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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1869 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1869
MDCCCLXIX
Ab urbe condita2622
Armenian calendar1318
ԹՎ ՌՅԺԸ
Assyrian calendar6619
Bahá'í calendar25–26
Balinese saka calendar1790–1791
Bengali calendar1276
Berber calendar2819
British Regnal year32 Vict. 1 – 33 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2413
Burmese calendar1231
Byzantine calendar7377–7378
Chinese calendar戊辰(Earth Dragon)
4565 or 4505
    — to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
4566 or 4506
Coptic calendar1585–1586
Discordian calendar3035
Ethiopian calendar1861–1862
Hebrew calendar5629–5630
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1925–1926
 - Shaka Samvat1790–1791
 - Kali Yuga4969–4970
Holocene calendar11869
Igbo calendar869–870
Iranian calendar1247–1248
Islamic calendar1285–1286
Japanese calendarMeiji 2
(明治2年)
Javanese calendar1797–1798
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4202
Minguo calendar43 before ROC
民前43年
Nanakshahi calendar401
Thai solar calendar2411–2412
Tibetan calendar阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
1995 or 1614 or 842
    — to —
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
1996 or 1615 or 843

1869 (MDCCCLXIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1869th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 869th year of the 2nd millennium, the 69th year of the 19th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1860s decade. As of the start of 1869, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

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  • ✪ Andrew Johnson: First Impeached (1865 - 1869)
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Transcription

Professor Dave here, let’s discuss Andrew Johnson. Andrew Johnson ascended to the Presidency after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. He was a Southern Democrat, chosen by Lincoln to be the 1864 vice presidential nominee, and he presided over the post-war era Lincoln did not live to see. Unfortunately, Johnson’s views on reconstruction were arguably at odds with Lincoln’s vision for the South, and he became the first president to be impeached. He was born into poverty in Raleigh, North Carolina, and apprenticed as a tailor, settling in Greeneville, Tennessee. There he served as alderman and mayor before he was elected to the Tennessee House of Representatives and then the House of Representatives in 1843, where he served for ten years. He became Governor of Tennessee for four years, and was elected to the Senate in 1857, where he fought for passage of the Homestead Bill. When the bill was finally passed as the Homestead Act in 1862, it opened public lands in the West to settlement. As the Civil War broke out in 1861, Tennessee seceded from the Union to join the other Southern slave states forming the Confederacy, yet Johnson refused to resign his Senate seat, becoming the only Senator from a Confederate state who didn’t quit upon his state’s secession. In 1862, Lincoln appointed him military governor of Tennessee, and in 1864, Johnson, as a War Democrat and Southern Unionist, was a logical choice as running mate for Lincoln, who wanted to project an image of national unity in his re-election campaign. The night before he was sworn in, Johnson attended a party in his honor; and drank heavily. Hung over the following morning at the Capitol, he asked Vice President Hannibal Hamlin for some whiskey. Hamlin produced a bottle, and Johnson took two stiff drinks, stating “I need all the strength for the occasion I can have.” In the Senate Chamber, Johnson delivered a rambling address as Lincoln, the Congress, and dignitaries looked on. Almost incoherent at times, he finally meandered to a stop, and Hamlin hastily swore him in as vice president. Lincoln, who had watched sadly during the debacle, was sworn in, and delivered his acclaimed Second Inaugural Address. Johnson later secluded himself to avoid public ridicule. Nevertheless, Lincoln defended him, saying, “I have known Andy Johnson for many years; he made a bad slip the other day, but you need not be scared; Andy ain’t a drunkard.” On the afternoon of April 14th, 1865, Lincoln and Johnson met for the first time since the inauguration. Johnson supposedly urged Lincoln not to be too lenient with traitors. That night, John Wilkes Booth fatally shot President Lincoln. This was part of a conspiracy to assassinate Lincoln, Johnson, and Secretary of State Seward on the same night. Seward barely survived his wounds, while Johnson’s would-be assassin, George Atzerodt, lost his nerve and got drunk instead of killing the vice president. Hearing of Lincoln’s shooting, Johnson rushed to the President’s deathbed, where he vowed, “They shall suffer for this.” Lincoln died the next morning, and Andrew Johnson was sworn in. The assassination of Lincoln caused suspicion that Johnson was aware of the plot even though Atzerodt never said anything to support such a charge. Yet it was discovered that on the day of the assassination, John Wilkes Booth went to Johnson’s residence and left his card with the inscription, “Are you at home? Don't wish to disturb you. J. Wilkes Booth,” and ever since, conspiracy theorists have had a field day claiming Johnson knew of the plot. Controversially, Johnson permitted the execution of boarding house owner Mary Surratt for her part in Lincoln’s assassination. Surratt was executed along with Atzerodt, David Herold, and Lewis Powell on July 7th, 1865. As President, Johnson implemented his version of Reconstruction – a series of proclamations directing the seceded states to hold conventions and elections to reform their civil governments. He sought a swift restoration of the states, once loyal citizens formed a government. He attempted to wrest political power from the Southern planter class and give it to the common man, magnifying the Jacksonian ideal. And he hoped to recreate a Democratic coalition in the South that would ensure his re-election. When Johnson set timetables for elections in the South, there was no mention of black suffrage. To Johnson, black suffrage was a distraction; it had always been a state responsibility to decide who should vote, and Johnson feared that freed slaves, many still economically bound to their former masters, might simply vote at their direction. Northern Democrats were opposed to black suffrage, seeing it as a threat to their party’s control in the South. And the radical republicans of the North, determined to make the South acknowledge its defeat and improve the lives of African-Americans, failed to convince Johnson that black suffrage should be a priority. The North tolerated Johnson’s inaction regarding black suffrage if it hastened reunification. But this hesitancy emboldened the South, and soon, most of the Southern states had elected many of their old racist leaders. Restrictive legislation called “Black Codes,” deprived free African-Americans of their civil liberties and indentured them into working on the plantations of their former masters. Northerners were outraged at the idea of unrepentant Confederate leaders rejoining the federal government while the memory of the war’s savagery still remained fresh, and they viewed the Black Codes as little more than slavery. Congressional Republicans refused to seat legislators from those states and advanced legislation to overrule the Southern actions. Though Congress was initially reluctant to confront the president, Johnson was convinced that winning a showdown with the Radical Republicans would be advantageous for the success of Reconstruction as well as his chances for re-election in 1868. It was a miscalculation of colossal proportions, compounded by a speech Johnson gave claiming that Radical Republicans were plotting his assassination. The final nail in Johnson’s political coffin was his veto of the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 that affirmed all Americans have equal rights under the law. Congress passed it again, Johnson vetoed it again, and then his veto was overridden. He also vetoed a bill that extended the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau, a government agency that monitored labor relations between whites and blacks on former slave plantations and helped former slaves locate lost family members. From this point, Johnson had lost support of certain Republicans yet had gained little Southern support for his actions. It was the crucial blunder of his presidency. His repeated vetoes of the Civil Rights Bill convinced Republicans they could no longer work with him. Johnson’s greatest character flaw was his inordinate stubbornness; a hardheaded resistance to compromise that bordered on the delusional. Johnson opposed the Fourteenth Amendment that gave citizenship to former slaves, and in 1866 he went on a disastrous national tour to promote his policies. He sought popular support for his programs, hoping it would help him combat his growing Republican detractors. It was a fiasco, and he continued to turn public opinion against him. The anti-Johnson Republican Congressional candidates won in a landslide. The conflict between Johnson and Congress continued to grow as Johnson vetoed the admission of Kansas into the Union, and Congress again overrode his veto. Yet bizarrely, with all evidence to the contrary, Johnson continued to think he was in a strong position, though by this point even the Southern Democrats were turning against him as his home state of Tennessee ratified the 14th Amendment. In January 1867, abolitionist Congressman Thaddeus Stevens introduced legislation to dissolve the Southern state governments and reconstitute them into five military districts under martial law. The states would begin again by holding constitutional conventions and African-Americans could vote for or become delegates but former Confederates could not. In the legislative process, Congress added to the bill that restoration to the Union would follow the state’s ratification of the 14th Amendment and Constitutional adoption. Johnson attempted a compromise, whereby the South would agree to a modified version of the amendment without the disqualification of former Confederates, and included limited black suffrage. The Republicans insisted on the full language of the amendment, and the deal fell through. Johnson vetoed it on March 2nd, 1867, but Congress overruled the veto. A Constitutional crisis loomed as Johnson attempted to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who Johnson felt was undermining his Reconstruction policies. Johnson waited until Congress was in summer recess and dismissed Stanton, replacing him with General Ulysses S. Grant. Johnson notified Congress of Stanton’s suspension and Grant’s interim appointment. In January 1868, the Senate reinstated Stanton, contending the President had violated the Tenure of Office Act, which restricted the president from removing certain office-holders without Senate approval. Grant stepped down, over Johnson’s objections, causing a total break between them. Johnson then dismissed Stanton and appointed Lorenzo Thomas to replace him. Stanton refused to leave and on February 24th, 1868, the House impeached the President by a vote of 128 to 47, alleging he had questioned the legitimacy of Congress. Johnson’s defense relied on the provision of the Tenure of Office Act that made it applicable only to appointees of the current administration. Since Lincoln had appointed Stanton, the defense maintained the president had not violated the act, also arguing that the President had the right to test the Constitutionality of an act of Congress. Johnson’s counsel wisely insisted he make no appearance at the trial, nor comment about the proceedings, and but for a pair of interviews, he complied and was eventually acquitted by a single vote. His term was nearly at an end, and the Republicans were already preparing for their convention where Ulysses S. Grant would be the nominee. Not all of Johnson’s Administration was involved with Reconstruction or such high drama. Expansionist Secretary of State William Seward had been allowed free reign to conduct foreign policy, and in 1867 he negotiated a sale with Russia to purchase its North American colony of Alaska for seven million dollars. Though ridiculed at the time as “Seward’s Folly,” it has since justified its hefty price tag many times over. Returning to Tennessee after his presidency, Johnson sought political vindication and gained it, at least in his eyes, when he was elected to the Senate in 1875 - the only former president to serve there. But he died just months later, never truly getting a second chance. Historians rank Johnson among the worst American presidents for his needless provocations of Congress that led to impeachment and his opposition to Constitutionally guaranteed rights for African Americans.

Contents

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

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Births

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ 天下
  2. ^ "Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails," May 10, 1869, at Promontory Point, Utah". World Digital Library. May 10, 1869. Retrieved July 20, 2013.
  3. ^ Baren, Maurice (1996). How it All Began Up the High Street. London: Michael O'Mara Books. ISBN 1-85479-667-4.
  4. ^ a b Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  5. ^ a b Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 290–291. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  6. ^ "Giant Panda". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
  • American Annual Cyclopedia...for 1869 (1870), large compendium of facts, worldwide coverage online edition
  • The American year-book and national register for 1869 (1869). focus on U.S. online edition
This page was last edited on 4 June 2019, at 10:58
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