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1902 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1902 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1900 November 4, 1902[a] 1904 →

All 386 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
194 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JGCannon.jpg
John Sharp Williams.jpg
Leader Joseph Cannon John Sharp Williams
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since March 4, 1903 March 4, 1903
Leader's seat Illinois 18th Mississippi 8th
Last election 201 seats[b] 151 seats
Seats before 199 seats[c] 152 seats[d]
Seats won 210[1][2][e] 176[1][2]
Seat change Increase 9 Increase 25

Speaker before election

David Henderson
Republican

Elected Speaker

Joseph Cannon
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives held in 1902 occurred in the middle of President Theodore Roosevelt's first term, about a year after the assassination of President William McKinley in September 1901.

Due to the increased size of the House and the reapportionment that resulted from the 1900 U.S. Census, the Republican Party and the Democratic Party both gained seats simultaneously, which has not occurred in any elections since. The Democrats increased their share of the House, but not by enough to regain control.

With a stable economy and no cornerstone issue, Democratic gains can mostly be linked to the effects of redistricting. Many of the new seats were in areas with high numbers of immigrants (mostly Eastern and Southern European industrial workers, and Northern European farmers), with new immigrants tending to vote Democrat. The Populist Party disappeared from the House, with its supporters almost unanimously switching to the Democratic Party.[citation needed]

This election marked the third and most recent time in American history where the incumbent President's party gained House seats in a midterm election while still losing seats in the Senate, the first two being in 1814 and 1822.

Election summaries

29 new seats were added in reapportionment following the 1900 Census.[3] No states lost seats, 16 had no change in apportionment, 14 gained 1 seat, 3 gained 2 seats, and 3 gained 3 seats. Two of the states that gained representation elected the new seat at-large.

176 3 207
Democratic IR Republican
State Type Total seats Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama Districts 9 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas Districts 7 Increase 1 7 Increase 1 0 Steady
California Districts 8 Increase 1 3 Increase 3 5 Decrease 2
Colorado District
+at-large[f]
3[g] Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 2[h]
Connecticut District
+at-large[f]
5 Increase 1 0 Steady 5 Increase 1
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Florida Districts 3 Increase 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Georgia Districts 11 Steady 11 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 1[g] Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Illinois Districts 25 Increase 3 8 Decrease 3 17 Increase 6
Indiana Districts 13 Steady 4 Steady 9 Steady
Iowa Districts 11 Steady 1 Increase 1 10 Decrease 1
Kansas District
+at-large
8 Steady 0 Decrease 1 8 Increase 1
Kentucky Districts 11 Steady 10 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1
Louisiana Districts 7 Increase 1 7 Increase 1 0 Steady
Maine[i] Districts 4 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady
Maryland Districts 6 Steady 2 Increase 2 4 Decrease 2
Massachusetts Districts 14 Increase 1 4 Increase 1 10 Steady
Michigan Districts 12 Steady 1 Increase 1 11 Decrease 1
Minnesota Districts 9 Increase 2 1 Increase 1 8 Increase 1
Mississippi Districts 8 Increase 1 8 Increase 1 0 Steady
Missouri Districts 16 Increase 1 15 Increase 3 1 Decrease 2
Montana At-large 1[g] Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Nebraska Districts 6[j] Steady 1 Decrease 1 5 Increase 3
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire Districts 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
New Jersey Districts 10 Increase 2 3 Increase 1 7 Increase 1
New York Districts 37 Increase 3 17 Increase 4 20 Decrease 1
North Carolina Districts 10 Increase 1 10 Increase 3 0 Decrease 2
North Dakota At-large 2 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Increase 1
Ohio Districts 21 Steady 4 Steady 17 Steady
Oregon[i] Districts 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Pennsylvania District[k] 32 Increase 2 3 Decrease 1 29[e] Increase 3
Rhode Island Districts 2 Steady 1 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1
South Carolina Districts 7 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Tennessee Districts 10 Steady 8 Steady 2 Steady
Texas Districts 16 Increase 3 16 Increase 3 0 Steady
Utah At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Vermont[i] Districts 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Virginia Districts 10 Steady 9 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Washington At-large 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1
West Virginia Districts 5 Increase 1 0 Steady 5 Increase 1
Wisconsin Districts 11 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 10 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Total 386 Increase 29 176
45.6%
Increase 25 210[e]
54.4%
Increase 9
House seats
Democratic
45.60%
Republican
54.40%

The previous election had 5 Populists, but the party completely disappeared from the U.S. House in the 1902 elections.

  House seats by party holding plurality in state      80+% to 100% Democratic    80+% to 100% Republican     60+% to 80% Democratic    60+% to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation      6+ Democratic gain    6+ Republican gain     3-5 Democratic gain    3-5 Republican gain     1-2 Democratic gain    1-2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1902, three states, with 8 seats among them, held elections early:


California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 Samuel D. Woods
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Republican 1900 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Green tickY James N. Gillett (Republican) 50.5%
  • Thomas S. Ford (Democratic) 46.7%
  • M. E. Shore (Socialist) 1.9%
  • W. O. Clark (Prohibition) 0.9%
California 2 Frank Coombs
Redistricted from the 1st district
Republican 1900 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY Theodore A. Bell (Democratic) 49.2%
  • Frank Coombs (Republican) 48.3%
  • G. H. Rogers (Socialist) 1.7%
  • W. P. Fassett (Prohibition) 0.8%
California 3 Victor H. Metcalf Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Victor H. Metcalf (Republican) 66.2%
  • Calvin B. White (Democratic) 27.7%
  • M. W. Wilkins (Socialist) 5%
  • T. H. Montgomery (Prohibition) 1.1%
California 4 Julius Kahn Republican 1898 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY Edward J. Livernash (Democratic) 49.2%
  • Julius Kahn (Republican) 48.7%
  • William Costley (Socialist) 1.9%
  • Joseph Rowell (Prohibition) 0.2%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY William J. Wynn (Democratic) 56.5%
  • Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 41.2%
  • Joseph Lawrence (Socialist) 1.5%
  • Frank W. Caton (Prohibition) 0.7%
California 6 James C. Needham
Redistricted from the 7th district
Republican 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY James C. Needham (Republican) 53.5%
  • Gaston N. Ashe (Democratic) 42.5%
  • J. L. Cobb (Socialist) 2.5%
  • L. C. Jolley (Prohibition) 1.4%
California 7 James McLachlan
Redistricted from the 6th district
Republican 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY James McLachlan (Republican) 64.8%
  • Carl A. Johnson (Democratic) 27%
  • George H. Hewes (Socialist) 4.2%
  • Frederick F. Wheeler (Prohibition) 4%
California 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Robert Wyche Davis Democratic 1896 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William Elliott Democratic 1886
1896
Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired to run for Governor of South Carolina.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
South Carolina 4 Joseph T. Johnson Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 5 David E. Finley Democratic 1898 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 Robert B. Scarborough Democratic 1900 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 7 Asbury F. Lever Democratic 1901 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 2 and September 18.
  2. ^ Included 1 member of the Silver Republican faction, John F. Shafroth, of CO-01.
  3. ^ Includes five vacancies.
  4. ^ Includes six vacancies.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 3 Independent Republicans elected to PA-29, PA-31, and PA-32 in the Pittsburgh area.
  6. ^ a b Additional seat elected at-large due to Colorado delaying redistricting.
  7. ^ a b c Election of 1900 saw the election of 1 Populist.
  8. ^ There was one member of the Silver Republican Party faction elected in 1900, John F. Shafroth. Shafroth attempted to get elected as a Democrat in 1902, but his election was contested and overturned.
  9. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  10. ^ Election of 1900 saw the election of 2 Populists in Nebraska.
  11. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.

References

  1. ^ a b "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
  2. ^ a b Martis, pp. 156–157.
  3. ^ Apportionment Act of 1901

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 20 October 2019, at 00:55
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