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1872 and 1873 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1872 and 1873 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1870 / 1871 November 5, 1872[a] 1874 / 1875 →

All 292 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JamesGBlaine.png
Fernando Wood - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James G. Blaine Fernando Wood
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 3rd New York 10th
Last election 138 seats 94 seats
Seats won 199 85
Seat change Increase 61 Decrease 9
Popular vote 3,561,090 2,813,934
Percentage 52.85% 41.76%
Swing Increase 3.26% Decrease 2.77%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Liberal Republican Conservative
Last election 2 seats 10 seats
Seats won 4 4
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 6
Popular vote 274,693 126,329
Percentage 4.08% 1.87%
Swing Increase 3.07% Decrease 1.05%

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 1 seat[b]
Seats won 1[c]
Seat change Steady
Popular vote 151,757
Percentage 2.25%
Swing Increase 0.45%

House043ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1872 elections for 43rd Congress

Speaker before election

James G. Blaine
Republican

Elected Speaker

James G. Blaine
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1872 and 1873 for representatives to the 43rd Congress, coinciding with the re-election of U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant.

Grant's Republican Party increased its majority greatly at the expense of the opposition Democratic Party. The pro-industry outlook of the Republicans appealed to many Northern voters, especially as the post-war economy exploded, and this allowed the party to flourish as the Industrial Revolution grew more widespread. The Republicans also benefited from a continuing association with Civil War victory as well as disarray amongst Democratic leadership.

Election summaries

Following the 1870 Census, the House was reapportioned, initially adding 40 seats,[1] followed by a subsequent amendment to the apportionment act adding another seat to 9 states,[2] resulting in a total increase of 49 seats. No states lost seats, 10 states had no change, 13 states gained 1 seat each, 9 states gained 2 seats, 3 states gained 3 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Prior to the supplemental act, two states (New Hampshire and Vermont) had each lost 1 seat. This was the first reapportionment after the repeal of the three-fifths compromise by the 14th Amendment.

89 203
Democratic Republican
State Type Total seats Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District
+ 2 at-large
8 Increase 2 2 Decrease 1 6[d] Increase 3
Arkansas District
+ at-large
4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 4[d] Increase 2
California District 4 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 3 Steady
Connecticut[e] District 4 Steady 1 Steady 3 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Florida At-large 2 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Increase 1
Georgia District 9 Increase 2 7 Increase 3 2 Decrease 1
Illinois District 19 Increase 5 5 Decrease 1 14 Increase 6
Indiana[f] District
+ 3 at-large
13 Increase 2 3 Decrease 2 10 Increase 4
Iowa District 9 Increase 3 0 Steady 9 Increase 3
Kansas At-large 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2
Kentucky District 10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District
+ 1 at-large
6 Increase 1 0 Steady 6[d] Increase 1
Maine[f] District 5 Steady 0 Steady 5 Steady
Maryland District 6 Increase 1 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 2
Massachusetts District 11 Increase 1 0 Steady 11 Increase 1
Michigan District 9 Increase 3 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 4
Minnesota District 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1
Mississippi District 6 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 5 Steady
Missouri District 13 Increase 4 9 Increase 5 4 Decrease 1
Nebraska[f] At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire[e] District 3 Steady 1 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2
New Jersey District 7 Increase 2 1 Decrease 1 6 Increase 3
New York District
+ 1 at-large
33 Increase 2 9 Decrease 7 24 Increase 9
North Carolina[f] District 8 Increase 1 5 Steady 3 Increase 1
Ohio[f] District 20 Increase 1 6 Increase 1 14[d] Steady
Oregon[f] At-large 1 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Pennsylvania[f] District
+ 3 at-large
27 Increase 3 5 Decrease 6 22 Increase 9
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District
+ 1 at-large
5 Increase 1 0 Steady 5 Increase 1
Tennessee District
+ 1 at-large
10 Increase 2 3 Decrease 3 7 Increase 5
Texas District
+ 2 at-large
6 Increase 2 6 Increase 3 0 Decrease 1
Vermont[f] District 3 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Virginia District 9 Increase 1 5 Steady 4 Increase 1
West Virginia[f] District 3 Steady 2[c] Steady 1 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 Increase 2 2 Steady 6 Increase 2
Total 292 Increase 49 89[c]
30.5%
Decrease 13 203[g]
69.5%
Increase 62
30.5%
House seats
Democratic
30.48%
Republican
69.52%

Election dates

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[3] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1872–73, there were still 9 states with earlier election dates, and 2 states with later election dates:

Special elections

Alabama

Arkansas

California

A new seat was added, following the 1870 U.S. Census, bringing the delegation up from three to four Representatives.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
California 2 Aaron Augustus Sargent Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
California 3 John M. Coghlan Republican 1871 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
California 4 Sherman O. Houghton
(Redistricted from the 1st district)
Republican 1871 Incumbent re-elected.

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Florida gained a second seat after the 1870 census, but delayed districting until 1874, electing both Representatives at-large for this election.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Josiah T. Walls Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Georgia

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

In the newly-formed at-large district, George A. Sheridan (Liberal Republican) beat P. B. S. Pinchback (Republican), the first black Governor of Louisiana.[4] Pinchback challenged the election and it was settled in February 1875, in Sheridan's favor, only one month before the end of the Congress.

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

After redistricting and eleven retirements, only four of the nineteen incumbents were re-elected.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[5]
Ohio 1 Ozro J. Dodds Democratic 1872 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 2 Job E. Stevenson Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Liberal Republican gain.
Ohio 3 Lewis D. Campbell Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 4 John F. McKinney Democratic 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 5 Charles N. Lamison Democratic 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 6 John Armstrong Smith Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 7 Samuel Shellabarger Republican 1870 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John Thomas Wilson
(Redistricted from the 11th district)
Republican 1866 Incumbent lost re-election.
Republican loss.
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 9 George W. Morgan
(Redistricted from the 13th district)
Democratic 1868 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 10 Charles Foster
(Redistricted from the 9th district)
Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Erasmus D. Peck Republican 1870 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
Ohio 11 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 13 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 14 James Monroe Republican 1870 Re-districted
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY John Berry (Democratic) 57.9%
  • Thomas E. Douglas (Republican) 42.1%
Ohio 15 William P. Sprague Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Incumbent lost re-nomination.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 17 Jacob A. Ambler Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 18 William H. Upson Republican 1868 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 20 None (New seat) New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Tennessee

Texas

Vermont

Virginia

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wisconsin elected eight members of congress on Election Day, November 5, 1872. Two seats were newly added in reapportionment after the 1870 census.[6][7]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 Alexander Mitchell Democratic 1870 Incumbent was redistricted to the 4th congressional district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Wisconsin 2 Gerry Whiting Hazelton Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 3 J. Allen Barber Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin 4 Charles A. Eldredge Democratic 1862 Incumbent was redistricted to the 5th congressional district.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Wisconsin 5 Philetus Sawyer Republican 1864 Incumbent was redistricted to the 6th congressional district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 6 Jeremiah McLain Rusk Republican 1870 Incumbent was redistricted to the 7th congressional district.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 7 New district. New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Wisconsin 8 New district. New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.

Non-voting delegates

Colorado Territory

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Colorado Territory at-large Jerome B. Chaffee Republican 1870 Incumbent re-elected.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In the majority of states; 11 states held elections on different dates between June 4, 1872 and April 7, 1873.
  2. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican.
  3. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat, John J. Davis, elected to WV-01.
  4. ^ a b c d Includes 1 Liberal Republican.
  5. ^ a b Elections held late.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Elections held early.
  7. ^ Includes 4 Liberal Republicans.

References

  1. ^ 17 Stat. 28
  2. ^ 17 Stat. 192
  3. ^ Stat. 721: 28th Congress, 2nd Sess., Ch. 1, enacted January 23, 1845
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - LA - At Large Race - Nov 05, 1872". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  5. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. p. 306.
  6. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  7. ^ Turner, A. J., ed. (1874). "Official directory". The legislative manual of the state of Wisconsin (Report). Madison, Wisconsin: State of Wisconsin. pp. 444–445. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - CO Territorial Delegate Race - Nov 05, 1872". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved May 21, 2020.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 23:02
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