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1893 Chicago mayoral election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1893 Chicago mayoral election
← 1891 April 4, 1893[1] 1893 (special) →
 
CarterHarrison1890 (a).JPG
Samuel W. Allerton.jpg
Nominee Carter Harrison Sr. Samuel W. Allerton
Party Democratic Republican
Popular vote 114,237 93,148
Percentage 54.03% 44.06%

Mayor before election

Hempstead Washburne
Republican

Elected Mayor

Carter Harrison Sr.
Democratic

In the Chicago mayoral election of 1893 Democrat Carter Harrison Sr. won election to a (then-record) fifth non-consecutive term as mayor of Chicago.

Harrison won a majority of the vote, defeating Republican Samuel W. Allerton by a 10 point margin, as well as former mayor DeWitt Clinton Cregier (who ran under the "United Citizens " banner, but failed to receive a significant share of the vote).[2]

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Transcription

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{\*\pnseclvl1\pnucrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl2 \pnucltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl3\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl4\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl5\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl6 \pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang {\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\ql \li0\ri0\sb100\sa100\sbauto1\saauto1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0\pararsid2319343 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 John Peter Altgeld became Illinois' first foreign-born governor after his election in 1892. Born in Germany but raised in Ohio, Altgeld found his way to Chicago after stops in Misso uri. In Chicago he invested in real estate and became rich. He turned his legal practice to the lucrative field of corporation law, then became a judge. In his 1892 campaign as the Democratic candidate for governor, Altgeld supported labor, but remained q u iet about the Haymarket affair. After his election however, Altgeld read the trail materials and pardoned the three remaining prisoners in a strongly worded statement that attacked the police and prosecutors. Altgeld's pardon inspired a frenzy of reproach among Republicans, whose newspapers called him a socialist and an anarchist. \par Altgeld's administration enforced labor legislation more thoroughly than his Republican predecessor's, and hired the reformer Florence Kelley as Chief Factory Inspector for the S tate of Illinois. Her close attention to working conditions outraged many industrialists, but it also brought issues of worker safety before the public as never before. \par Altgeld's urban r eform efforts took place as the rural uprising against the nation's emerging economic arrangements reached its high water mark. In the 1870s farmers, including many in Illinois, had formed Granges devoted to self-help and political lobbying. In the 1880s m any agriculturalists formed Farmer's Alliances, which established cooperative grain elevators and other ventures to free themselves from the power of highly organized businesses. Alliance meetings brought isolated farm families together to commiserate, li sten to speakers, and enjoy amusements. By 1890 many state Alliances ran their own slates of political candidates, which won nine seats in the House of Representatives and two in the Senate. \par By 1892 the Alliance had formed a new national political organization, the }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 People's Party}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 , which many simply called }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 "the Populists."}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 Its platform endorsed a national system of government crop warehouses, or subtreasuries, which would allow farmers to store their harvests until they found favorable prices. }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 The Populists}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 also advocated an expansion of the American money supply through the free coinage of silver. In the preceding decades the federal government's retirement of Civil War "greenbacks" and insistence upon the gold standard had effectively deflated the America n dollar, placing an enormous strain upon debtors like farmers. }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/populism.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 The Populists}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 polled over one million votes and carried three states in an election that returned the Democrat Grover Cleveland to office after Benjamin Harrison's four-year interlude. \par Altgeld took office in 1893, just as workers were completing work on the structures and grounds of the World's Columbian Exposition. The exposition celebrated Christopher Columbus' landing in America four hundred years earlier, and celebrated American society, business and culture. Over twenty-seven million visitors streamed into Chicago to take it all in. \par The fair grounds themselve s covered 633 acres, and featured fourteen major buildings. Together these buildings, all designed in the neo-classical style and constructed of similar materials, comprised a striking collection that many visitors came to call the White City. The White C ity represented a considerable setback for the innovative designs of Louis Sullivan, who complained that the buildings would set architecture back by fifty years. \par At the fair's center visitors found a large reflecting pool, a fountain, and a classical stat ue. Major halls featured exhibits praising machinery, manufacturing, transportation, agriculture, electricity, and the liberal arts. A separate Woman's Building exhibited women's work and accomplishments. Another building, the Palace of Fine Arts, contain ed over 8000 works of art. Smaller buildings contained materials from American states and territories and over twenty foreign countries. \par The historian Frederick Jackson Turner delivered h is influential paper "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" at the American Historical Association's annual meeting, held in conjunction with the exposition. Turner remarked that the 1890 census had shown that Americans faced a new dilemma : they had run out of available land on the frontier. He argued that the frontier had served as a catalyst for American democracy and character, and wondered what would happen in a future bereft of this important part of the American experience. Turner's i mportant and controversial "frontier thesis" captured many Americans' gnawing unease about the very emergence of modern society celebrated so thoroughly in the exposition. \par In addition to educational exhibits, the fair also provided an opportunity for entertainment. The world's first Ferris Wheel appeared on the fair's Midway, as did a zoo, a swimming pool, and a fun house. Not only did foreign countries send official exhibitions, entrepre neurs also assembled displays portraying life in the villages of less prosperous nations. Many fair goers took side trips to see Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, which had set up just outside the fair grounds. \par The fair made Chicago the nation's unofficial ca pital in the summer of 1893, but by the spring of 1894 the city was again principally known for its ongoing struggle between employers and workers. Laborers and tradesmen had poured into the city to help build the fair grounds, but as the fair wound down, the American economy entered another of its periodic depressions. The recent influx of workers made times especially hard in Chicago. A disappointed job seeker's assassination of Mayor Carter Harrison in October of 1893 again set Chicagoans on edge. Many feared that additional violence could not be far off. \par The industrialist George Pullman ignited this round of labor disputes in May of 1894. He had built a model community devoted to constructing his luxurious passenger rail cars south of the city. Pullman provided his workers with churches and cultural facilities, but denied them the opportunity to own their own homes or govern themselves. Pullman also made his town run at a distinct profit. All Pullman workers were obliged to live in the town and pay rent s some 25% higher than those in Chicago. \par When the depression of 1893 undermined Pullman's business, he cut workers' pay by up to 25%, but did not reduce their rents. Despite other businessmen's advice, he refused to negotiate with his hard-pressed workers. The Pullman employees went out on strike. \par The American Railway Union represented many railroad workers, and had just won an important victory by forcing the Great Northern Railroad to rescind most of its wage cuts. Although the vast majority of Pullman w orkers did not belong to the Union, its leader Eugene Debs decided to take up their cause. American Railway Union members refused to handle Pullman cars on any trains until the strike was resolved. \par The Union's actions spread to twenty-seven states and par alyzed much of the American railroad system. Pullman cars were popular features on passenger trains, and their boycott by railroad switchmen effectively prevented these trains from moving. Railroad managers, desperate to move traffic, took advantage of a federal law prohibiting strikers from interfering with the mails by adding mail cars to all trains including Pullman sleepers. \par Governor Altgeld refused to mobilize the Illinois militia ag ainst the Pullman strikers, but President Grover Cleveland, a fellow Democrat, came down decisively on the side of the railroads. His administration received a judge's injunction against the Union's actions, and called in the United States Army to enforce it. Crowds again gathered on the streets of Chicago to support strikers, and rioting broke out. When Altgeld protested the presence of federal troops he had not requested, five other governors supported his position. But Cleveland would not yield. On July 10, 1894 Eugene Debs surrendered to law enforcement officials. He faced charges of conspiring to violate the court injunction prohibiting his Union's strike, and served six months in prison. There he became a socialist who would revitalize that movement i n the Progressive Era. \par In 1895 the African-American political activist }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Ida B. Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 removed to Chicago. Born a child of slaves in Mississippi in 1862, Wells found education and began teaching school as a teenager. Working as an educator in Memphis, }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 challenged the southern practice of segregated facilities by suing a railroad, and became a journalist devoted to exposing blacks unfair lot in society. In 1892 three of her friends were lynched by white mobs, and } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 wrote scathing exposes of the practice which received wide national attention. Facing intimidation and threats in Memphis, } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 became a traveling lecturer before marrying the Chicago attorney and publisher Ferdinand L. Barnett. After 1895 } {\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect \linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 largely confined herself to local political causes and raising her family. \par In the 1880s and 1890s African Americans in the South faced rapidly deteriorating social and political conditions. As white supremacists returned to power after the end of Reconstruction, blacks lost the vote and the few vestiges of social equality t hey had briefly enjoyed. Lynching also became a frequent white tactic in the struggle to return African Americans to powerlessness. In this era some African Americans, like }{\field\fldedit{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 HYPERLINK "http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/idabwells/index.html" }}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\ul\cf2\insrsid2319343 Wells}}}\sectd \ltrsect\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sectrsid9840608\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid2319343 , escaped the South and took up new lives in northern cities like Chicago. 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Campaigning

The election took place against the backdrop of the city's preparations for the World's Columbian Exposition.[3] The race was considered to have been one of the most rancorous in Chicago's history.[3]

Harrison was regarded to be an underdog in the race.[4] The city elite largely considered Harrison to be too liberal and believed that he allowed himself to be surrounded by corrupt associates.[3] Thus, Allerton, a conservative Republican, received broad backing from the city elite and nearly all of the city's newspapers.[3][4]

Harrison reportedly spent $500,000 in his campaign effort.[5] He benefited from a well-run campaign operation.[4]

Many voters believed that the charismatic Harrison was the best choice to be the "face" of the city during the World's Fair, that he was the best option to serve as the city's ambassador to the world during the course of the exposition.[3] Others, however, believed that Harrison's leadership style was better adapted to the past, when Chicago was a burgeoning metropolis. They believed that hosting the World's Fair indicated that the city had reached a stage of maturity in its development and that Harrison was ill-suited to lead the city at such a stage.[3]

The election result was considered to be a surprise, as most newspapers had predicted Allerton to have been the strong favorite to win the election.[4]

Results

1893 Chicago mayoral election[2][6]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Carter Harrison Sr. 114,237 54.03
Republican Samuel W. Allerton 93,148 44.06
United Citizens DeWitt Clinton Cregier 3,033 1.44
Socialist Labor Henry Ehrenpreis 1,000 0.47
Turnout 211,418

Harrison received 87.87% of the Polish-American vote, while Allerton received only 11.20%.[7]

References

  1. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=7pQUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA335&lpg=PA335
  2. ^ a b "RaceID=486006". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Badger, Reid (1979). The Great American Fair: The World's Columbian Exposition & American Culture.
  4. ^ a b c d Assassination of Carter Harrison (Chicago Press)
  5. ^ https://www.thefire.org/carter-h-harrison-spends-500000-on-his-chicago-mayoral-campaign/ Carter H. Harrison Spends $500,000 on His Chicago Mayoral Campaign (FIRE January 1, 1893)
  6. ^ The Chicago Daily News Almanac and Year Book. Chicago: Chicago Daily News. 1911. p. 538.
  7. ^ Kantowicz, Edward. “The Emergence of the Polish-Democratic Vote in Chicago.” Polish American Studies, vol. 29, no. 1/2, 1972, pp. 67–80. JSTOR, JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/20147849.
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