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1906 Intercalated Games

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1906 Intercalated Games
1906 Intercalated Games logo.jpeg
Contemporary artwork for the 1906 Intercalated Games
Nations20
Athletes854 (848 men, 6 women)
Opened by
St. Louis 1904 London 1908

The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated in Athens, Greece.[1] They were at the time considered to be Olympic Games and were referred to as the "Second International Olympic Games in Athens" by the International Olympic Committee.[2] Whilst medals were distributed to the participants during these games, the medals are not officially recognized by the IOC today[3] and are not displayed with the collection of Olympic medals at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Origin

The first Intercalated Games had been scheduled by the International Olympic Committee in 1901[citation needed] as part of a new schedule, where every four years, in between the internationally organized games, there would be intermediate games held in Athens. This was apparently a compromise: after the successful games of Athens 1896, the Greeks suggested they could organize the games every four years. Since they had the accommodation and had proven they could hold well-organized games, they received some support. However, Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the International Olympic Committee, opposed this. Coubertin had intended the first games to be in Paris in 1900. After Paris lost the premiere Olympics, Coubertin did not want the games to be permanently hosted elsewhere.[citation needed]

When the 1900 Olympic Games failed to meet expectations and were overshadowed by the Exposition Universelle, the IOC supported the Greek idea by granting them a second series of quadrennial games in between the first series.[citation needed] All of the games would be International Olympic Games; the difference was that half of them would follow Coubertin's idea of "organisation internationale", while the other half would follow the Greeks' idea of a permanent home with the Greek NOC as experienced organizers. This was a departure from the ancient schedule, but it was expected that, if the ancient Greeks could keep a four-year schedule, the modern Olympic Movement could keep a two-year schedule. As 1902 was now too close, and Greece experienced internal difficulties, the 2nd Olympic Games in Athens were scheduled for 1906. The IOC as a whole gave the Greek NOC full support for the organization.[citation needed]

First Intercalated Games

The Organizing Committee of the 1906 Games
The Organizing Committee of the 1906 Games

The 1906 games were quite successful. Unlike the 1900, 1904 or 1908 games, they were neither stretched out over months nor overshadowed by an international exhibition. Their crisp format was most likely instrumental in the continued existence of the games.[citation needed]

These Games also were the first games to have all athlete registration go through the NOCs. They were the first to have the Opening of the Games as a separate event: an event at which for the first time the athletes marched into the stadium in national teams, each following its national flag. They were also the first with an Olympic Village, at the Zappeion. They introduced the closing ceremony, the raising of national flags for the victors, and several less visible changes now accepted as tradition.[citation needed]

Games

Panathinaiko Stadium in 1906
Panathinaiko Stadium in 1906
Panathinaiko Stadium
Panathinaiko Stadium

The Games were held from 22 April to 2 May 1906, in Athens, Greece. They took place in the Panathenaic Stadium, which had already hosted the 1896 Games and the earlier Zappas Olympics of 1870 and 1875. The games excluded several disciplines that had occurred during the past two games; it was unclear whether they ought to have been part of the Olympic Games. Added to the program were the javelin throw and the pentathlon.[citation needed]

Opening

The games included a real opening ceremony, watched by a large crowd. The athletes, for the first time, entered the stadium as national teams, marching behind their flags. The official opening of the games was done by King George I.[citation needed]

Highlights

The finish of the Marathon
The finish of the Marathon

Closing ceremony

Six thousand schoolchildren took part in possibly the first ever Olympic closing ceremony.

Participating nations

854 athletes, 848 men and 6 women, from 20 countries, competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games.[1]

Participants of the 1906 Games
Participants of the 1906 Games

Medals awarded

78 events in 14 disciplines, comprising 12 sports, were part of the 1906 Games.

Medal count

These medals were distributed but are no longer recognized by the International Olympic Committee.

  *   Host nation (Greece)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 France1591640
2 United States126624
3 Greece*8131334
4 Great Britain811524
5 Italy76316
6  Switzerland56415
7 Germany46515
8 Norway4217
9 Austria3339
10 Denmark3216
11 Sweden25714
12 Hungary25310
13 Belgium2136
14Russia Finland2114
15 Canada1102
16 Netherlands0123
17 Mixed team0101
Ottoman Empire Turkey[b]0101
19 Australia0033
20 Bohemia0022
Totals (20 nations)788078236
Source: [1]

The mixed team medal is for Belgian/Greek athletes in the Coxed Pairs 1 mile rowing event. In the football event, the silver medal for the team from Smyrna was won by footballers from various nationalities (English, French and Armenian), while the bronze medal for the team from Thessalonica was won by ethnic Greeks competing for Greece, despite both cities being Ottoman possessions at the time.

The only country that did not win medals—Egypt.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Grand Duchy of Finland was part of the Russian Empire at the time, but was treated as a separate nation.
  2. ^ a b At the 1908 Olympics, the name "Turkey" was used to refer to the Ottoman Empire.

References

  1. ^ a b c "1906 Athina Summer Games". Sports Reference. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  2. ^ Journal of Olympic History, Volume 10, December 2001/January 2002, The 2nd International Olympic Games in Athens 1906, by Karl Lennartz Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ What Events are Olympic? Olympics at SportsReference.com. Accessed 7 Sep 2008.
  4. ^ The Olympic games at Athens, 1906 by James E. Sullivan, American commissioner to the Olympic games. Published 1906.

Further reading

This page was last edited on 12 June 2019, at 20:04
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