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1908 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Games of the IV Olympiad
Olympic games 1908 London.jpg
Programme for the 1908 Summer Olympics
Host cityLondon, United Kingdom
Nations22
Athletes2,008 (1,971 men, 37 women)
Events110 in 22 sports (24 disciplines)
Opening27 April
Closing31 October
Opened by
StadiumWhite City Stadium
St. Louis 1904 Stockholm 1912

The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the IV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in 1908 in London, United Kingdom from 27 April to 31 October 1908.[2]

These games were originally scheduled to be held in Rome, but were re-located on financial grounds following a disastrous eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906.[3] They were the fourth chronological modern Olympic Games in keeping with the now-accepted four-year cycle as opposed to the alternate four-year cycle of the proposed Intercalated Games. The IOC president for these Games was Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Lasting a total of 187 days, or 6 months and 4 days, these games were the longest in modern Olympics history.

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  • ✪ The 1908 London Olympics
  • ✪ RAT POISON AND BRANDY: THE 1904 ST. LOUIS OLYMPIC MARATHON.
  • ✪ London 1908 - 1948 - 2012 | Olympic Legacy
  • ✪ Controversial Finish to the 1908 Olympic Marathon
  • ✪ 1908 Olympics - London - Part 1

Transcription

Contents

Background

The selection process for the 1908 Summer Olympics consisted of four bids, and saw Rome selected ahead of London, Berlin and Milan. The selection was made at the 6th IOC Session in London in 1904.[4]

Italian authorities were preparing to hold the games when Mount Vesuvius erupted on 7 April 1906, devastating the city of Naples. Funds were diverted to the reconstruction of Naples, so a new venue was required. London was selected for the first time to hold the Games which were held at White City alongside the Franco-British Exhibition, at the time the more noteworthy event.

The White City Stadium, built in short time for the games, held 68,000. The stadium track was three laps to the mile (536 metres), not the current standard of 400 metres, with a pool for swimming and diving and platforms for wrestling and gymnastics in the middle.[5]

The distance from the start of the Marathon to the finish at the stadium was established at these games. The original distance of 25 miles was changed to 26 miles so the marathon could start at Windsor Castle and then changed again at the request of Princess Mary so the start would be beneath the windows of the Royal Nursery.[6] To ensure that the race would finish in front of the King, the finish line was moved by British officials who “felt compelled to restore the importance of the monarchy.” As a result of these changes, the marathon covered a distance of 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km), which became the standard length starting with the 1924 Summer Olympics.[7]

The Games

The games were surrounded by controversy. On the opening day, following the practice introduced at the Intercalated Games of 1906, teams paraded behind national flags. However, the arrangement caused complications:

  • Since Finland was part of the Russian Empire, members of the Finnish team were expected to march under the Russian rather than Finnish flag, so many chose to march without a flag at all.
  • The Swedish flag had not been displayed above the stadium, so the members of the Swedish team decided not to take part in the ceremony.

American refusal of flag dipping

The United States' flag bearer, Ralph Rose, refused to dip the flag to King-Emperor Edward VII in the royal box. This exemplified both American and Irish defiance of the British monarchy.[8][9]

Events

The 1908 Olympics also prompted establishment of standard rules for sports, and selection of judges from different countries rather than just the host. One reason was the 400 meter race, in which a US runner, John Carpenter, was accused by the British officials of interfering with a British runner. Part of the problem was the different definition of interference under British and international rules (the events were held under British rules by the decision of the Organising Committee). The officials decided to disqualify Carpenter and ordered a second final race without him. British Halswelle was to face the other two finalists. These athletes, William Robbins and John Taylor, were both Americans and decided not to participate in the repeat of the final to protest against the judges' decision. Halswelle was thus the only medallist in the 400 metres.

Dorando Pietri finishes the marathon.
Dorando Pietri finishes the marathon.
The medal of the 1908 British Olympic Council.
The medal of the 1908 British Olympic Council.
Shooting at the 1908 Summer Olympics: the revolver and pistol competition at Bisley, Surrey
Shooting at the 1908 Summer Olympics: the revolver and pistol competition at Bisley, Surrey
Original caption: "One of the most curious contests at the Olympic Games is the duelling with wax bullets. The combatants are as elaborately protected as a German student duellist, and even the revolver has a large hand-guard. The helmet has a plate-glass window."
Original caption: "One of the most curious contests at the Olympic Games is the duelling with wax bullets. The combatants are as elaborately protected as a German student duellist, and even the revolver has a large hand-guard. The helmet has a plate-glass window."

The most famous incident of the games came at the end of the marathon. Dorando Pietri, Italy, began his race at a rather slow pace, but in the second half of the course began a powerful surge moving him into second position by the 32 km (20 mi) mark, 4 minutes behind South African Charles Hefferon. When he knew that Hefferon was in crisis, Pietri further increased his pace, overtaking him at the 39 km (24 mi) mark.

The effort took its toll and with only two kilometres to go, Pietri began to feel the effects of extreme fatigue and dehydration. When he entered the stadium, he took the wrong path and when umpires redirected him, he fell down for the first time. He got up with their help, in front of 75,000 spectators.

He fell four more times, and each time the umpires helped him up. In the end, though totally exhausted, he managed to finish the race in first place. Of his total time of 2h 54min 46s, ten minutes were needed for that last 350 metres. Second was American Johnny Hayes. The American team immediately lodged a complaint against the help Pietri received from the umpires. The complaint was accepted and Pietri was disqualified and removed from the final standings of the race. Since he had not been responsible for his disqualification, Queen Alexandra awarded him a gilded silver cup the next day.

These Games were the first to include winter events, as had originally been proposed for the Games. There were four figure skating events, although held on October 28 and 29, months after most of the other events.

Oscar Swahn from Sweden, who won the gold medal for running deer shooting, became the oldest Olympic champion of all time, and set another age record by being 72 years and 279 days old during his triumph at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. One of the more unusual shooting events in 1908 was dueling. The discipline, which was an associate event (i.e. not official), was performed by facing opponents wearing protective clothing and masks and firing wax bullets.[10]

American John Taylor was a member of the winning medley relay team, making him the first African-American athlete to win an Olympic gold medal.[11] Times for the winning team were United States (3:29.4): William Hamilton-200 metres (22.0), Nathaniel Cartmell-200 metres (22.2), John Taylor-400 metres (49.8), and Melvin Sheppard-800 metres (1:55.4).[12]

Less than five months after returning from the Olympic Games in London, Taylor died of typhoid fever on 2 December 1908 at the age of 26.[13]

The budget of the organising committee showed a cost of £15,000; over one-third was labeled "entertainment expense". Donations were the major source of revenue; only 28% of income derived from ticket sales. Total receipts of £21,377 resulted in organisers claiming a profit. Construction of the White City Stadium, which cost the government about £60,000, was not counted.[14]

Sports

22 sports, representing 110 events in 24 sporting disciplines, were contested. Swimming, diving and water polo are considered three disciplines of the same sport, aquatics. At the time, tug-of-war was part of athletics and the two different football codes (association and rugby (union)) were listed together. The International Olympic Committee now considers tug-of-war a separate sport, as well as referring to association football as simply "football" and to rugby union as "rugby".[15] In one of seven cycling events (Cycling sprint) no medals were awarded. The sailing program was open for a total of five sailing classes, but actually only four sailing events were contested. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

Venues

Twelve sports venues were used for the 1908 Summer Olympics. The first winter sports took place at Prince's Skating Club. White City Stadium served as a precursor to modern stadiums.[citation needed] The figure skating events did not take place at the next Olympics in Stockholm, but returned for the 1920 Games in Antwerp. They served as the precursor for the first Winter Olympics that took place in Chamonix sixteen years later. White City served as the main venue for the 1934 British Empire Games (Commonwealth Games since 1978) and a venue for the 1966 FIFA World Cup before its demolition in 1985. The All England Tennis and Lawn Club continues to serve as host for Wimbledon's tennis events and is the only venue of the 1908 Games to serve as one for the 2012 Summer Olympics.[16]

Bisley and Henley served as venues in the 1948 Games when the Olympics returned to London forty years later.[17]

Venue Sports Capacity Ref.
All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club Tennis Not listed [18]
Bisley Ranges Shooting (pistol/rifle) Not listed [19]
Franco-British Exhibition Fencing Grounds Fencing Not listed [20]
Henley Royal Regatta Rowing Not listed [21]
Hunters Quay, River Clyde Sailing Not listed [22]
Hurlingham Club Polo Not listed [23]
Northampton Institute Boxing Not listed [24]
Prince's Skating Club Figure skating Not listed [25]
Queen's Club Jeu de paume, Rackets Not listed [26][27]
Solent Sailing Not listed [28]
Southampton Water Water motorsports Not listed [29]
Uxendon Shooting School Club Shooting (shotgun) Not listed [30]
White City Stadium Archery, Athletics, Cycling (track), Diving, Field hockey, Football, Gymnastics, Lacrosse, Rugby union, Swimming, Tug of war, Water polo (final), Wrestling 68,000 [31]

Participating nations

Participants of the 1908 Games
Participants of the 1908 Games
Number of participating athletes per country
Number of participating athletes per country

The 1908 Games featured athletes representing 22 National Olympic Committees. Finland, Turkey and New Zealand (as part of the team from Australasia) made their first appearance at the Olympic Games. The fact that the United Kingdom competed as a single team was upsetting to some Irish competitors, who felt that Ireland should compete on its own, despite being part of the UK at the time. Fearing an Irish boycott, the authorities changed the name of the team to Great Britain/Ireland, and in two sports, field hockey and polo, Ireland participated as a separate country, winning silver medals in both.[32] Irish athletes in the United States were not affected by this controversy, and many Irish born athletes competed for the U.S. Olympic team as members of the Irish American Athletic Club. Members of the Irish American Athletic Club won ten of the U.S. Olympic team's total 23 gold medals, or as many as the nations of France, Germany and Italy combined.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Medal count

The gold medal winning British tug of war team from the City of London Police.
The gold medal winning British tug of war team from the City of London Police.

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1908 Games.

  *   Host nation (Great Britain)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Great Britain (GBR)*565139146
2 United States (USA)23121247
3 Sweden (SWE)861125
4 France (FRA)55919
5 Germany (GER)35513
6 Hungary (HUN)3429
7 Canada (CAN)331016
8 Norway (NOR)2338
9 Italy (ITA)2204
10 Belgium (BEL)1528
Totals (10 nations)1069693295

See also

References

  1. ^ "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games 0f the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. September 13, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. ^ "The Olympic Summer Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  3. ^ "Londra 1908: le prime Olimpiadi inglesi e Dorando Pietri" (in Italian). giochiolimpiciparalimpici.wordpress.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018. Siamo nel 1901 quando il CIO si riunisce per decidere chi sarà la città ad ospitare la quarta edizione Olimpica. A contendersi questo onore ci furono Roma e Berlino, e ne uscì vincitrice la prima. Purtroppo, però, la nostra città italiana dovette ritirarsi qualche anno prima dei Giochi a causa dell’eruzione del Vesuvio
  4. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  5. ^ Bill Mallon, Ian Buchanan. The 1908 Olympic Games: Results for All Competitors in All Events, p. 5.
  6. ^ CBC Sports. "First appearance for flags at Olympic opening ceremony". CBC News. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
  7. ^ Rhonda Jolly (3 June 2008). "The modern Olympics: an overview" (PDF). Archived from the original on March 18, 2009. Retrieved 2008-06-30.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). Department of Parliamentary Services. p. 9
  8. ^ Bill Mallon and Ian Buchanan (1999). "To No Earthly King ..." (PDF). Journal of Olympic History: 21.
  9. ^ "London Olympics 1908 & 1948". Archived from the original on October 10, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-30.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). BBC (2005-06-24).
  10. ^ The Sketch: A Journal of Art and Actuality (No. 808 Vol LXIII, Sixpence ed.). Ingram brothers. 1908-07-22. p. 41.
  11. ^ "John Baxter Taylor (1882–1908), V.M.D. 1908 – First African-American to Win an Olympic Gold Medal". Archived from the original on February 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-30.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link), University of Pennsylvania Archives.
  12. ^ Official Olympic Reports Archived 2006-06-22 at the Wayback Machine. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved on 2012-07-09.
  13. ^ "NEGRO RUNNER DEAD.; John B. Taylor, Quarter Miler, Victim of Typhoid Pneumonia". The New York Times. 1908-12-03. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  14. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). "A Look at Olympic Costs" (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
  15. ^ Olympic Sports of the Past. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2012-07-09.
  16. ^ London2012.com profile. Archived 2010-09-16 at the Wayback Machine (Listed as Wimbledon) - accessed 29 September 2010.
  17. ^ 1948 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine pp. 43, 47-9. Accessed 19 October 2010
  18. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 209. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  19. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 254. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  20. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 127. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  21. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 237. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  22. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 340. Accessed 4 July 2015.
  23. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 232. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  24. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine pp. 107, 296-313. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  25. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 284. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  26. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 314. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  27. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 233. Accessed 8 July 2012.
  28. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 339. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  29. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 351. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  30. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine p. 39. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  31. ^ 1908 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine pp. 32-5, 40. Accessed 5 October 2010.
  32. ^ Irish Times, 4 August 2008, article by Kevin Mallon

External links

Preceded by
St. Louis
Summer Olympic Games
London

IV Olympiad (1908)
Succeeded by
Stockholm

51°30′49″N 0°13′39″W / 51.51362°N 0.22740°W / 51.51362; -0.22740

This page was last edited on 25 January 2019, at 23:25
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