain
V1
D Loss
V2
R Loss
R50
Hold
R49
Hold
R48
Hold
R47
Hold
Majority → R46
Hold
R37
Re-elected
R38
Re-elected
R39
Re-elected
R40
Re-elected
R41
Re-elected
R42
Re-elected
R43
Re-elected
R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R36
Re-elected
R35
N.D. (sp)
Gain
R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Beginning of the next Congress

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 D23 D24 D25 D26
D36 D35 D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27
D37 D38 D39 D40
Appointed
V1
D Loss
V2 R50 R49 R48 R47
Majority → R46
R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44 R45
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
Key
D# Democratic
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 61st Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1910 or in 1911 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 2)
James Gordon Democratic 1909 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
New senator elected February 23, 1910.[1]
Democratic hold.
Louisiana
(Class 3)
John Thornton Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected December 6, 1910.[2]
North Dakota
(Class 3)
William E. Purcell Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.
Republican gain.
Winner took office February 11, 1911 upon resigning from the U.S. House.
West Virginia
(Class 2)
Davis Elkins Republican 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected February 1, 1911.
Democratic gain.

In this election, the winner were seated in the 63rd Congress, starting March 4, 1913.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John H. Bankhead Democratic 1907 (Appointed)
1907 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected early January 17, 1911, for the term beginning March 4, 1913.

Races leading to the 62nd Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1911; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
California Frank P. Flint Republican 1905 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 10, 1911.[7]
Republican hold.
Connecticut Morgan Bulkeley Republican 1905 Incumbent lost renomination and re-election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Republican hold.
Delaware Henry A. du Pont Republican 1906 Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1911.[8]
Florida James Taliaferro Democratic 1899 (Special)
1905 (Appointed)
1905 (Special)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
New senator was appointed to begin the term.
Nathan P. Bryan (Democratic)[9]
Indiana Albert J. Beveridge Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
Maine Eugene Hale Republican 1881
1887
1893
1899
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
Maryland Isidor Rayner Democratic 1904 Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1910.[7]
Massachusetts Henry Cabot Lodge Republican 1893
1899
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 18, 1911.[7][12]
Michigan Julius C. Burrows Republican 1895 (Special)
1899
1905
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Republican hold.
Minnesota Moses E. Clapp Republican 1901 (Special)
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Mississippi Hernando Money Democratic 1897 (Appointed)
1899
1904
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early January 21, 1908.[14]
Democratic hold.
Missouri William Warner Republican 1905 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
Montana Thomas H. Carter Republican 1895
1901 (Lost)
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected March 2, 1911.
Democratic gain.
Nebraska Elmer Burkett Republican 1905 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 17, 1911, ratifying the popular selection made in 1910 state elections.[7][4]
Democratic gain.
Nevada George S. Nixon Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911, ratifying the popular selection made in 1910 state elections.[7]
New Jersey John Kean Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 25, 1911.[7]
Democratic gain.
New York Chauncey Depew Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent ran for re-election, but legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
A new senator was elected late, see below.
Chauncey Depew (Republican)
William F. Sheehan (Democratic, Tammany faction)
Others, see below
North Dakota Porter J. McCumber Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1911.[7]
Ohio Charles W. F. Dick Republican 1904 (Special)
1904
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 10, 1911.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania George T. Oliver Republican 1909 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 11, 1911.[7]
Rhode Island Nelson W. Aldrich Republican 1881 (Special)
1886
1892
1898
1905
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 18, 1911.
Republican hold.
Tennessee James B. Frazier Democratic 1905 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 23, 1911.
Democratic hold.
Texas Charles Allen Culberson Democratic 1899
1905
Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911.
Utah George Sutherland Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 17, 1911.
Vermont Carroll S. Page Republican 1908 (Special) Incumbent re-elected October 18, 1910.
Virginia John W. Daniel Democratic 1887
1893
1899
1904
Incumbent re-elected January 25, 1910.
Incumbent died June 29, 1910.
A new senator was appointed to finish the term, and reappointed to begin the new term.
The new senator was subsequently elected to finish the new term.[19]
Washington Samuel H. Piles Republican 1905 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 17, 1911.[7][5]
Republican hold.
West Virginia Nathan B. Scott Republican 1899
1905
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected February 1, 1911.[7][5]
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin Robert M. La Follette Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911.[7][5]
Wyoming Clarence D. Clark Republican 1905 Incumbent re-elected January 24, 1911.[7][5]

Elections during the 62nd Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1911 after March 4; ordered by date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New York
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected late March 31, 1911.
Democratic gain.
Iowa
(Class 2)
Lafayette Young Republican 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
New senator elected April 12, 1911.
Republican hold.
Florida
(Class 1)
Nathan P. Bryan Democratic 1911 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected late April 18, 1911.
Georgia
(Class 3)
Joseph M. Terrell Democratic 1910 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected July 12, 1911.
Democratic hold.

Alabama

Democrat John H. Bankhead was re-elected early January 17, 1911[6] for the 1913 term.

California

Republican incumbent Frank P. Flint, who had been elected in 1905, retired. Republican John D. Works received a plurality of votes cast at a Republican state primary. Republican A. G. Spalding, however, carried a majority of the legislative districts represented by Republicans.[6] In the legislature, Works was elected January 10, 1911 with 92 votes over Spalding's 21 votes, and a scattering of votes for various Democrats.[7][6]

Connecticut

Republican incumbent Morgan Bulkeley, who had been elected in 1905, lost renomination in a Republican legislative caucus 113–64 to George P. McLean.

McLean was then elected January 17, 1911, with 177 votes to Democrat Homer Stille Cummings's 110 votes.[7][6]

Delaware

First-term Republican Henry A. du Pont was re-elected January 25, 1911.[8] He beat Democrat Willard Saulsbury Jr..

Saulsbury would be elected in 1913 to the other Delaware senate seat. Du Pont would lose re-election in 1916, the first popular Senate election in Delaware.

Florida

In June 1910, incumbent Democrat James Taliaferro lost a non-binding primary to former Governor Napoleon B. Broward for the term which started on March 4, 1911.[21] Broward died in October.[22] In early February 1911, Nathan P. Bryan won a non-binding primary for the seat, defeating William A. Blount 19,991 to 19,381.[23] The governor then appointed Bryan to fill the vacancy.[24]

In April 1911, the Florida Legislature unanimously elected Bryan to the remainder of the term.[25]

Georgia (Special)

Three-term Democrat Alexander S. Clay died November 13, 1910 and Democratic former-Governor of Georgia Joseph M. Terrell was appointed November 17, 1910 to continue the term, pending a special election.

Democratic Governor of Georgia M. Hoke Smith won the July 12, 1911 special election to finish the term that would end in 1915.

Smith had just begun his gubernatorial term July 1, 1911 when he was elected to the Senate. Although formally elected and qualified, Smith chose not to take office until November 16, 1911 so he could continue being Governor of Georgia.[26]

Smith would later be re-elected in 1914 and would serve through 1921.

Indiana

Iowa (Special)

Louisiana (Special)

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Mississippi (Regular)

Three-term Democrat Hernando Money retired from the class 1 seat. In 1908 the Mississippi legislature had already unanimously elected Democratic congressman John Sharp Williams early for the next term.[14]

Mississippi (Special)

Senator LeRoy Percy

Three-term Democrat Anselm J. McLaurin died December 22, 1909 and Democrat James Gordon was appointed December 27, 1909 to continue the term pending a special election, in which he was not a candidate. The day after his appointment to the class 2 seat, he was identified as a former fugitive who had been sought as a suspect in the conspiracy to assassinate President Abraham Lincoln. Gordon was listed in 1865 by the United States government as a fugitive, and a reward of $10,000 had been offered for his capture, dead or alive. Later that year, he was ruled out of the suspects.[27] Gordon then admitted that he had met with John Wilkes Booth in Montreal in March 1865, and had discussed plans to kidnap Lincoln, but denied any discussion of murder.[28]

A plurality of legislators backed the white supremacist James K. Vardaman, but the fractured remainder sought to thwart his extreme racial policies. A majority united behind Percy to block Vardaman, instead electing Democrat LeRoy Percy February 23, 1910 to finish the term that would end in 1913.[1]

Percy would later lose renomination in 1912 to the next term.

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Jersey

New York

New York election

← 1905 January 17 – March 31, 1911 1916 →

201 members of the New York Assembly
101 votes needed to win
 
O'GORMAN, J.A. SENATOR LCCN2016857995 (cropped).jpg
CMDepew.jpg
Nominee James A. O'Gorman Chauncey Depew
Party Democratic Republican
Electoral vote 112 80
Percentage 58.33% 41.67%

U.S. senator before election

Chauncey Depew
Republican

Elected U.S. senator

James A. O'Gorman
Democratic

Republican incumbent Chauncey M. Depew had been re-elected to this seat in 1905, and his term would expire on March 3, 1911. At the State election in November 1910, John Alden Dix was elected Governor, the first Democrat to hold the position since 1894. Democrats also unexpectedly carried the state legislative elections, and Democrats also unexpectedly carried the state legislative electionscontrolled both the Senate and the Assembly. The 134th New York State Legislature met from January 4 to October 6, 1911, in Albany, New York. Democratic Ex-Lieutenant Governor William F. Sheehan announced his candidacy on December 30, 1910. Before the State election, when a Democratic victory seemed to be improbable, Sheehan had made an agreement with Tammany Hall leader Charles Francis Murphy that the Tammany men would support Sheehan for the U.S. Senate. The Democratic caucus met on January 16 and nominated Sheehan over Edward M. Shepard and D. Cady Herrick. The Republican caucus met on January 16 and re-nominated Chauncey M. Depew unanimously.

From January 17 through March 3, the legislature was deadlocked through 39 ballots, with anti-Tammany Democrats refusing to support Sheehan. On March 3, 1911 Depew's term ended.

The deadlock continued over another 19 ballots despite the vacant seat. Democrats then held a new caucus and nominated James A. O'Gorman, a justice of the New York Supreme Court. O'Gorman was elected over Depew on March 31, 1911.

Candidate Party 64th joint ballot
Mar 31
Chauncey M. Depew Republican 80
Green tickY James A. O'Gorman Democratic Green tickY 112

North Dakota

North Dakota (Special)

North Dakota (Regular)

Ohio

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania election was held January 17, 1911. Incumbent George T. Oliver was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[29]

Pennsylvania election, January 17, 1911
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George T. Oliver (Incumbent) 181 70.43%
Democratic J. Henry Cochran 35 13.62%
Democratic Julian Kennedy 25 9.73%
Democratic James B. Riley 3 1.17%
Republican William Flinn 2 0.78%
Democratic William H. Berry 1 0.39%
Democratic George W. Guthrie 1 0.39%
Socialist Joseph E. Cohen 1 0.39%
N/A Not voting 8 3.11%
Total votes 257 100%

Rhode Island

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

West Virginia (Regular)

West Virginia (Special)

Wisconsin

Wyoming

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c "VARDAMAN'S DEFEAT RELIEF TO SENATORS". The New York Times. February 24, 1910. p. 4.
  2. ^ "THORNTON CHOSEN SENATOR". The New York Times. December 7, 1910. p. 1.
  3. ^ a b United States Senators Chosen, 1910, p. 439.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 457.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 458.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 455.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "The World Almanac and Encyclopedia 1912". New York: The Press Publishing Co. (The New York World). 1911. p. 200.
  8. ^ a b "du PONT, Henry Algernon - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - FL US Senate - Appointment Race - Feb 22, 1911". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d e f United States Senators Chosen, 1911, p. 456.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - MD US Senate Race - Feb 01, 1910". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  12. ^ Garraty, John A. (1953). Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography. pp. 280–283.
  13. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1911, pp. 456–457.
  14. ^ a b c "United States Senators Chosen — 1908". The Tribune Almanac and Political Register 1909. New York: The Tribune Association. 1909. p. 315 – via Hathi Trust Digital Library.
  15. ^ "Pledges Devotion to Public Service: Senator Hitchcock Accepts New Honors in Speech to Legislature in Joint Convention". Lincoln, Nebraska: Lincoln Daily News. January 18, 1911. p. 1.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - NV US Senate Race - Nov 07, 1910". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  17. ^ United States Senators Chosen, 1911, pp. 457–458.
  18. ^ a b United States Senators Chosen, 1910, p. 440.
  19. ^ Byrd, p. 178.
  20. ^ "Our Campaigns - WV US Senate Race - Mar 03, 1911". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
  21. ^ "Taliaferro is Beaten: Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Wins Senatorship in Florida". The Watchman and Southron. Sumter, SC. June 15, 1910. p. 6.
  22. ^ "Ex-Gov. Broward Dead: One of America's Most Forceful and Picturesque Figures Passes; On Eve of being U.S. Senator". Baltimore Sun. Baltimore, MD. October 2, 1910. p. 2.
  23. ^ "New Senator From Florida". San Juan Islander. Friday Harbor, WA. February 17, 1911. p. 2.
  24. ^ "New U.S. Senator". Nashville Tennessean. Nashville, TN. February 16, 1911. p. 6.
  25. ^ "The Hon. Nathan P. Bryan was formally elected Florida's United States Senator by both branches of the Florida legislature Tuesday afternoon. No other name was presented, and the vote for Mr. Bryan was unanimous -- thanks to the primary". St. Lucie County Tribune. Fort Pierce, FL. April 21, 1911. p. 4.
  26. ^ "GOVERNOR AND SENATOR, TOO; Hoke Smith to Hold On to State Job Until December". The New York Times. July 13, 1911. p. 3. Retrieved November 27, 2020.
  27. ^ "NEW SENATOR ONCE FUGITIVE.; Gordon Was Suspected of Complicity in Killing of Lincoln". The New York Times. December 29, 1909. p. 1. Retrieved November 30, 2020.
  28. ^ Tidwell, William A. (1988). Come Retribution: The Confederate Secret Service and the Assassination of Lincoln. University Press of Mississippi. p. 405-410.
  29. ^ Cox, Harold (January 31, 2007). "Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006". The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University.

Sources

This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 20:55
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