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1890 New York state election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 1890 New York state election was held on November 4, 1890, to elect a judge of the New York Court of Appeals, as well as all members of the New York State Assembly.

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Transcription

>> Well, okay, let's go back to the 14th Amendment. Congress passes it. It's got to go out to three-quarters, it's got to be ratified by three-quarters of the states. The 14th Amendment becomes the issue, you might say, in the congressional elections of 1866. In that year, in that summer, fall, Andrew Johnson, unlike other presidents, takes a leading role in supporting candidates, mostly Democrats, who are in favor of his Reconstruction policy. He tries to form a new political coalition. He has something called the National Union Convention. But very few Republicans are willing to go with him. Most of the people now backing Johnson are Democrats, North and South. Johnson's effort to mobilize support in the North is injured by riots, race riots that break out in the South in the summer of 1866, leading to scores of deaths of African Americans, and of some white people, too. In Memphis, there's the Memphis riot which leads to 50 deaths, virtually all blacks, in a kind of an attack on black homes and black schools. Even worse, the New Orleans riot in the summer of 1866. These are images of the New Orleans riot. People, often police, shooting at black people. The inside of the convention hall. What happened in New Orleans was, if you remember when I was talking about Louisiana in the Civil War, the Reconstruction of Louisiana in the Civil War. They had this constitutional convention, it abolished slavery, didn't give any rights to blacks, but it said it, it authorized the president of the convention to reconvene if desired. And in 1866, with Confederates, basically in control of Louisiana, the old constitutional convention tries to reconvene. And the meeting of that leads to a riot where armed whites are assaulting the building, including the local police now allied with these, you know, ex-Confederates. And something like 40 people are killed, several hundred wounded. And again, the image of the South in Northern eyes that these riots portray, is one -- you know, that they are not willing to accept the results of the Civil War, that there is this violence against African Americans. Local authorities are not willing to do anything about it. The army has to be sent in to put down the violence. And these things really undermine whatever support there was for Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policy. Johnson breaks with tradition and goes into the North campaigning for congressional candidates who will support his policy. This is unprecedented. The so called "swing around the circle." He travels all around the North, support -- But it turns into an utter disaster. Johnson starts exchanging epithets with people in the audience. People yell things out at him. He starts yelling curses back at them. [laughter] Bantering with the crowd. He's not very dignified as a president, so to speak. He tells the Northern people they're ignorant, they don't really know what's going on in Congress. He becomes more and more self-pitying. He starts comparing himself with Jesus Christ, saying people want kill -- he's willing to sacrifice himself for the nation. [laughter] And by the time the swing around the circle is over, whatever support Johnson had has evaporated. Here's an image of an anti-Johnson, here's an image of, someone wrote on a placard of Johnson, you see, "I am king," and put a little crown on his head. This is a Democratic cartoon. It's from the governor's election in California. This is the Republican candidate for Governor, I believe. But this is overt use of racism in the campaign. It's kind of hard to see. I think it's reproduced in my book, I can't remember. You've got the governor and you've got a black -- this is negro suffrage and what's to come -- you've got the governor, you've got a black guy, on top of him is a Chinese, on top of him is sort of a Native American, you see, with an arrow. And then someone is bringing along a monkey, saying, well, if these guys can vote, let's give monkeys the right to vote. So this is, you see, the absolute overt racism as, you know, the critique of the Radical policy of black -- black suffrage will lead to all these other disasters if followed. Well, the result of the elections, of course, is that the Republicans sweep to way beyond two-thirds control of both houses of Congress, rendering Johnson totally irrelevant. And this leaves the question of the 14th Amendment up in the air, because to get three-quarters of the states, some Southern states are going to have to ratify the 14th Amendment. There are a few leading Southerners, one guy we'll talk about next week, James Alcorn, one of the leading planters of Mississippi, says, you know, it looks like the Northern public actually doesn't support Andrew Johnson, and we better really be prudent here. Why don't we ratify the 14th Amendment. Because Congress had said, if the South ratifies the 14th Amendment, Southern states, they can come back into the Union. And Alcorn says, let's do that, we really have no alternative. But most Southern leaders say, absolutely not, the 14th Amendment is a complete violation of all our liberties. And so, legislature after legislature in the South rejects the 14th Amendment, by overwhelming majorities. In the South Carolina legislature, only one member votes in favor of ratification. In Georgia, only two. The whole South, only 20 or 30, where 700 or 800 legislators vote against it. And they are egged on by Democrats in the North, and they're egged on by Johnson. Johnson keeps saying, don't ratify the 14th Amendment, and they'll never enact black suffrage. He keeps telling the South, don't worry, don't worry. Of course, it happens, two months after he starts saying this, it does happen. And so he's completely out of touch with political reality by this time.

Contents

History

In 1890, there was only one state officer to be elected statewide: a judge of the Court of Appeals, to succeed Robert Earl whose fourteen-year term would expire at the end of the year.

The Republican State Committee met on September 2 at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City. The incumbent Democrat Robert Earl was nominated to succeed himself on the first ballot (vote: Earl 21, Daniel G. Rollins 3).[1]

The Democratic State Committee met on September 23 at the Hoffman House in New York City. Edward Murphy Jr. was Chairman. The incumbent judge Robert Earl was re-nominated unanimously.[2]

The Socialist Labor state convention met on September 25 at Clarendon House in New York City. Francis Gerau was nominated for the Court of Appeals.[3]

Result

The jointly nominated incumbent Robert Earl was re-elected.

68 Democrats and 60 Republicans were elected for the session of 1891 to the New York State Assembly. The New York State Senate consisted of 19 Republicans and 13 Democrats.

1890 state election result
Office Democratic ticket Republican ticket Prohibition ticket Socialist Labor ticket
Judge of the Court of Appeals Robert Earl 927,243[4] Robert Earl Silas W. Mason[5] 33,621 Francis Gerau[6] 13,337

Notes

  1. ^ JUDGE EARL RENOMINATED in NYT on September 3, 1890
  2. ^ IT WAS A TAME MEETING in NYT on September 24, 1890
  3. ^ LOCAL POLITICAL MATTERS in NYT on September 26, 1890
  4. ^ total votes on Democratic and Republican tickets
  5. ^ Silas W. Mason, of Chautauqua County, ran also in 1893, and for Attorney General in 1887
  6. ^ Dr. Francis Gerau, MD (ca. 1826-1896), of Brooklyn, President of the Labor Lyceum Association, ran also in 1888, 1893 and 1894; and for Chief Judge in 1892; see: TOO OLD FOR HER in NYT on September 11, 1886; DR. GERAU'S TRIALS in NYT on November 25, 1886; His funeral in NYT on February 24, 1896

Sources

See also

New York state elections

This page was last edited on 29 March 2019, at 09:24
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