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1880 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1880 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1878 / 1879 June 1, 1880 – November 2, 1880 1882 →

All 293 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg
Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader Joseph Keifer Samuel Randall
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Ohio 4th Pennsylvania 3rd
Last election 132 seats 148 seats[a]
Seats won 151[1][b] 131[1][b][c]
Seat change Increase 19 Decrease 17

  Third party
 
Party Greenback
Last election 13 seats
Seats won 10[1][b]
Seat change Decrease 3

House047ElectionMap.png
Elections results from the 1880 elections

Speaker before election

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1880 for Representatives to the 47th Congress, and coincided with the 1880 presidential election which was won by James A. Garfield, who was a member of the House at the time.

Issues such as Civil War loyalties, tariffs, graft and corruption dominated the year's elections, though none became substantive a national issue. The economy was growing stronger after emerging from a long Depression. It was in this political environment that Garfield's Republican Party gained 19 seats and regained control of the House from the Democratic Party. The Greenback Party, an emerging party of workers and farmers, also lost seats in these elections, after gaining more than a dozen two years earlier.[2][3]

Election summaries

131 10 151
Democratic Gb Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Greenback Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 6 Decrease 1 1 Steady 1 Increase 1
Arkansas District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 4 2 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1
Colorado At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Connecticut District 4 1 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Georgia District 9 9[d] Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 19 6 Steady 0 Decrease 1 13 Increase 1
Indiana District 13 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 8 Increase 2
Iowa District 9 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2 8 Increase 1
Kansas District 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Kentucky District 10 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Louisiana District 6 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Maine[e] District 5 0 Steady 2 Steady 3 Steady
Maryland District 6 5 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 1 Steady 0 Steady 10 Steady
Michigan District 9 0 Steady 0 Steady 9 Steady
Minnesota District 3 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1
Mississippi District 6 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Missouri District 13 7 Decrease 5 4 Increase 3 2 Increase 2
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
New Hampshire District 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
New Jersey District 7 3 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady
New York District 33[f] 12 Increase 3 0 Steady 20 Decrease 4
North Carolina District 8 7 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Steady
Ohio[e] District 20 5 Decrease 6 0 Steady 15 Increase 6
Oregon[e] At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Pennsylvania District 27 7 Decrease 1 2 Steady 18 Increase 1
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District 5 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Tennessee District 10 7 Decrease 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2
Texas[e] District 6 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[e] District 3 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
Virginia District 9 7[g] Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Increase 1
West Virginia District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 6 Increase 1
Total 293[f] 131[1][c]
44.7%
Decrease 13 10[1]
3.4%
Decrease 4 151[1]
51.5%
Increase 16
House seats
Democratic
44.71%
Greenback
3.41%
Republican
51.54%
  House seats by party holding plurality in state      80+% to 100% Democratic    80+% to 100% Republican     60+% to 80% Democratic    60+% to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation      6+ Democratic gain       6+ Republican gain     3-5 Democratic gain    3-5 Greenback gain    3-5 Republican gain     1-2 Democratic gain    1-2 Greenback gain    1-2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Greenback gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Greenback gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[4] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well.

In 1880, no states held their elections after Election Day for the first time (California was the last state to hold late elections, in 1878). But 5 states, with 35 seats among them, held their elections before the rest of the states:

Special elections

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 7 Alfred M. Lay Democratic 1878 Incumbent died December 8, 1879.
New member elected January 10, 1880.[5]
Democratic hold.
Successor seated January 26, 1880.[6]
Successor later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
New York 32 Ray V. Pierce Republican 1878 Incumbent resigned September 18, 1880.
New member elected November 2, 1880.[7]
Democratic gain.
Successor seated December 6, 1880.[6]
Successor also elected to the next term, see below.
  • Green tickY Jonathan Scoville (Democratic) 50.06%
  • Myron R. Bush (Republican) 49.17%
  • William S. Smith (Greenback) 0.77%[7]
Alabama 6 Burwell B. Lewis Democratic 1874
1876 (Lost)
1878
Incumbent resigned October 1, 1880 to become President of the University of Alabama.
New member elected sometime in 1880.[citation needed]
Democratic hold.
Successor seated December 8, 1880.[6]
Successor had not been a candidate to the next term, see below.
Ohio 19th James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent resigned November 8, 1880 to become U.S. President.
New member November 30, 1880.[9]
Republican hold.
Successor seated December 13, 1880.[6]
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
New Hampshire 3 Evarts Worcester Farr Republican 1878 Incumbent died November 30, 1880.
New member elected December 28, 1880.[10]
Republican hold.
Successor seated January 8, 1881.[11]
Successor was also elected to the next term.
  • Green tickY Ossian Ray (Republican) 64.17%
  • Jewett D. Hosley (Democratic) 34.82%
  • Others 1.01%[10]
New Hampshire 3 Evarts Worcester Farr Republican 1878 Incumbent member-elect died November 30, 1880, having just been re-elected.
New member elected December 28, 1880.[12]
Republican hold.
Successor was also elected to finish the current term.

Alabama

Arkansas

California

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Horace Davis Republican 1876 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic Gain.
  • Green tickY William Rosecrans (Democratic) 51%
  • Horace Davis (Republican) 47.3%
  • Stephen Maybell (Greenback) 1.7%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Campbell P. Berry (Democratic) 51.1%
  • George A. Knight (Republican) 48.2%
  • A. Musselman (Greenback) 0.6%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Romualdo Pacheco (Republican) 45.8%
  • Wallace Leach (Democratic) 45.3%
  • J. F. Godfrey (Greenback) 8.9%

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
Florida 2 Noble A. Hull Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Horatio Bisbee Jr. later successfully challenged the election of Jesse J. Finley and was seated June 1, 1882.

Georgia

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 2 Michael P. O'Connor Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John H. Evins (Democratic) 69.7%
  • A. Blythe (Republican) 29.3%
  • J. Hendrix McLane (Greenback) 1.0%
South Carolina 5 George D. Tillman Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.

Tennessee

Texas

Vermont

Virginia

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Non-voting members

There were elections in Montana Territory.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Included 7 Independent Democrats.
  2. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 255) counts 147 Republicans, 135 Democrats, 2 Readjusters, 1 Independent Democrat, and 8 Greenbacks at the start of the 47th United States Congress.
  3. ^ a b Includes 2 Readjuster Democrats elected in Virginia and 1 Independent Democrat elected in Georgia.
  4. ^ Includes 1 Independent Democrat elected in the 9th district.
  5. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  6. ^ a b 1 Independent, J. Hyatt Smith elected to the 3rd district.
  7. ^ Includes 2 Readjuster Democrats, elected to the 7th district and 9th district.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Martis, pp. 134-135.
  2. ^ Kennedy, Robert C. ""A Midsummer-Night's Dream Nomination"". The Learning Network: The New York Times on the web. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  3. ^ Hartman, Dorothy W. "Politics of the 1870s and 1880s". connerprairie.org. Fishers, Indiana: Conner Prairie. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
  4. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  5. ^ a b "MO District 7 - Special Election". December 17, 2007. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  6. ^ a b c d "Forty-Sixth Congress March 4, 1883, to March 3, 1881". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  7. ^ a b "NY District 32 - Special Election". April 24, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  8. ^ Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections. 1975. p. 642.
  9. ^ a b "OH District 19 - Special Election". April 18, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  10. ^ a b "NH District 3 - Special Election". January 5, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "Forty-Sixth Congress March 4, 1879, to March 3, 1881". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "NH District 3 - Special Election". January 5, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 23 August 2019, at 20:28
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