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1878 and 1879 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1878 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1876 / 1877 June 3, 1878 – September 3, 1879 1880 →

All 293 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy.jpg
James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Samuel J. Randall James A. Garfield
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 3rd Ohio 19th
Last election 157 seats[a] 136 seats
Seats won 148[1][Note 1][b] 132[1][b]
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 4

  Third party
Party Greenback
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 13[1]
Seat change Increase 13

Speaker before election

Samuel Randall

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1878 and 1879[c] for Representatives to the 46th United States Congress. These elections occurred in the middle of President Rutherford B. Hayes's term.

With a sour economy as the nation's pressing issue, both major parties lost seats to the new Greenback Party, which was established to promote the long-term use of paper money as a solution to stop enormous economic fluctuations. The Democratic Party remained the largest party, but lost its majority. However, it allied with several independent politicians and was able to remain in power. Notable freshmen included James B. Weaver, who would later run for president as the Greenback candidate in 1880 and the Populist candidate in 1892. This was the fourth and last recorded House election where both major parties lost seats at the same time.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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Episode 21: Reconstruction Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course U.S. History and huzzah! The Civil War is over! The slaves are free! Huzzah! That one hit me in the head? It’s very dangerous, Crash Course. So when you say, “Don’t aim at a person,” that includes myself? The roller coaster only goes up from here, my friends. Huzzah! Mr. Green, Mr. Green, what about the epic failure of Reconstruction? Oh, right. Stupid Reconstruction always ruining everything intro So after the Civil War ended, the United States had to reintegrate both a formerly slave population and a formerly rebellious population back into the country, which is a challenge that we might’ve met, except Abraham Lincoln was assassinated and we were left with Andrew “I am the Third Worst President Ever” Johnson. I’m sorry, Abe, but you don’t get to be in the show anymore. So, Lincoln’s whole post-war idea was to facilitate reunion and reconciliation, and Andrew Johnson’s guiding Reconstruction principle was that the South never had a right to secede in the first place. Also, because he was himself a Southerner, he resented all the elites in the South who had snubbed him, AND he was also a racist who didn’t think that blacks should have any role in Reconstruction. TRIFECTA! So between 1865 and 1867, the so-called period of Presidential Reconstruction, Johnson appointed provisional governors and ordered them to call state conventions to establish new all-white governments. And in their 100% whiteness and oppression of former slaves, those new governments looked suspiciously like the old confederate governments they had replaced. And what was changing for the former slaves? Well, in some ways, a lot. Like, Fiske and Howard universities were established, as well as many primary and secondary schools, thanks in part to The Freedman’s Bureau, which only lasted until 1870, but had the power to divide up confiscated and abandoned confederate land for former slaves. And this was very important because to most slaves, land ownership was the key to freedom, and many felt like they’d been promised land by the Union Army. Like, General Sherman’s Field Order 15, promised to distribute land in 40 acre plots to former slaves. But that didn’t happen, either through the Freedman’s Bureau or anywhere else. Instead, President Johnson ordered all land returned to its former owners. So the South remained largely agricultural with the same people owning the same land, and in the end, we ended up with sharecropping. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The system of sharecropping replaced slavery in many places throughout the South. Landowners would provide housing to the sharecroppers--no, Thought Bubble, not quite that nice. There ya go--also tools and seed, and then the sharecroppers received, get this, a share of their crop--usually between a third and a half, with the price for that harvest often set by the landowner. Freed blacks got to control their work, and plantation owners got a steady workforce that couldn’t easily leave, because they had little opportunity to save money and make the big capital investments in, like, land or tools. By the late 1860s, poor white farmers were sharecropping as well--in fact, by the Great Depression, most sharecroppers were white. And while sharecropping certainly wasn’t slavery, it did result in a quasi-serfdom that tied workers to land they didn’t own--more or less the opposite of Jefferson’s ideal of the small, independent farmer. So, the Republicans in Congress weren’t happy that this reconstructed south looked so much like the pre-Civil War south, so they took the lead in reconstruction after 1867. Radical Republicans felt the war had been fought for equal rights and wanted to see the powers of the national government expanded. Few were as radical as Thaddeus “Tommy Lee Jones” Stephens who wanted to take away land from the Southern planters and give it to the former slaves, but rank-and-file Republicans were radical enough to pass the Civil Rights Bill, which defined persons born in the United States as citizens and established nationwide equality before the law regardless of race. Andrew Johnson immediately vetoed the law, claiming that trying to protect the rights of African Americans amounted to discrimination against white people, which so infuriated Republicans that Congress did something it had never done before in all of American history. They overrode the Presidential veto with a 2/3rds majority and the Civil Rights Act became law. So then Congress really had its dander up and decided to amend the Constitution with the 14th amendment, which defines citizenship, guarantees equal protection, and extends the rights in the Bill of Rights to all the states (sort of). The amendment had almost no Democratic support, but it also didn’t need any, because there were almost no Democrats in Congress on account of how Congress had refused to seat the representatives from the “new” all-white governments that Johnson supported. And that’s how we got the 14th amendment, arguably the most important in the whole Constitution. Thanks, Thought Bubble. Oh, straight to the mystery document today? Alright. The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document and try not to get shocked. Alright let’s see what we’ve got today. Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the police jury of the parish of St. Landry, That no negro shall be allowed to pass within the limits of said parish without special permit in writing from his employer. Sec. 4. . . . Every negro is required to be in the regular service of some white person, or former owner, who shall be held responsible for the conduct of said negro.. Sec. 6. . . . No negro shall be permitted to preach, exhort, or otherwise declaim to congregations of colored people, without a special permission in writing from the president of the police jury. . . . Gee, Stan, I wonder if the President of the Police Jury was white. I actually know this one. It is a Black Code, which was basically legal codes where they just replaced the word “slave” with the word “negro.” And this code shows just how unwilling white governments were to ensure the rights of new, free citizens. I would celebrate not getting shocked, but now I am depressed. So, okay, in 1867, again over Johnson’s veto, Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, which divided the south into 5 military districts and required each state to create a new government, one that included participation of black men. Those new governments had to ratify the 14th amendment if they wanted to get back into the union. Radical Reconstruction had begun. So, in 1868, Andrew Johnson was about as electable in the U.S. as Jefferson Davis, and sure enough he didn’t win. Instead, the 1868 election was won by Republican and former Union general Ulysses S. Grant. But Grant’s margin of victory was small enough that Republicans were like, “Man, we would sure win more elections if black people could vote.” Which is something you hear Republicans say all the time these days. So Congressional Republicans pushed the 15th Amendment, which prohibited states from denying men the right to vote based on race, but not based on gender or literacy or whether your grandfather could vote. So states ended up with a lot of leeway when it came to denying the franchise to African Americans, which of course they did. So here we have the federal government dictating who can vote, and who is and isn’t a citizen of a state, and establishing equality under the law--even local laws. And this is a really big deal in American history, because the national government became, rather than a threat to individual liberty, “the custodian of freedom,” as Radical Republican Charles Sumner put it. So but with this legal protection, former slaves began to exercise their rights. They participated in the political process by direct action, such as staging sit-ins to integrate street-cars, by voting in elections, and by holding office. Most African Americans were Republicans at the time, and because they could vote and were a large part of the population, the Republican party came to dominate politics in the South, just like today, except totally different. Now, Southern mythology about the age of radical Reconstruction is exemplified by Gone with the Wind, which of course tells the story of northern Republican dominance and corruption by southern Republicans. Fortune seeking northern carpetbaggers, seen here, as well as southern turncoat scalawags dominated politics and all of the African American elected leaders were either corrupt or puppets or both. Yeah, well, like the rest of Gone with the Wind, that’s a bit of an oversimplification. There were about 2,000 African Americans who held office during Reconstruction, and the vast majority of them were not corrupt. Consider for example the not-corrupt and amazingly-named Pinckney B.S. Pinchback, who from 1872 to 1873 served very briefly in Louisiana as America’s first black governor. And went on to be a senator and a member of the House of Representatives. By the way, America’s second African American governor, Douglas Wilder of Virginia was elected in 1989. Having African American officeholders was a huge step forward in term of ensuring the rights of African Americans because it meant that there would be black juries and less discrimination in state and local governments when it came to providing basic services. But in the end, Republican governments failed in the South. There were important achievements, especially a school system that, while segregated, did attempt to educate both black and white children. And even more importantly, they created a functioning government where both white and African American citizens could participate. According to one white South Carolina lawyer, “We have gone through one of the most remarkable changes in our relations to each other that has been known, perhaps, in the history of the world.” That’s a little hyperbolic, but we are America after all. (libertage) It’s true that corruption was widespread, but it was in the North, too. I mean, we’re talking about governments. And that’s not why Reconstruction really ended: It ended because 1. things like schools and road repair cost money, which meant taxes, which made Republican governments very unpopular because Americans hate taxes, and 2. White southerners could not accept African Americans exercising basic civil rights, holding office or voting. And for many, the best way to return things to the way they were before reconstruction was through violence. Especially after 1867, much of the violence directed toward African Americans in the South was politically motivated. The Ku Klux Klan was founded in 1866 and it quickly became a terrorist organization, targeting Republicans, both black and white, beating and murdering men and women in order to intimidate them and keep them from voting. The worst act of violence was probably the massacre at Colfax, Louisiana where hundreds of former slaves were murdered. And between intimidation and emerging discriminatory voting laws, fewer black men voted, which allowed white Democrats to take control of state governments in the south, and returned white Democratic congressional delegations to Washington. These white southern politicians called themselves “Redeemers” because they claimed to have redeemed the south from northern republican corruption and black rule. Now, it’s likely that the South would have fallen back into Democratic hands eventually, but the process was aided by Northern Republicans losing interest in Reconstruction. In 1873, the U.S. fell into yet another not-quite-Great economic depression and northerners lost the stomach to fight for the rights of black people in the south, which in addition to being hard was expensive. So by 1876 the supporters of reconstruction were in full retreat and the Democrats were resurgent, especially in the south. And this set up one of the most contentious elections in American history. The Democrats nominated New York Governor (and NYU Law School graduate) Samuel Tilden. The Republicans chose Ohio governor (and Kenyon College alumnus) Rutherford B. Hayes. One man who’d gone to Crash Course writer Raoul Meyer’s law school. And another who’d gone to my college, Kenyon. Now, if the election had been based on facial hair, as elections should be, there would’ve been no controversy, but sadly we have an electoral college here in the United States, and in 1876 there were disputed electoral votes in South Carolina, Louisiana, and, of course, Florida. Now you might remember that in these situations, there is a constitutional provision that says Congress should decide the winner, but Congress, shockingly, proved unable to accomplish something. So they appointed a 15 man Electoral Commission--a Super-Committee, if you will. And there were 8 Republicans on that committee and 7 Democrats, so you will never guess who won. Kenyon College’s own Rutherford B. Hayes. Go Lords and Ladies! And yes, that is our mascot. Shut up. Anyway in order to get the Presidency and win the support of the supercommittee, Hayes’ people agreed to cede control of the South to the Democrats and to stop meddling in Southern affairs and also to build a transcontinental railroad through Texas. This is called the Bargain of 1877 because historians are so good at naming things and it basically killed Reconstruction. Without any more federal troops in Southern states and with control of Southern legislatures firmly in the hands of white democrats the states were free to go back to restricting the freedom of black people, which they did. Legislatures passed Jim Crow laws that limited African American’s access to public accommodations and legal protections. States passed laws that took away black people’s right to vote and social and economic mobility among African Americans in the south declined precipitously. However, for a brief moment, the United States was more democratic than it had ever been before. And an entire segment of the population that had no impact on politics before was now allowed to participate. And for the freedmen who lived through it, that was a monumental change, and it would echo down to the Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s, sometimes called the second reconstruction. But we’re gonna end this episode on a downer, as we are wont to do here at Crash Course US History because I want to point out a lesser-known legacy of Reconstruction. The Reconstruction amendments and laws that were passed granted former slaves political freedom and rights, especially the vote, and that was critical. But to give them what they really wanted and needed, plots of land that would make them economically independent, would have required confiscation, and that violation of property rights was too much for all but the most radical Republicans. And that question of what it really means to be “free” in a system of free market capitalism has proven very complicated indeed. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Every week there’s a new caption for the libertage. You can suggest those in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thank you for watching Crash Course. Don’t forget to subscribe. And as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. reconstruction -


Election summaries

141 7 13 132
Democratic ID Gb Republican
State Type Total
Democratic Republican Greenback Independent Democratic
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 7 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Arkansas District 4 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
California District 4 1 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 1 Decrease 2 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 9 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 2
Illinois District 19 6 Decrease 2 12 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 6 Increase 2 6 Decrease 3 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Iowa District 9 0 Steady 7 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Kansas District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 10 9 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase 1
Louisiana District 6 6 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District 5 0 Steady 3 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 1 Decrease 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 9 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 3 1 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 13 11 Increase 2 0 Decrease 4 1 Increase 1 1 Increase 1
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 3 0 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 3 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 33 6 Decrease 9 25 Increase 7 0 Steady 2 Increase 2
North Carolina District 8 7 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio District 20 11 Increase 3 9 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District 27 8 Decrease 2 17 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 5 5 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 9 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 6 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont District 3 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Virginia District 9 8 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 3 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total 293 141[1]
Decrease 14 132[1]
Decrease 5 13[1]
Increase 13 7[1]
Increase 5
House seats
Ind. Democratic
  House seats by party holding plurality in state      80+ to 100% Democratic    80+ to 100% Republican     60+ to 80% Democratic    60+ to 80% Republican     Up to 60% Democratic    Up to 60% Republican
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
  Net gain in party representation      6+ Democratic gain       6+ Republican gain     3-5 Democratic gain       3-5 Republican gain     1-2 Democratic gain    1-2 Greenback gain    1-2 Republican gain     no net change
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Greenback gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Election dates

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[2] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1878–79, there were still 7 states with earlier election dates, and 1 state with a later election date:

California's elections were the last time that a state held congressional general elections after November.

Complete list of races


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Alabama 1 James T. Jones Democratic 1876 Lost renomination
Democratic hold
Thomas H. Herndon (D) 69.10%
Warner Bailey (G) 30.90%
Alabama 2 Hilary A. Herbert Democratic 1876 Re-elected Hilary A. Herbert (D) 56.25%
James P. Armstrong (R) 43.75%
Alabama 3 Jeremiah N. Williams Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
William J. Samford (D) 88.43%
French Strange (I) 9.64%
William M. Russell (R) 1.93%
Alabama 4 Charles M. Shelley Democratic 1876 Re-elected Charles M. Shelley (D) 55.38%
Jeremiah Haralson (R) 42.57%
Jonathan H. Henry (I) 2.04%
Alabama 5 Robert F. Ligon Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
Thomas Williams (D) 70.51%
Theodore Nunn (G) 29.49%
Alabama 6 Goldsmith W. Hewitt Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Burwell B. Lewis (D) 70.51%
William R. Smith (I) 29.49%
Alabama 7 William H. Forney Democratic 1874 Re-elected William H. Forney (D) 96.57%
N. B. Mardis (I) 3.43%
Alabama 8 William W. Garth Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
William M. Lowe (G) 55.49%
William W. Garth (D) 44.51%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Arkansas 1 Lucien C. Gause Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Poindexter Dunn (D) 100.0%
Arkansas 2 William F. Slemons Democratic 1874 Re-elected William F. Slemons (D) 57.20%
John G. Bradley (G) 43.80%
Arkansas 3 Jordan E. Cravens Independent Democratic 1876 Re-elected as a Democrat
Democratic gain
Jordan E. Cravens (D) 51.19%
Milton L. Rice (G) 48.81%
Arkansas 4 Thomas M. Gunter Democratic 1874 Re-elected Thomas M. Gunter (D) 59.77%
J. F. Cunningham (ID) 29.42%
Byrd Smith (G) 10.80%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
California 1 Horace Davis Republican 1876 Re-elected Horace Davis (R) 48.41%
Clitus Barbour (Wkm) 44.50%
Charles R. Summer (D) 7.09%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Re-elected Horace F. Page (R) 51.87%
Thomas J. Clunie (D) 34.38%
H. P. Williams (Wkm) 13.75%
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic 1872 Retired
Democratic hold
Campbell P. Berry (D) 50.16%
Joseph McKenna (R) 49.61%
George T. Elliott (Wkm) 0.23%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Re-elected Romualdo Pacheco (R) 40.47%
Wallace Leach (D) 31.84%
James J. Ayres (Wkm) 27.68%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Colorado At-Large
None (New state)
Republican gain James B. Belford (R) 49.93%
Thomas M. Patterson (D) 41.93%
Henry C. Childs (G) 8.14%

Patterson successfully contested the election and was seated March 4, 1877.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Connecticut 1 George M. Landers Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Joseph R. Hawley (R) 52.20%
George M. Landers (D) 43.79%
Herbert Baker (G) 3.67%
Horace Johnson (P) 0.34%
Connecticut 2 James Phelps Democratic 1874 Re-elected James Phelps (D) 53.19%
Benjamin Douglas (R) 45.86%
Calvin Harrington (P) 0.95%
Connecticut 3 John T. Wait Republican 1876 Re-elected John T. Wait (R) 53.75%
Charles W. Carter (R) 44.06%
Elisha Palmer (P) 2.18%
Connecticut 4 Levi Warner Democratic 1876 Retired
Republican gain
Frederick Miles (R) 48.70%
Frederick W. Bruggerhoff (R) 44.63%
James S. Taylor (G) 6.38%
Ambrose S. Rogers (P) 0.30%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Delaware At-Large James Williams Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Edward L. Martin (D) 78.10%
John G. Jackson (G) 21.90%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Re-elected Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 56.80%
Simon B. Conover (R) 40.90%
Edmund C. Weeks (IR) 2.29%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Noble A. Hull (D) 50.03%
Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (R) 49.97%

In the 2nd district the difference between the two candidates, in the initial returns, was just 22 votes. Bisbee challenged Hull's election, and Bisbee challenged Hull's electionwas eventually awarded the seat on January 22, 1881.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Georgia 1 Julian Hartridge Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
John C. Nicholls (D) 62.76%
S. A. Corker (R) 37.24%
Georgia 2 William E. Smith Democratic 1874 Re-elected William E. Smith (D) 69.05%
E. C. Wade (R) 30.95%
Georgia 3 Philip Cook Democratic 1872 Re-elected Philip Cook (D) 100.0%
Georgia 4 Henry R. Harris Democratic 1872 Lost re-election
Independent Democratic gain
Henry Persons (ID) 56.09%
Henry R. Harris (D) 42.48%
L. J. Milam (I) 0.91%
J. C. Fuller (I) 0.51%
Georgia 5 Milton A. Candler Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
Nathaniel J. Hammond (D) 55.64%
Reuben Arnold (G) 44.36%
Georgia 6 James H. Blount Democratic 1872 Re-elected James H. Blount (D) 99.44%
Scattering (I) 0.56%
Georgia 7 William H. Felton Independent Democratic 1874 Re-elected William H. Felton (ID) 52.47%
G. N. Lester (D) 47.53%
Georgia 8 Alexander H. Stephens Democratic 1872 Re-elected Alexander H. Stephens (D) 98.30%
Scattering (I) 1.70%
Georgia 9 Hiram P. Bell Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Independent Democratic gain
Emory Speer (ID) 50.51%
Joel A. Billups (D) 49.49%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Illinois 1 William Aldrich Republican 1876 Re-elected William Aldrich (R) 51.84%
James R. Doolittle (D) 30.41%
John McAscliff (S) 9.89%
William V. Barr (G) 7.86%
Illinois 2 Carter Harrison, Sr. Democratic 1874 Retired to run for Mayor
Republican gain
George R. Davis (R) 49.59%
Miles Kehoe (D) 29.29%
George A. Schilling (S) 11.85%
James Felch (G) 7.67%
J. H. Condon (I) 1.25%
John Sebolski (I) 0.35%
Illinois 3 Lorenzo Brentano Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Hiram Barber, Jr. (R) 53.06%
Lambert Tree (D) 29.26%
Benjamin Sebley (I) 12.78%
A. B. Cornell (G) 4.90%
Illinois 4 William Lathrop Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
John C. Sherwin (R) 61.79%
Jonathan C. Staighton (D) 21.50%
Augustus Adams (G) 16.71%
Illinois 5 Horatio C. Burchard Republican 1869 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Robert M. A. Hawk (R) 53.42%
Mortimer D. Hathaway (D) 23.33%
John M. King (G) 23.24%
Illinois 6 Thomas J. Henderson Republican 1874 Re-elected Thomas J. Henderson (R) 52.47%
James W. Haney (G) 31.94%
Charles Dunham (D) 15.59%
Illinois 7 Philip C. Hayes Republican 1876 Re-elected Philip C. Hayes (R) 46.54%
Alexander Campbell (G) 28.29%
W. S. Brooks (D) 25.17%
Illinois 8 Greenbury L. Fort Republican 1872 Re-elected Greenbury L. Fort (R) 49.72%
Chris C. Strawn (G) 29.01%
Thomas M. Shaw (D) 21.27%
Illinois 9 Thomas A. Boyd Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas A. Boyd (R) 43.76%
George A. Wilson (D) 40.68%
Aloxr H. Keighan (G) 15.56%
Illinois 10 Benjamin F. Marsh Republican 1876 Re-elected Benjamin F. Marsh (R) 44.50%
Delos P. Phelps (D) 42.33%
Alson J. Streeter (G) 13.17%
Illinois 11 Robert M. Knapp Democratic 1876 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
James W. Singleton (D) 54.49%
James P. Dimmitt (R) 31.69%
William H. Pogue (P) 13.82%
Illinois 12 William M. Springer Democratic 1874 Re-elected William M. Springer (D) 47.69%
John Cook (R) 34.78%
John Mathers (G) 17.53%
Illinois 13 Thomas F. Tipton Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Adlai Stevenson I (D) 53.22%
Thomas F. Tipton (R) 46.26%
L. M. Bickmore (P) 0.52%
Illinois 14 Joseph G. Cannon Republican 1872 Re-elected Joseph G. Cannon (R) 46.16%
Maldon Jones (D) 38.84%
Jesse Harper (G) 15.00%
Illinois 15 John R. Eden Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Greenback gain
Albert P. Forsythe (G) 50.31%
Hiram B. Decias (D) 49.69%
Illinois 16 William A. J. Sparks Democratic 1874 Re-elected William A. J. Sparks (D) 48.75%
Basil B. Smith (R) 42.18%
James Creed (G) 9.07%
Illinois 17 William R. Morrison Democratic 1862 Re-elected William R. Morrison (D) 50.47%
John Baker (R) 43.04%
William E. Moberly (G) 6.48%
Illinois 18 William Hartzell Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
John R. Thomas (R) 46.62%
N. J. Allen (D) 44.37%
S. J. Davis (G) 9.02%
Illinois 19 Richard W. Townshend Democratic 1876 Re-elected Richard W. Townshend (D) 53.31%
Robert Bell (R) 34.64%
Seth F. Crews (G) 12.04%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Indiana 1 Benoni S. Fuller Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
William Heilman (R) 48.66%
Thomas E. Garvin (D) 45.77%
Thomas F. Debruler (G) 5.57%
Indiana 2 Thomas R. Cobb Democratic 1876 Re-elected Thomas R. Cobb (D) 55.06%
Richard M. Welman (R) 38.26%
William L. Green (G) 6.69%
Indiana 3 George A. Bicknell Democratic 1876 Re-elected George A. Bicknell (D) 57.91%
Ara E. Long (R) 35.99%
John F. Willy (G) 6.10%
Indiana 4 Leonidas Sexton Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Jeptha D. New (D) 50.49%
Leonidas Sexton (R) 48.85%
Robert Gregg (G) 0.66%
Indiana 5 Thomas M. Browne Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas M. Browne (R) 50.08%
William S. Holman (D) 47.03%
William C. Jeffries (G) 2.89%
Indiana 6 Milton S. Robinson Republican 1874 Retired
Democratic gain
William R. Myers (D) 47.89%
William Grose (R) 46.06%
Reuben A. Riley (G) 6.05%
Indiana 7 John Hanna Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Gilbert De La Matyr (G) 51.14%
John Hanna (R) 48.86%
Indiana 8 Morton C. Hunter Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Abraham J. Hostetler (D) 43.56%
Morton C. Hunter (R) 40.12%
Henry A. White (G) 16.31%
Indiana 9 Michael D. White Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Godlove S. Orth (R) 43.73%
James McCabe (D) 43.46%
Leroy Templeton (G) 12.81%
Indiana 10 William H. Calkins Republican 1876 Re-elected William H. Calkins (R) 45.16%
Morgan H. Weir (D) 39.41%
John N. Skinner (G) 15.44%
Indiana 11 James L. Evans Republican 1874 Retired
Republican hold
Calvin Cowgill (R) 47.23%
David D. Dykeman (D) 39.81%
David Moss (G) 12.96%
Indiana 12 Andrew H. Hamilton Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Walpole G. Colerick (D) 63.73%
John Studebaker (D) 36.27%
Indiana 13 John H. Baker Republican 1874 Re-elected John H. Baker (R) 47.20%
John B. Stoll (D) 42.04%
William C. Williams (G) 10.76%

In Indiana 7, Gilbert De La Matyr was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Iowa 1 Joseph C. Stone Republican 1876 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Moses A. McCoid (R) 48.58%
Wesley C. Hobbs (D) 30.38%
A. H. Breman (G) 21.05%
Iowa 2 Hiram Price Republican 1876 Re-elected Hiram Price (R) 49.75%
W. F. Brannan (D) 35.47%
Jacob Geiger (G) 14.77%
Iowa 3 Theodore W. Burdick Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Thomas Updegraff (R) 43.85%
Fred O'Donnell (D) 37.52%
S. T. Spangler (G) 18.63%
Iowa 4 Nathaniel C. Deering Republican 1876 Re-elected Nathaniel C. Deering (R) 60.83%
Luman H. Weller (G) 20.38%
William V. Allen (G) 18.79%
Iowa 5 Rush Clark Republican 1876 Re-elected Rush Clark (R) 52.78%
George Carter (D) 44.63%
Timothy Brown (G) 2.59%
Iowa 6 Ezekiel S. Sampson Republican 1874 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
James B. Weaver (G) 53.35%
Ezekiel S. Sampson (R) 46.65%
Iowa 7 Henry J. B. Cummings Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Edward H. Gillette (G) 51.45%
Henry J. B. Cummings (R) 48.55%
Iowa 8 William F. Sapp Republican 1876 Re-elected William F. Sapp (R) 50.21%
George C. Hicks (G) 25.40%
John H. Keatley (D) 24.39%
Iowa 9 S. Addison Oliver Republican 1874 Retired
Republican hold
Cyrus C. Carpenter (R) 54.91%
L. Q. Hoggartt (G) 41.08%
Walter Brown (D) 4.00%

In Iowa 6, James B. Weaver was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.

In Iowa 7, Edward H. Gillette was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Kansas 1 William A. Phillips Republican 1872 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
John A. Anderson (R) 59.61%
J. R. McClure (D) 29.20%
E. Gale (G) 11.19%
Kansas 2 Dudley C. Haskell Republican 1876 Re-elected Dudley C. Haskell (R) 44.97%
C. W. Blair (D) 31.40%
P. P. Elder (G) 23.54%
Kansas 3 Thomas Ryan Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas Ryan (R) 56.83%
F. Doser (G) 24.90%
J. B. Fugate (D) 18.27%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1 Andrew Boone Democratic 1874 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
Oscar Turner (ID) 42.87%
Lawrence S. Trimble (D) 34.97%
E. W. Bagby (R) 22.15%
Kentucky 2 James A. McKenzie Democratic 1876 Re-elected James A. McKenzie (D) 61.38%
John W. Feighan (R) 23.50%
Francis M. English (G) 15.12%
Kentucky 3 John W. Caldwell Democratic 1876 Re-elected John W. Caldwell (D) 46.32%
W. Godfrey Hunter (R) 42.10%
George Wright (G) 11.58%
Kentucky 4 J. Proctor Knott Democratic 1874 Re-elected J. Proctor Knott (D) 65.04%
J. D. Belden (R) 33.48%
John W. Lewis (G) 1.48%
Kentucky 5 Albert S. Willis Democratic 1876 Re-elected Albert S. Willis (D) 40.51%
J. Watts Kearney (D) 33.30%
Horace Scott (R) 24.48%
Blanton Duncan (G) 1.70%
Kentucky 6 John G. Carlisle Democratic 1876 Re-elected John G. Carlisle (D) 75.87%
Joseph H. Hermes (I) 24.13%
Kentucky 7 Joseph C. S. Blackburn Democratic 1874 Re-elected Joseph C. S. Blackburn (D) 69.78%
George C. Drane (R) 28.68%
John L. Scott (I) 1.54%
Kentucky 8 Milton J. Durham Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
Philip B. Thompson, Jr. (D) 53.80%
George Denny (R) 46.20%
Kentucky 9 Thomas Turner Democratic 1876 Re-elected Thomas Turner (D) 55.45%
John Dills (R) 43.15%
James G. Carter (G) 1.40%
Kentucky 10 John B. Clarke Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
Elijah Phister (D) 65.34%
B. F. Bennett (R) 23.70%
James Kilgore (G) 10.97%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Louisiana 1 Randall L. Gibson Democratic 1874 Re-elected Randall L. Gibson (D) 63.60%
H. C. Castellanos (R) 36.40%
Louisiana 2 E. John Ellis Democratic 1874 Re-elected E. John Ellis (D) 58.97%
E. N. Collom (G) 34.91%
Michael Hahn (R) 6.12%
Louisiana 3 Joseph H. Acklen Democratic 1876 Re-elected Joseph H. Acklen (D) 48.77%
R. O. Herbert (R) 33.89%
W. B. Merchant (ID) 17.34%
Louisiana 4 Joseph B. Elam Democratic 1876 Re-elected Joseph B. Elam (D) 89.15%
J. M. Wells (R) 10.85%
Louisiana 5 J. Smith Young Democratic 1878 (Special) Retired
Democratic hold
J. Floyd King (D) 77.87%
J. T. Ludling (R) 22.13%
Louisiana 6 Edward W. Robertson Democratic 1876 Re-elected Edward W. Robertson (D) 66.14%
W. L. Larimore (I) 33.86%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Maine 1 Thomas B. Reed Republican 1876 Re-elected Thomas B. Reed (R) 46.23%
Samuel J. Anderson (D) 32.00%
Edward H. Gove (G) 21.77%
Maine 2 William P. Frye Republican 1870 Re-elected William P. Frye (R) 49.20%
Solon Chase (G) 36.46%
S. Clifford Belcher (D) 14.34%
Maine 3 Stephen Lindsey Republican 1876 Re-elected Stephen Lindsey (R) 44.39%
William Philbrick (G) 32.60%
Franklin Smith (D) 23.01%
Maine 4 Llewellyn Powers Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
George W. Ladd (G) 56.14%
Llewellyn Powers (R) 43.86%
Maine 5 Eugene Hale Republican 1868 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Thompson H. Murch (G) 48.43%
Eugene Hale (R) 42.28%
Joseph H. Martin (D) 9.29%

In Maine 4, George W. Ladd was also endorsed by the state Democratic Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 Daniel M. Henry Democratic 1876 Re-elected Daniel M. Henry (D) 52.49%
Samuel A. Graham (R) 47.51%
Maryland 2 Charles B. Roberts Democratic 1874 Retired
Democratic hold
J. Frederick C. Talbott (D) 66.87%
George B. Milligan (ID) 24.48%
A. P. McCombs (G) 8.66%
Maryland 3 William Kimmel Democratic 1876 Re-elected William Kimmel (D) 70.41%
Joseph Thompson (Lab) 29.59%
Maryland 4 Thomas Swann Democratic 1868 Retired
Democratic hold
Robert M. McLane (D) 58.98%
Jonathan C. Holland (R) 35.56%
William L. Quigley (Lab) 3.34%
Maryland 5 Eli J. Henkle Democratic 1874 Re-elected Eli J. Henkle (D) 53.97%
J. Parran Crane (R) 45.20%
Eugene B. Calvert (G) 0.84%
Maryland 6 William Walsh Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Milton Urner (R) 49.69%
George Peter (D) 43.62%
Horace Resley (G) 6.69%

In Maryland 4, William Quigley was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 William W. Crapo Republican 1874 Re-elected William W. Crapo (R) 62.32%
Matthias Ellis (D) 36.59%
Rodney French (P) 1.09%
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin W. Harris Republican 1872 Re-elected Benjamin W. Harris (R) 58.75%
Edgar E. Dean (G) 22.05%
Edward Avery (D) 17.63%
Thomas J. Lothrop (P) 1.58%
Massachusetts 3 Benjamin Dean Democratic 1876 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Walbridge A. Field (R) 51.03%
Benjamin Dean (D) 48.97%
Massachusetts 4 Leopold Morse Democratic 1876 Re-elected Leopold Morse (D) 60.34%
Martin Brimmer (D) 39.66%
Massachusetts 5 Nathaniel P. Banks Republican 1874 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold
Selwyn Z. Bowman (R) 58.37%
Nathan Clark (D) 41.63%
Massachusetts 6 George B. Loring Republican 1876 Re-elected George B. Loring (R) 44.52%
E. Moody Boynton (G) 44.03%
James H. Carleton (D) 11.45%
Massachusetts 7 Benjamin Butler Republican 1876 Retired to run for Governor
Republican hold
William A. Russell (R) 55.23%
John K. Tarbox (D) 32.29%
Samuel M. Stevens (G) 11.87%
James G. Abbott (P) 0.60%
Massachusetts 8 William Claflin Republican 1876 Re-elected William Claflin (R) 54.41%
Isaac Bradford (D) 44.74%
George W. Stacey (P) 0.85%
Massachusetts 9 William W. Rice Republican 1876 Re-elected William W. Rice (R) 59.02%
Eli Thayer (D) 39.78%
T. A. Smith (P) 1.18%
Massachusetts 10 Amasa Norcross Republican 1876 Re-elected Amasa Norcross (R) 55.54%
Wilbur F. Whitney (G) 29.10%
James S. Grinnell (D) 15.36%
Massachusetts 11 George D. Robinson Republican 1876 Re-elected George D. Robinson (R) 51.75%
Edward H. Lathrop (BtD) 37.86%
Jarvis N. Dunham (D) 9.80%
Albert C. Woodworth (I) 0.60%

In Massachusetts 5, Nathan Clark was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In Massachusetts 11, Edward H. Lathrop was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Michigan 1 Alpheus S. Williams Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
John S. Newberry (R) 40.85%
Alpheus S. Williams (D) 35.37%
John Heffron (G) 23.78%
Arthur D. Power (P) 0.22%
Michigan 2 Edwin Willits Republican 1876 Re-elected Edwin Willits (R) 40.85%
Ira B. Card (D) 29.71%
Levi H. Thomas (G) 24.07%
A. H. Lowie (P) 1.73%
Michigan 3 Jonas H. McGowan Republican 1876 Re-elected Jonas H. McGowan (R) 41.68%
John Dawson (G) 35.78%
James S. Upton (D) 18.38%
Samuel Dickie (P) 4.16%
Michigan 4 Edwin W. Keightley Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Julius C. Burrows (R) 47.14%
Andrew J. Eldred (D) 27.06%
Thomas R. Sherwood (G) 25.80%
Michigan 5 John W. Stone Republican 1876 Re-elected John W. Stone (R) 45.77%
Charles C. Comstock (G) 43.73%
Hiram J. Hoyt (D) 9.93%
Dennis Dreskell (P) 0.57%
Michigan 6 Mark S. Brewer Republican 1876 Re-elected Mark S. Brewer (R) 45.10%
Hugh McCurdy (D) 37.99%
James I. Meade (G) 15.32%
M. M. Burnham (P) 1.59%
Michigan 7 Omar D. Conger Republican 1876 Re-elected Omar D. Conger (R) 47.39%
William T. Mitchell (D) 35.48%
Charles F. Mallory (G) 17.13%
Michigan 8 Charles C. Ellsworth Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Roswell G. Horr (R) 39.72%
B. M. Thompson (D) 31.70%
Herbert M. Hoyt (G) 28.15%
Michigan 9 Jay A. Hubbell Republican 1872 Re-elected Jay A. Hubbell (R) 53.08%
John Powers (D) 26.01%
George Parmelee (G) 20.91%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Minnesota 1 Mark H. Dunnell Republican 1870 Re-elected Mark H. Dunnell (R) 57.48%
William Meighan (D) 39.66%
George W. Green (P) 2.86%
Minnesota 2 Horace B. Strait Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Henry Poehler (D) 50.01%
Horace B. Strait (R) 47.50%
George C. Chamberlain (G) 2.06%
Isaac C. Stearns (P) 0.43%
Minnesota 3 Jacob H. Stewart Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
William D. Washburn (R) 53.88%
Ignatius L. Donnelly (D) 46.12%

In Minnesota 1, William Meighan was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In Minnesota 3, Ignatius L. Donnelly was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Mississippi 1 Henry L. Muldrow Democratic 1876 Re-elected Henry L. Muldrow (D) 59.35%
Reuben Davis (G) 40.25%
W. D. Frazee (I) 0.40%
Mississippi 2 Van H. Manning Democratic 1876 Re-elected Van H. Manning (D) 52.02%
J. H. Amacker (R) 44.94%
C. H. Allen (I) 2.88%
Daniel B. Wright (G) 0.16%
Mississippi 3 Hernando Money Democratic 1874 Re-elected Hernando Money (D) 100.0%
Mississippi 4 Otho R. Singleton Democratic 1874 Re-elected Otho R. Singleton (D) 100.0%
Mississippi 5 Charles E. Hooker Democratic 1874 Re-elected Charles E. Hooker (D) 87.53%
J. B. Deason (R) 12.47%
Mississippi 6 James R. Chalmers Democratic 1876 Re-elected James R. Chalmers (D) 83.26%
E. J. Castello (R) 16.74%


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Missouri 1 Anthony F. Ittner Republican 1876 Retired
Democratic gain
Martin L. Clardy (D) 48.36%
Henry Ziegenhein (R) 33.26%
Henry Eshbaugh (G) 12.69%
F. Westermeyer (S) 5.69%
Missouri 2 Nathan Cole Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Erastus Wells (D) 42.70%
Nathan Cole (R) 41.21%
John Hogan (G) 13.31%
William Hossfield (S) 2.78%
Missouri 3 Lyne Metcalfe Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Richard G. Frost (D) 45.23%
Lyne Metcalfe (R) 33.25%
H. C. Vandillen (G) 13.83%
G. Bartholomeus (S) 7.13%
Missouri 4 Robert A. Hatcher Democratic 1872 Retired
Democratic hold
Lowndes H. Davis (D) 61.35%
Sol G. Kitchen (G) 34.79%
Charles E. Moss (R) 3.86%
Missouri 5 Richard P. Bland Democratic 1872 Re-elected Richard P. Bland (D) 56.64%
J. J. Ware (G) 40.24%
W. C. Mings (I) 3.11%
Missouri 6 Charles H. Morgan Democratic 1874 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
James R. Waddill (D) 43.99%
Charles G. Burton (R) 28.77%
M. H. Ritchey (G) 27.24%
Missouri 7 Thomas T. Crittenden Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
Alfred M. Lay (D) 51.49%
James Boyd (G) 26.75%
A. A. Underwood (R) 21.77%
Missouri 8 Benjamin J. Franklin Democratic 1874 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
Samuel L. Sawyer (ID) 48.95%
John T. Crisp (D) 44.87%
L. G. Jeffers (G) 6.17%
Missouri 9 David Rea Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Greenback gain
Nicholas Ford (G) 51.74%
David Rea (D) 48.26%
Missouri 10 Henry M. Pollard Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Gideon F. Rothwell (D) 47.19%
Henry M. Pollard (R) 34.69%
E. J. Broaddus (G) 18.12%
Missouri 11 John B. Clark, Jr. Democratic 1872 Re-elected John B. Clark, Jr. (D) 98.92%
Scattering (I) 1.08%
Missouri 12 John M. Glover Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
William H. Hatch (D) 45.09%
John M. London (G) 38.34%
Dan M. Draper (R) 16.56%
Missouri 13 Aylett H. Buckner Democratic 1872 Lost re-nomination
Democratic hold
Aylett H. Buckner (D) 59.21%
T. J. Fagg (G) 32.57%
T. B. Robinson (IG) 8.22%

In Missouri 13, T. J. Fagg was also endorsed by the state Republican Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Nebraska At-Large Frank Welch Republican 1876 Died September 4, 1878
Republican hold
Edward K. Valentine (R) 56.58%
J. W. Davis (D) 43.42%

In the Nebraska At-Large District, J. W. Davis was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.


District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
Nevada At-Large Thomas Wren Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
Rollin M. Daggett (R) 51.81%
W. E. Deal (D) 48.19%

New Hampshire

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
New Hampshire 1 Frank Jones Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Joshua G. Hall (R) 50.57%
Herbert F. Norris (D) 40.88%
Lafayette Chesley (G) 8.55%
New Hampshire 2 James F. Briggs Republican 1876 Re-elected James F. Briggs (R) 52.10%
Alvah W. Sulloway (D) 39.57%
Cyrus A. Sulloway (G) 8.33%
New Hampshire 3 Henry W. Blair Republican 1874 Elected to the U.S. Senate
Republican hold
Evarts W. Farr (R) 49.06%
Henry O. Kent (D) 44.68%
James W. Johnson (G) 6.27%

New Jersey

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
New Jersey 1 Clement H. Sinnickson Republican 1874 Retired
Republican hold
George M. Robeson (R) 48.11%
C. C. Grosscup (G) 31.85%
Nathan T. Stratton (D) 20.04%
New Jersey 2 John H. Pugh Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Hezekiah B. Smith (D) 50.59%
John H. Pugh (R) 47.44%
Charles E. Baker (P) 1.97%
New Jersey 3 Miles Ross Democratic 1874 Re-elected Miles Ross (D) 44.15%
Amos Clark (R) 43.06%
Washington L. Hope (G) 12.56%
James A. Bradley (P) 0.24%
New Jersey 4 Alvah A. Clark Democratic 1876 Re-elected Alvah A. Clark (D) 45.05%
Frederick A. Potts (R) 38.77%
George H. Larison (G) 16.18%
New Jersey 5 Augustus W. Cutler Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Charles H. Voorhis (R) 44.92%
Thomas W. Demarest (D) 41.60%
Erastus E. Potter (G) 13.48%
New Jersey 6 Thomas B. Peddie Republican 1876 Retired
Republican hold
John L. Blake (R) 49.72%
Andrew Albright (D) 43.19%
Francis C. Bliss (G) 7.09%
New Jersey 7 Augustus A. Hardenbergh Democratic 1874 Retired
Republican gain
Lewis A. Brigham (R) 50.82%
Patrick H. Laverty (D) 43.26%
J. B. Winant (G) 5.48%
C. C. Burr (ID) 0.44%

In New Jersey 2, Hezekiah B. Smith was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

New York

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
New York 1 James W. Covert Democratic 1876 Re-elected James W. Covert (D) 50.84%
James Otis (R) 43.44%
Samuel J. Crooks (G) 5.27%
Egbert T. Smith (P) 0.45%
New York 2 William D. Veeder Democratic 1876 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
Daniel O'Reilly (ID) 55.24%
Edward C. Litchfield (D) 41.54%
Abraham Bennett (G) 3.22%
New York 3 Simeon B. Chittenden Republican 1874 SE Re-elected Simeon B. Chittenden (R) 58.40%
Richard H. Huntley (D) 35.10%
Joseph P. Jones (G) 3.51%
N. McGregor Steele (P) 3.00%
New York 4 Archibald M. Bliss Democratic 1874 Re-elected Archibald M. Bliss (D) 54.03%
William H. Lyon (R) 36.28%
C. Osborn Ward (S) 3.45%
John C. Keelly (ID) 3.23%
William Hansom (G) 3.01%
New York 5 Nicholas Muller Democratic 1874 Re-elected Nicholas Muller (D-TH) 52.27%
Thomas F. Burke (R) 45.98%
George Blair (G) 1.55%
James E. Kerrigan (G) 0.10%
Alexander Frey (S) 0.10%
New York 6 Samuel S. Cox Democratic 1873 SE Re-elected Samuel S. Cox (D-TH) 62.44%
Maurice S. D'Vries (R) 36.22%
Isaac Bennett (S) 1.34%
New York 7 Anthony Eickhoff Democratic 1876 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Edwin Einstein (R) 48.53%
Anthony Eickhoff (D) 45.63%
John W. Jahelka (G) 5.12%
Thomas Green (I) 0.72%
New York 8 Anson G. McCook Republican 1876 Re-elected Anson G. McCook (R) 60.73%
Lawrence R. Jerome (D) 35.49%
William W. Averill (IGb) 3.68%
Frederick E. Sinner (S) 0.09%
New York 9 Fernando Wood Democratic 1866 Re-elected Fernando Wood (D-TH) 37.12%
John Hardy (D-ATD) 33.05%
Wilson Berryman (R) 29.21%
Joseph Kunze (G) 0.62%
New York 10 Abram Hewitt Democratic 1874 Retired
Independent Democratic gain
James O'Brien (D-ATD) 54.16%
Orlando B. Potter (D-TH) 43.29%
John G. Shuck (I) 1.54%
Garret Nagle (I) 1.01%
New York 11 Benjamin A. Willis Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Levi P. Morton (R) 65.65%
Benjamin A. Willis (D-TH) 32.92%
G. Wallace Bryant (D-ATD) 1.18%
New York 12 Clarkson Nott Potter Democratic 1876 Retired
Republican gain
Alexander Smith (R) 49.64%
Marcius L. Cobb (D) 39.76%
Nicholas Smith (G) 10.60%
New York 13 John H. Ketcham Republican 1876 Re-elected John H. Ketcham (R) 62.78%
Orlando D. Baker (D) 33.39%
John V. Doty (G) 2.73%
George Potter (P) 0.85%
Aaron J. Stevens (I) 0.26%
New York 14 George M. Beebe Democratic 1874 Lost re-election
Republican gain
John W. Ferdon (R) 44.43%
George M. Beebe (D) 42.42%
William Voorhis (G) 12.22%
Stephen Merritt (P) 0.93%
New York 15 Stephen L. Mayham Democratic 1876 Retired
Democratic hold
William Lounsbery (D) 47.52%
George S. Nichols (R) 39.75%
John R. Erkson (G) 12.24%
James H. Coutant (P) 0.49%
New York 16 Vacant since the death of Terence J. Quinn on June 18, 1878. Democratic 1876 Republican gain John Mosher Bailey (R) 41.13%
Francis H. Woods (D) 40.47%
Henry Hilton (G) 18.39%
New York 17 Martin I. Townsend Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold Walter A. Wood (R) 55.34%
Charles E. Patterson (D) 31.86%
Richard H. Ferguson (G) 12.80%
New York 18 Andrew Williams Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold John Hammond (R) 54.84%
John Ross (D) 29.69%
Leonard G. McDonald (G) 15.47%
New York 19 Amaziah B. James Republican 1876 Re-elected Amaziah B. James (R) 70.59%
Louis Hasbrouck (D) 29.41%
New York 20 John H. Starin Republican 1876 Re-elected John H. Starin (R) 56.71%
Alexander J. Thomson (D) 34.78%
Frederick F. Wendell (G) 8.27%
James H. Bronson (P) 0.24%
New York 21 Solomon Bundy Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold David Wilber (R) 48.07%
Bryon J. Scofield (D) 31.82%
Salmon G. Cone (G) 18.81%
Fred T. Jarvis (P) 1.29%
New York 22 George A. Bagley Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold Warner Miller (R) 51.39%
Levi H. Brown (D) 40.33%
Harry Lewis (G) 7.27%
Simon P. Gray (P) 1.00%
New York 23 William J. Bacon Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold Cyrus D. Prescott (R) 42.95%
John T. Spriggs (D) 38.41%
James Mitchell (G) 16.61%
John W. Meais (P) 1.98%
New York 24 William H. Baker Republican 1874 Retired Republican hold Joseph Mason (R) 50.65%
Sebastian Duffy (D) 47.55%
Winfield S. Smyth (P) 1.80%
New York 25 Frank Hiscock Republican 1876 Re-elected Frank Hiscock (R) 55.96%
John M. Weiting (D) 42.83%
Lemuel N. Stratton (P) 1.21%
New York 26 John H. Camp Republican 1876 Re-elected John H. Camp (R) 53.02%
Charles F. Durston (D) 40.55%
Martin L. Wolley (G) 6.05%
William D. Osborne (P) 0.38%
New York 27 Elbridge G. Lapham Republican 1874 Re-elected Elbridge G. Lapham (R) 54.47%
David A. Pierpont (D) 45.42%
Thomas H. Howell (P) 0.11%
New York 28 Jeremiah W. Dwight Republican 1876 Re-elected Jeremiah W. Dwight (R) 54.47%
William L. Mudge (D) 38.72%
Epenetus Howe (G) 6.53%
Gardine C. Hibbard (P) 0.73%
New York 29 John N. Hungerford Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold David P. Richardson (R) 42.82%
Francis G. Babcock (D) 32.75%
Ralph Beaumont (G) 24.43%
New York 30 Elizur K. Hart Democratic 1876 Retired Republican gain John Van Voorhis (R) 43.49%
Alexander B. Lamberton (D) 37.55%
Nathan G. Brown (G) 10.00%
Alphonso A. Hopkins (P) 8.97%
New York 31 Charles B. Benedict Democratic 1876 Retired Republican gain Richard Crowley (R) 56.33%
Cyrus E. Davis (D) 39.17%
Galen Miller (G) 2.51%
Joseph W. Grosvenor (P) 1.03%
James F. Gordon (I) 0.96%
New York 32 Daniel N. Lockwood Democratic 1876 Lost re-election
Republican gain
Ray V. Pierce (R) 52.34%
Daniel N. Lockwood (D) 44.37%
Augustus R. Grote (P) 3.28%
New York 33 George W. Patterson Republican 1876 Retired Republican hold Henry Van Aernam (R) 49.87%
Lorenzo Morris (D) 29.55%
Silas Vinton (G) 20.58%

In New York 2, Daniel O'Reilly was also endorsed by the state Republican Party.

In New York 5, Thomas Burke was also endorsed by the "Anti-Tammany" faction of the state Democratic Party.

In New York 6, Samuel S. Cox was endorsed by the state Greenback Party, and Maurice S. D'Vries was endorsed by the "Anti-Tammany" faction of the state Democratic Party.

In New York 8, Lawrence Jerome was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In New York 10, James O'Brien was also endorsed by the state Republican Party. For the purposes of simplicity he is listed as having been elected an Independent Democrat.

In New York 23, John Spriggs was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In New York 25, John Weiting was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

In New York 27, David Pierpont was also endorsed by the state Greenback Party.

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (special) Lost re-election
Democratic gain
John S. Richardson (D) 61.70%
Joseph Rainey (R) 38.30%
South Carolina 2 Richard H. Cain Republican 1876 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Michael P. O'Connor (D) 60.94%
Edmund W. M. Mackey (R) 39.06%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Re-elected D. Wyatt Aiken (D) 79.44%
J. F. Ensor (R) 20.56%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Re-elected John H. Evins (D) 96.84%
Alexander S. Wallace (R) 3.16%
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
George D. Tillman (D) 71.24%
Robert Smalls (R) 28.76%

South Carolina was one state rampant with voter fraud, particularly through the use of tissue ballots, thin ballots hidden in the normal ballot, typically 10 to 20 at a time. The almost statewide exclusion of Republicans as Commissioners of Elections, and the ensuing appointment of nearly all Democratic Managers of Elections, allowed to Democratic Managers to perpetrate this scheme. When the votes were counted and more votes than voters were found, the Managers removed and destroyed the Republican ballots resulting in the complete takeover of the state.[3][4][5]

See also


  1. ^ Included 2 Independent Democrats.
  2. ^ a b Dubin (p. 249) counts 140 Democrats, 6 Independent Democrats, 130 Republicans (incl. 1 Independent Republican), and 11 Greenbacks at the start of the 46th United States Congress.
  3. ^ In 1879, California held its last regular Congressional election in an odd-numbered year.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 132–133
  2. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
  3. ^ "NY Times Free Archive" (PDF). The New York Times. November 16, 1878.
  4. ^ "NY Times Free Archive" (PDF). The New York Times. February 5, 1879.
  5. ^ William Ralston Balch (1881). The Life of James Abram Garfield.


External links

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