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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1905 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1905
MCMV
Ab urbe condita2658
Armenian calendar1354
ԹՎ ՌՅԾԴ
Assyrian calendar6655
Bahá'í calendar61–62
Balinese saka calendar1826–1827
Bengali calendar1312
Berber calendar2855
British Regnal yearEdw. 7 – 5 Edw. 7
Buddhist calendar2449
Burmese calendar1267
Byzantine calendar7413–7414
Chinese calendar甲辰(Wood Dragon)
4601 or 4541
    — to —
乙巳年 (Wood Snake)
4602 or 4542
Coptic calendar1621–1622
Discordian calendar3071
Ethiopian calendar1897–1898
Hebrew calendar5665–5666
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1961–1962
 - Shaka Samvat1826–1827
 - Kali Yuga5005–5006
Holocene calendar11905
Igbo calendar905–906
Iranian calendar1283–1284
Islamic calendar1322–1323
Japanese calendarMeiji 38
(明治38年)
Javanese calendar1834–1835
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4238
Minguo calendar7 before ROC
民前7年
Nanakshahi calendar437
Thai solar calendar2447–2448
Tibetan calendar阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
2031 or 1650 or 878
    — to —
阴木蛇年
(female Wood-Snake)
2032 or 1651 or 879

1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1905th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 905th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1905, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

As the second year of the massive Russo-Japanese War begins, more than 100,000 die in the largest world battles of that era, and the war chaos leads to the 1905 Russian Revolution against Nicholas II of Russia (Shostakovich's 11th Symphony is subtitled The Year 1905 to commemorate this) and the start of Revolution in the Kingdom of Poland. Canada and the U.S. expand west, with the Alberta and Saskatchewan provinces and the founding of Las Vegas. 1905 is also the year in which Albert Einstein, at this time resident in Bern, publishes his four Annus Mirabilis papers in Annalen der Physik (Leipzig) (March 18, May 11, June 30 and September 27), laying the foundations for more than a century's study of theoretical physics.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ The Russian Revolution of 1905 | Bloody Sunday and the first Soviets
  • ✪ The Russian revolution of 1905
  • ✪ Sarah Bernhardt (1905)
  • ✪ Time To Remember - Edwardian Summer 1905 - 1910 - Record B - Reel 1 (1905-1910)
  • ✪ 22nd January 1905: Bloody Sunday massacre in Saint Petersburg

Transcription

In February 1905 a peaceful procession of over 100-thousand unarmed civilians made their way towards his Winter Palace. True in Russian spirit, that day would enter the history books as Bloody Sunday, as somehow imperial soldiers managed to… well, turn it bloody with the indiscriminate slaughter of civilians. Massive strikes and protests, obviously, ensued. But the aftermath of what happened that day, the Revolution of 1905, was an extraordinarily complex event that radically changed Russia’s political culture and society. -intro- Historical Background On the twenty-second of January nineteen-o-five the first clash between parties occurred in Saint Petersburg. The two parties facing each other on this cold, wet winters day were working class citizens and soldiers loyal to the Tsar. Five colonnes of working class citizens slowly made their way to the city centre, where the Palace Square and Winter Palace of Tsar Nicholas II were located. It was a peaceful demonstration and there was nothing that gave an indication this day would enter history as “Bloody Sunday”. The group of protesters was unarmed, showcasing icons and images of Tsar Nicholas II, chanting the Russian anthem “God Save the Tsar”. The crowd was led by a youthful priest of the Orthodox Church, Georgy Gapon. He wasn’t a revolutionary, but an organizer of the Assembly of Russian Factory Workers, which had as its goal to hear and contain the growing dissatisfaction of the proletariat, instead of antagonize it. This Assembly was even patronized by the police and secret service, the Okhrana, of which Gapon, not completely coincidentally, was an informant. Now, the core of the strike consisted of workers of the large railway and artillery factories of Putilov, and this strike was characteristic about the sentiment throughout Russia. Low wages, long working days, increasing tax pressure due to the Russo-Japanese war and the lack of civil rights and means to voice political opinions all made for a near revolutionary sentiment among the Russian people. Gapon was to hand over a petition, signed by one-hundred-thirty-five-thousand people, requesting the Tsar for an eight-hour working day, a minimum daily wage of one ruble (about fifty cents) and a democratically elected Constituent Assembly in order to slowly introduce a representative government. The strikers figured that if they were to turn up at the Tsar's palace, and he would see they were peaceful instead of aggressive, according to the twisted information he received from his ministers, he would show solidarity with the working class. Once the Tsar realized their situation wasn’t their own fault, he would surely give in. Bloody Sunday Well, Tsar Nicholas II wasn’t too enthusiastic about tearing down the ‘wall’ between the monarchy and its citizens. On the night before the workers procession Nicholas and his family abandoned the Winter Palace and left for the Tsarskoye Selo palace a few kilometres outside of the city. He tasked his Minister of Interior, Pyotr Sviatopolk-Mirsky, Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, his generals and the commissars of police to maintain order in the city. Just as every Imperial civil servant, they feared any form of public protest, no matter how peaceful the intentions were. As the procession grew more discontent and voiced their anger and frustration over the rising taxes, lack of food and horrible working conditions, these men became more and more concerned over the crowd. The atmosphere in Saint Petersburg was the same as in the rest of Russia: tense. Strikes erupted in towns and villages and due to a strike at printing presses there hadn’t been a newspaper for two days and, as I mentioned, the workers of the Putilov factories went on strike as well. Government officials figured that under these circumstances, violence could easily erupt. As over one-hundred-fifty-thousand people held the procession through Saint Petersburg, the men in charge figured the only response to these events was with brutal force, re-establishing the autocratic authority over the masses. Orders were given to the soldiers to not let the masses come too close to the Winter Palace, though long before the procession had reached the square, people were forced to a halt by heavily armed police detachments. It isn’t exactly clear what happened, all that is known is that without provocation the soldiers suddenly started firing at the crowd. Within several minutes between one-hundred and a thousand people were dead and the crowd fled in turmoil. The autocracy sure showed her power, but this was merely the first collusion between the Russian people and the Russian monarchy. What happened today had long-lasting effects on Russian society. The Russian Revolution and Terrorist Activity To Russian revolutionaries, the events on Bloody Sunday were a reason to rejoice: the first signs of the imminent revolution were finally showing. Leon Trotsky concluded: “The revolution has begun”, although the Bolsheviks would seize power more than twelve years later. Tsar Nicholas, writing in his diary about that day, had a different vision on events. He was saddened by the deaths but the diary entry put emphasis on his mother visiting him and his family. Talk about priorities. Now, the result of Bloody Sunday was a cataclysmic eruption of social disorder, and all social strata, regions and nationalities of the empire were involved one way or the another. And as time went on, the government started losing its grip on events more and more and Russia plummeted into a state that could be described as anarchy. The most serious development was not just industrial workers went on strike, but civil servants, students, peasants, and even servants joined the movement. At the end of January over four-hundred-thousand people were on strike, which would increase up to two-and-a-half-million later that year. Non-Russian territories were affected most, in Poland with the Lodz insurrection, Finland and the Baltics. Nationalist feelings increasing among non-Russian population and increased hostility against the government. In regions such as Bessarabia the antisemitic and far right elements were utilized to create the Union of the Russian People, a pro-monarchist political party. In other parts, such as Charkov and Yekaterinoslav, street fighting was no rare sight. And the Tsar and Russian government? They grew increasingly isolated. To complicate things even more, the Russo-Japanese war was still continued, and Russia suffered major losses during the Battle of Mukden. At around the same time the workers started to organize themselves, peasants, living nearly below the means of existence and in practice existing as if they were serfs, started to plunder the properties of their landowners. The liberal middle classes generally supported all these upheavals, if only passively, and blamed the government for the bloodshed. Back in the war, Tsar Nicholas sent the Baltic Fleet on an epic voyage to Vladivostok to replace the lost Far Eastern Squadron. The Baltic Fleet was nearly completely destroyed by the Japanese navy at Tsushima in May 1905, and the Tsar and his government had no other option at this point but to sue for peace. These events took place against the background of rapidly growing civil unrest. Over a million workers struck during spring in St Petersburg alone. The peasant and worker strikes went combined with organized terrorist attacks on government officials. On the thirtieth of June Nikolai Bobrikov, the Governor-General of Finland was killed. Vyacheslav von Plehve, the minister of interior, was killed shortly after. A surprising assassination was the murder of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia, the uncle of the Tsar and not much later Viktor Sakharov, the former Minister of War was killed. Unrest spread all over Russia, and reached its peak over summer as Central Russia, Ukraine, Poland, the Baltic Provinces and Caucasus saw strikes, rebellion and mutinies. Perhaps the most well known event was the mutiny on the battleship Potemkin of the Black Sea Fleet. During this mutiny, the entire crew of the battleship rose up against its officers, killing seven out of eighteen of them. The entire event has beenimmortalized by Sergei Eisenstein in his nineteen-twenty-five movie The Battleship Potemkin. Anyway, this mutiny, together with several other mutinies around this time were a warning sign to Tsar Nicholas that even his loyal troops could turn on him. Opposition closes ranks Chaos, turmoil and strikes caused industry and production to halt throughout Russia. Taxes and prices increased, causing inflation and economic unrest. As the year progressed, the resistance against the autocratic regime kept growing. Now teachers, technicians, doctors, lawyers and people from all walks of life joined the unions of workers in solidarity. Eventually, fourteen of these unions allied themselves in the Union of Unions under the liberal politician Pavel Milyukov. These liberal movements supported constitutional reform and a representative government. Their ideas were voiced at numerous congresses and lectures at universities, which became the centres of revolutionary meetings. There were other openly revolutionary parties, following the Marxist and socialist thought with support of the masses instead of the middle-class. The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, established in eighteen-ninety-eight, was split between Mensheviks and Bolsheviks, with the latter containing future main figures of the Soviet Union: Lev Trotsky, Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin. At this stage, these leftist parties didn’t have that much influence yet, though they certainly shouldn’t be underestimated. Both Lenin and Trotsky were abroad in nineteen-o-five, and only Trotsky returned upon hearing of the revolution, and he would play an important role later that year. There were other groups on the left; Members of the Socialist Revolutionary party had their supporters base among peasantry, and not the proletariat. There wasn’t much cohesion among the left-wing, and definitely not among the opposition which made it difficult to organize an all-out revolution. Nicholas’ Reaction The first response of Tsar Nicholas after Bloody Sunday was on the third of March, after receiving advice from Sergey Witte, to publish a manifesto. He confirmed his faith in the autocratic regime and condemned all those that violated the fundamental laws of the Russian state. At the same time he published a contradictory manifesto in which he promised to establish a consultative body based on some form of election. The procedure of election for this body was anything but representative, as became known in August, and its powers appeared to be limited. It thus had no effect, and in autumn the strike movement in the cities resumed with even greater force. The Tsar wasn’t willing to give in, while there were peasant uprisings across the land. At the end of September it wasn’t just peasants anymore, but once again people from all walks of life joined the strike, among which bakers, railway employees and the postal-telegraph employees, bank clerks and what not. In October the strikes turned into a general strike, directed against the Tsar and demanding a democratic republic. It was at this point, due to the absence of other organizations, the workers in Saint Petersburg started to form a Soviet. The Saint Petersburg Soviet Workers did what they could to organize themselves, improvise meetings, protests and strikes and get in touch with the workers. Organization took place and the result was a new type of workers association, the Soviet (Council) of Workers’ Deputies. The Social Democrats remained dubious about these soviets at first, but the Mensheviks realized their potential. According to Geoffrey Hosking the first one was set up in the textile town of Ivanovo-Voznesensk to coordinate a general strike, but the one that was established in Saint Petersburg would experience one of the greatest moments of the soviets in October nineteen-o-five. As slowly leaders of the strike treaded forward, the Saint petersburg workers soviet held a meeting, a rough meeting with some resemblance of primitive democracy and subsequently similar soviets emerged throughout the entire country. Eventually the Saint Petersburg Soviet had around five-hundred-and-sixty delegates, each representing around five hundred workers. Because these Soviets could convince the workers to get back to work, their authority was even recognized by the government. The Soviet organized a general strike which disrupted normal production and communications over much of the empire. The Russian economy, once again, came to a standstill. Even the imperial ballet refused to perform.. The Soviet became the vanguard of the attack on the autocracy, the powers of revolution in Russia had, in a way, shaped their own institutions when other institutions did not represent their interests. And its Chairman? It was Leon Trotsky. After the arrest of its former chairman, Georgy Nosar, Trotsky was elected under the name of Yanovsky. The Aftermath The general strike throughout the country had led to the Tsar’s arm twisted into granting the strikers and revolutionaries what they wanted. Finally, on the 30th of October the Tsar conceded that Russia would receive a representative legislature, to be called the Duma, and some sort of constitution. So, in short, this October Manifesto, promised civil liberties and an elected legislative assembly. On the eighteenth of October huge crowds took to the streets their celebrations, as Leon Trotsky spoke to them from the balcony of the university building. The strike ended, but the Bolsheviks wanted to ignite a proper revolution and overthrow the Tsar. The result was insurrection in the factory districts of Moscow in December, which failed, and was suppressed mercilessly by the army and police. That same month, Trotsky was arrested and sent into exile. It didn’t matter for the revolution, though, as the Russians would finally receive their civil liberties and elected body. It cost the Russian population over 15.000 lives. And that was, in fact, the revolution of nineteen-o-five. The climax of the revolution was reached at the end of october, when nearly every facet of life in Russia came to a standstill, the government was without power and the Russian people were openly rebelling against the monarchy. So… what about this elected body, the Duma? And what about the civil liberties the Russians would receive? And what about the Tsar? Did he finally liberalize his policy? Well, my next video will explore the response of the Russian government in the face of these civil unrests. As I mentioned, the Tsar issued the October Manifesto, a precursor to the first constitution of the Russian Empire, rendering it a Constitutional Monarchy in nineteen-o-six. The Duma, a body that resembled a parliament, was instated, although Nicholas and Witte rewrote the constitution and, by now you’re probably not even surprised anymore, they attempted to curb its influence. I’ll cover the aftermath of this revolution in the video next week, thank you for watching this one and if you enjoyed it, consider subscribing to my channel. See you next time.

Contents

Events

"Baby New Year", a cartoon by John T. McCutcheon depicting the new year 1905 chasing the old 1904 into the history books
"Baby New Year", a cartoon by John T. McCutcheon depicting the new year 1905 chasing the old 1904 into the history books
1905: Einstein's "miracle year"
1905: Einstein's "miracle year"

January

January 22 (9 O.S.): The Bloody Sunday massacre of Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg
January 22 (9 O.S.): The Bloody Sunday massacre of Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg

February

March

March 3: Nicholas II of Russia creates the Duma
March 3: Nicholas II of Russia creates the Duma
March 4: Theodore Roosevelt at about the time he is sworn in for a full term as 26th President of the United States
March 4: Theodore Roosevelt at about the time he is sworn in for a full term as 26th President of the United States

April

May

May 15: Las Vegas is founded with auction of 110 acres (0.45 km2)
May 15: Las Vegas is founded with auction of 110 acres (0.45 km2)

June

July

August

September

October

October 2: HMS Dreadnought

November

December

Date unknown

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Nobel Prizes

References

  1. ^ Blake, Richard. The Book of Postal Dates, 1635–1985. Caterham: Marden. p. 20.
  2. ^ Cordery, Stacey (2007). Alice: Alice Roosevelt Longworth, from White House Princess to Washington Power Broker. Penguin Books. p. 117-135.
  3. ^ "A Brief History". Juilliard School. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  4. ^ "Tweets with replies by melih sabanoglu (@melihsabanoglu)". Twitter.com. Retrieved January 25, 2018.
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved June 27, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Further reading

  • Gilbert, Martin (1997). A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900–1933. pp 105–22.
This page was last edited on 24 January 2020, at 23:04
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