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1876 Chicago mayoral elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Chicago mayoral elections of 1876 is one only two instances in which a Chicago mayoral election was declared invalid (the other being in 1844).

After an election was held in April under disputed circumstances, and was subsequently nullified by the courts, a special election was held in July.

Republican Monroe Heath won the special election in July, thus becoming mayor of Chicago.

These are the last Chicago mayoral elections (including special elections) to take place in an even-numbered year. They are also the only elections since 1862 to have been held in an even-numbered year.

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  • ✪ Illinois in the Gilded Age, 1866-1896: Immigration, Labor, and Politics, 1878-1884
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Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as Ireland, flocked to the United States, and Chicago became one of their favorite destinations. The American economy had begun to show signs of revival, and the city's meatpacking establishments, rail yards and factories offered plentiful jobs to unskil led laborers. \par The end of the 1870s' depressed economic conditions allowed labor unions to gain strength again and become a major force in Chicago politics. In the wake of the 1877 strikes socialists, organized as the Workingmen's Party of the United States \endash first found electoral success in Chicago. Like the mainstream American political parties, the socialist organization provided its members with a full slate of social and cultural activities, including parades, picnics, and rallies. The Workingmen's Party proved especially popular among German and Scandinavian immigrants and, flush with success, changed its name to the Socialist Labor Party in 1878. \par But the socialists quickly faded into factional squabbling as the city's Democratic Party reorganized itsel f and sent the popular Carter Harrison to the mayor's chair in 1879. Harrison was a wealthy city businessman who proved friendly to labor. Many socialists supported Harrison because he defended their rights to assembly and free speech. He defused the vola t ile temperance issue by failing to enforce Sunday laws and other curbs on alcohol consumption. The Harrison administration also decentralized control of the city's police department; and in many strikes, officers tacitly (and even openly) supported their neighbors' actions. \par The rise of the Knights of Labor, a national organization welcoming all workers, also reshaped labor politics in the city. The Knights were a secret organization found ed 1869 in Philadelphia. They had spread through Pennsylvania coal fields during the 1870s, largely on their appeal as an inclusive union not restricted to the members of particular crafts. \par The Knights first emerged in Chicago in 1877 when the city's craf tsmen and unions had largely disappeared during unskilled workers' violent clashes with soldiers and police. The Knights' vision of an inclusive union stood in sharp contrast, and offered the large numbers of unskilled laborers required by industrial econ omy with an organization of their own. Bringing workers from diverse industries together, Knights of Labor organizers encouraged them to think of themselves as members of a single working class. \par In Chicago the Knights led workers to take up nonviolent boyc otts as a means to achieve their goals in public life. The boycott had begun in Ireland, and the Knights' Irish-American leaders adapted it to American conditions. In 1881 labor leaders organized a boycott of a west side streetcar line after its leaders r ejected workers' request for a pay increase. The public, fed up with the streetcar line's inefficient service, supported the strikers and forced the company to grant the workers' demands. \par The Knights of Labor stepped into the vacuum caused by the decline o f the Socialist Labor Party, using the boycott to bring large community support to striking workers. These methods promised workers a way to compel their employers to negotiate without violence, bloodshed, or wide public condemnation. Like the socialists, the Knights provided workers with social and cultural activities, and also maintained a city labor bureau matching workers to available jobs. \par A flood of new members strained the Knights' internal organization and leadership, and compromised their effectiv eness, however. As the new members agitated for higher wages, the Knights often failed to deliver their promised benefits. Nonetheless, by 1882, Chicago employers had identified the Knights as a formidable adversary and began a stiff opposition to the new boycotts. When local tanners went out on an ill-advised strike, they compromised the Knights' devotion to organization and arbitration over work stoppages. When they gave in to united employers, the tanners ushered in non-union shops where union men had o nce worked. \par While Chicago labor unions flourished under the protection of a sympathetic city administration, downstate workers faced more difficult conditions. Coal mining remained bitter ly hard, dangerous work. In 1883 state militia broke a miners' strike in Collinsville. Not content to merely put down the work stoppage, the soldiers pursued fleeing strikers across the county line, arresting twenty and killing one. \par In 1879 Frances Willar d of Evanston became the president of the National Women's Christian Temperance Union. She often worked for the organization without pay, relying upon money earned as a lecturer to support herself. The issue of prohibition, or banning the sale and consump t ion of alcoholic beverages, often divided native-born reformers from immigrant groups. In the 1880s it spilled beyond the realm of voluntary associations and individuals' moral reform, and into electoral politics. In 1882 moralist reformers in Illinois no minated the first of four Prohibition Party slates for state offices. They found no success, but the new organizations provided women with new roles in electoral politics. \par In the 1880s ne w women's clubs organized among the wives of the prosperous middle class. Many devoted themselves to the causes of social reform and charity. Many female reformers found that, while they could not vote, their status as wives and mothers provided them with political capital valuable in the fight to provide better conditions for women and children. In Illinois, the Chicago Woman's Club became a leader in this movement, devoting special attention to the cause of preventing youthful offenders from becoming lif e time criminals. Clubwomen began to demand, and receive, seats on the boards governing important state and private institutions for children and families. Many also turned to the task of converting immigrant families to Protestantism and middle-class Ameri can ideals of family life. \par In 1880 downstate Illinois became the home of the first black priest in America when Augustine Tolton was ordained in Rome. The child of Missouri slaves, Tolton began his career by serving an all-black parish in Quincy, but faced powerful opposition from whites there and moved on to a Chicago parish. \par In 1881 the entrepreneur Charles T. Yerkes le ft Philadelphia for Chicago. Sensing a business opportunity, he turned his attention to integrating Chicago's many streetcar companies into a single system. Using all manner of political techniques, including bribery and blackmail, Yerkes received favorab le franchises from the city government and built a transportation empire in the final decades of the nineteenth century. \par Yerkes' transportation empire was just a part of the new city that emerged from the ruins of the Chicago fire. Architects made the city the site of new innovations in design and construction. In 1882 the Montauk building, the nation's first skyscraper at ten stories, rose in Chicago. The new structures presented a considerable challenge in Chicago's marshy terrain. In response, innovativ e architects used skeletons of iron beams to support the weight created by their great height. These frames sat upon concrete piers sunk to a bedrock base, known as "Chicago caissons." \par Louis Sullivan became the leader of the new Chicago School of Architect s. His career culminated with the design of two Chicago landmarks, the celebrated Auditorium Theater (completed 1889) and the Chicago Stock Exchange Building (completed 1893). In addition, Sullivan designed significant structures in St. Louis and Buffalo. 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Contents

Disputed April election

April 1876 Chicago mayoral election
← 1873 April 16, 1876 1876 (special) →
 
Thomas Hoyne (1).gif
Nominee Thomas Hoyne
Party Independent Democratic
Popular vote 33,064
Percentage 97.59%

Mayor before election

Harvey Doolittle Colvin
People's Party

Elected Mayor

Disputed

The disputed Chicago mayoral election of April 1876 was won by Thomas Hoyne. However, its result was ultimately nullified by the courts.

Background

Illinois' Cities and Villages Act of 1872 had moved municipal elections from November to April and had extended mayoral terms to two years. It went into effect in July of 1872.[1] On April 23, 1875, the city of Chicago had voted to operate under the Act, as opposed to operating under the rules outlined by its city charter.[2][3]

Since the act mandated mayoral elections to be held in April of odd-numbered years, incumbent mayor Harvey Doolittle Colvin believed that his term had been extended an additional year and that no elections were to be held in November 1875 or April of 1876. He believed that a mayoral election would not be held until April 1877.[4]

Election

Recognizing that Colvin would be unseated if a mayoral election were held, Chicago's city council (which was, at the time, composed of many members that were friendly towards the mayor) left the office of mayor off its list of offices for election.[5][6] Thus, neither the Republican nor Democratic Parties believed they needed to put forth mayoral candidates, assuming that this meant that no mayoral election was scheduled to be held.[5]

Despite this Thomas Hoyne, president of the Chicago Public Library's board of directors, opted to run for mayor.[5] He was nominated at a mass meeting[3] and ran as an independent Democrat affiliated with the "Free Soilers Party".[7] Thousands voted for Hoyne by writing his name on their ballots.[8] Additionally, both the Democratic and Republican parties put him on their tickets.[9] He won nearly all of the votes cast for mayor in the municipal election held on April 16, 1876.[5][9][3] However, a mayoral election had not been formally called for by the City Council or the mayor's office.[3][10]

Results

Despite there being no authorization for such a count to be taken, a popular vote count of the mayoral write-in votes was taken when ballots were counted in Chicago's municipal elections.[11] However, the city council ignored this count when it canvassed and made official the election results.[11]

April 1876 Chicago mayoral election[11][12][10]
Party Candidate Votes %
Independent Democratic Thomas Hoyne 33,064 97.59
Scattering Scattering 819 2.42
Turnout 33,883

Legal dispute

The city council which had been elected in an (non-disputed) April election (in which many Colvin allies lost their seats) took office on April 8.[3][10] On its first day the new city council declared that Hoyne was the city's mayor, that the vote that had been taken for mayor was actually binding.[3][11] Hoyne took an oath of office on May 9 and attempted to assume the office of mayor.[3] However, Colvin disputed Hoyne's claim to the office, arguing that the election had been illegitimate and that he was still entitled to serve an additional year as mayor.[3]

The City Council and most departments of the municipal government supported Hoyne's claim to the mayoral office.[3] However, the city's comptroller and police department rejected Hoyne's claim, and supported Colvin in the resulting standoff.[3]

During the city standoff, the police blocked Hoyne from going inside the mayor's office at city hall.[3] Meanwhile, with the support of the City Council, Hoyne fired supporters of Colvin from municipal jobs.[3] Both men offered to possibly resign, but neither actually acted on their offers.[3]

Outcome

Ultimately, after a 28-day conflict, the dispute was resolved by the courts. At a June 5 meeting of the Circuit Court of Cook County, William K. McAllister ruled that the April election had been illegitimate.[10][3] This meant that Hoyne's "tenure" as mayor had been annulled.[3] Colvin was permitted to extend his mayoral term until a special election would be held.[3] A special election was ultimately held on July 12, electing Monroe Heath as mayor.[3]

Subsequently, in August, it was requested for city attorney to issue an opinion on whether or not Hoyne and the municipal apartment heads he had appointed should receive any remuneration.[3] It was opined that, while Hoyne had not been mayor de jure, he had served as mayor de facto, thus he and his appointees should be awarded payment for the time they acted in their positions.[3]

July special election

1876 Chicago mayoral special election
← 1873
April 1876 (invalid)
July 12, 1876[13] 1877 →
 
Monroeheath.jpg
3x4.svg
3x4.svg
Nominee Monroe Heath Mark Kimball J. J. McGrath
Party Republican Democratic Independent
Popular vote 19,248 7,509 3,363
Percentage 63.90% 24.93% 11.17%

Mayor before election

Harvey Doolittle Colvin
People's Party

Elected Mayor

Monroe Heath
Republican

In the Chicago mayoral special election of 1876 Monroe Heath defeated Democrat Mark Kimball and independent J. J. McGrath by a landslide 39-point margin.

The election was held on July 12, 1876 and had been called for as part of the Circuit Court of Cook County ruling that had been issued to resolve the dispute over the legitimacy of the disputed election that had been held in April.[14]

At a July 1 convention, the Republican party, which had supported (Democratic-leaning) Thomas Hoyne in the dispute over the 1876 election, opted to nominate their own candidate for the special election.[8] They believed that the April 1876 aldermanic elections, which had seen a Republican landslide, indicated strong prospects of a Republican candidate winning the special mayoral election.[8] Thus, they nominated Monroe Heath for mayor.[8] Heath was a "Reform" Republican.[15]

Mark Kimball was nominated by the Democratic Party.[8] Kimball was a successful businessman, as well as the South Town tax collector.[16][17] He had first made a name for himself in the insurance business, serving separate tenures as director, secretary, and assignee for the Mutual Security Insurance company as well as tenures as the president and manager of the Citizens Insurance Company of Chicago.[17] He had also led a successful career in banking and other business.[17]

J. J. McGrath ran as an Democratic-leaning independent aligned with Colvin's politics.[8]

Chicago voters, rebuking Colvin, elected Republican Monroe Heath in a landslide.[8]

Results

Heath won a landslide victory. His margin of victory was roughly 39 points, a percentage which itself was significantly greater than either of Kimball's opponents' vote shares.

1876 Chicago mayoral special election[18]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Monroe Heath 19,248 63.90
Democratic Mark Kimball 7,509 24.93
Independent J. J. McGrath 3,363 11.17
Turnout 30,120

References

  1. ^ "Encyclopedia of Chicago "Statutes of Illinois, Acts of 1871 and 1872"". Chicago Historical Society. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  2. ^ "Legal Organization and Charter, City of Chicago". Chicago Public Library. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Gale, Neil (February 13, 2013). "In 1876, Thomas Hoyne and Harvey Doolittle Colvin were both Chicago Mayors at the same time". Digital Research Library of Illinois History Journal.
  4. ^ Pierce, Bessie Louise (2007). A History of Chicago, Volume III: The Rise of a Modern City, 1871-1893. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 345–346.
  5. ^ a b c d Gunderson, Erica (August 26, 2016). "The Null and Void cocktail, inspired by Thomas Hoyne". WTTW.
  6. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=1yZ3hRGd8lwC&pg=PA34&lpg=PA345
  7. ^ https://books.google.com.mx/books?id=0YQGBgAAQBAJ&pg=PT41
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Pierce, Bessie Louise (2007). A History of Chicago, Volume III: The Rise of a Modern City, 1871-1893. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 346–346.
  9. ^ a b History of Cook County, Illinois--: Being a General Survey of Cook County, Volume 2 edited by Weston Arthur Goodspeed, Daniel David Healy (pg 576)
  10. ^ a b c d Politics and Politicians of Chicago: Cook County, and Illinois. Memorial Volume, 1787-1887. A Comlete Record of Municipal, County, State and National Politics from the Earliest Period to the Present Time. And an Account of the Haymarket Massacre of May 4, 1886, and the Anarchist Trials. Chicago: Blakely Printing Company. 1886.
  11. ^ a b c d History of Chicago: From the fire of 1871 until 1885 By Alfred Theodore Andreas (page 101)
  12. ^ Longwood, Theodore (November 1885), "Thomas Hoyne", Magazine of Western History, pp. 288–295
  13. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=7pQUAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA335&lpg=PA335
  14. ^ Gale, Neil (February 13, 2013). "In 1876, Thomas Hoyne and Harvey Doolittle Colvin were both Chicago Mayors at the same time". Digital Research Library of Illinois History Journal.
  15. ^ https://books.google.com.mx/books?id=UnhjN3ab2w8C&pg=PA172
  16. ^ Annual Report of the Comptroller of the City of Chicago
  17. ^ a b c History of Chicago, Illinois, Volume 1, Part 2 By John Moses (pg. 643-644)
  18. ^ "RaceID=486047". Our Campaigns. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
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