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1862 and 1863 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1862 and 1863 U.S. House of Representatives elections

← 1860 / 61 June 2, 1862 – November 3, 1863[a] 1864 / 65 →

All 184 seats[b] in the U.S. House of Representatives
93 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
 
Galusha A. Grow restored.jpg
SSCox.jpg
3x4.svg
Leader Galusha Grow Samuel Cox
Party Republican Democratic Unionist
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 14th
(lost re-election)
Ohio 7th
Last election 108 seats 45 seats 28 seats
Seats won 87[1] 72[1] 25[1][c]
Seat change Decrease 21 Increase 27 Decrease 25
Popular vote 750,147[citation needed] 1,456,395[citation needed] 1,001,339[d][citation needed]
Percentage 23.23% 45.11% 31.02%
Swing Decrease 23.68% Increase 5.34% Increase 22.52%

Speaker before election

Galusha Grow (defeated)
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held during President Abraham Lincoln's first term at various dates in different states from June 1862 to November 1863. Republicans lost 22 seats and the majority, while Democrats gained 28.

The Civil War to date had been only weakly successful for the Union, but had wrought major, disruptive change in the size and reach of the Federal Government, which before the war had been small and little seen beyond post offices, customs houses in ports, and scattered military posts. The Republican Party was also relatively new, yet had led the Union down a radical path of rapid industrialization and destructive total war.

Voters turned on the Administration. Points of dissatisfaction included failure to deliver a speedy victory at times verging on military incompetence, rising inflation, new taxes, rumors of corruption, suspension of habeas corpus, conscription or the draft law, and racist fear of a future in which larger numbers of free African-Americans would compete for jobs and depress wages. For example, expressing a typical sentiment, the Cincinnati Gazette editorialized that voters "are depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress."[2]

Short of a majority, Republicans retained control with the support of the Unionist Party. In September 1862, President Lincoln warned the South that he planned by executive order, and as a war measure, to liberate all slaves in rebelling states as of January 1, 1863. The popularity of emancipation varied by region. It was more popular in New England and areas near the Great Lakes, and less popular in cities with large immigrant populations and in the southern portion of the North. Democrats hailed the elections as a repudiation of emancipation, but the results did not alter Lincoln's plan or hamper prosecution of the war.[3]

In Lincoln's home district of Springfield, Illinois, John T. Stuart, a Democrat and one of Lincoln's former law partners, defeated the Republican incumbent. Racism, including fear of an influx freed slaves and a desire by white voters to prevent black suffrage, helped drive the result.[4] The sitting House Speaker, Galusha Grow of Pennsylvania, also lost re-election. He would return to the House in 1894.

Election summaries

The eight Representatives remaining from Tennessee and Virginia in the 37th Congress were absent from the 38th Congress. Other seceded states remained unrepresented, leaving 58 vacancies[5] Upon admission, West Virginia was allotted three Representatives [6] and during the second session one seat was added for the new state of Nevada.[7]

Reapportionment transpired according to the 1860 Census, under the 1850 Apportionment Act[8] providing a total of 233 seats. A later Act added eight seats,[9] increasing the total to 241.

72 2 85 25
Democratic [e] Republican Unionist
State Type Date ↑ Total seats
(Reapportionment)
Democratic Independent
Republican
Republican Unionist[f]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon At-large June 2, 1862 1 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 8, 1862 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 4 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Indiana Districts October 14, 1862 11 Steady 7 Increase 3 0 Steady 4 Decrease 3 0 Steady
Iowa Districts 6 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase 4 0 Steady
Ohio Districts 19 Decrease 2 14 Increase 6 0 Steady 5 Decrease 8 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts 24 Decrease 1 12 Increase 6 2 Increase 2 10 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 1, 1862 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Massachusetts Districts 10 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Illinois Districts November 4, 1862
(Election Day)[g]
14 Increase 5 9 Increase 4 0 Steady 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan Districts 6 Increase 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Minnesota Districts 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri Districts 9 Increase 2 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 1 Steady 8 Increase 7
New Jersey Districts 5 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New York Districts 31 Decrease 2 17 Increase 7 0 Steady 14 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Wisconsin Districts 6 Increase 3 3 Increase 3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1863 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 10, 1863 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island Districts April 1, 1863 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Connecticut Districts April 6, 1863 4 Steady 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 3, 1863 9 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 9 Steady
Vermont Districts September 1, 1863 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
California At-large September 2, 1863 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia[h] Districts October 22, 1863 3 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 3
Maryland Districts November 3, 1863 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Decrease 2
Secessionist States
Alabama Districts None 6 Decrease 1
Arkansas Districts None 3 Increase 1
Florida At-large None 1 Steady
Georgia Districts None 7 Decrease 1
Louisiana Districts None 5 Increase 1 Decrease 2
Mississippi Districts None 5 Steady
North Carolina Districts None 7 Decrease 1
South Carolina Districts None 4 Decrease 2
Tennessee Districts None 8 Decrease 2 Decrease 3
Texas Districts None 4 Increase 2
Virginia Districts None 11[i] Decrease 2 Decrease 5
Total[b] 184 Increase 3 72 Increase 27 2 Increase 2 85 Decrease 25 25 Decrease 5
58 Vacancies[j] 39.1% 1.1% 46.2% 13.6%
House seats
Democratic
39.1%
Independent Republican
1.1%
Republican
46.2%
Unionist
13.6%

Special elections

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 2
Wisconsin 2

California

Note: From statehood to 1866, California's representatives were elected state-wide at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858. In 1860, when California gained a seat, the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California at-large
Plural district with 3 seats
Timothy Phelps Republican 1861 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Aaron A. Sargent Republican 1861 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Frederick F. Low Republican 1861 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Ohio

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[10]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (Contested) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 5 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 Richard A. Harrison Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic loss.
Samuel S. Cox
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel Shellabarger
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 8 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel T. Worcester
Redistricted from the 13th district
Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 11 Valentine B. Horton Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Carey A. Trimble
Redistricted from the 10th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 13 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY John O'Neill (Democratic) 56.8%
  • George B. Wright (Republican) 43.2%
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 15 Robert H. Nugen Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
James R. Morris
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
William P. Cutler
Redistricted from the 16th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 16 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 17 New district New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 19 Albert G. Riddle Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Virginia

Virginia elected its members May 28, 1863, but they were all disqualified.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1 Joseph Segar Unionist 1861
1862 Disqualified[11]
1862 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected but disqualified May 17, 1864.[11]
Unionist loss.
Virginia 2 Vacant New member elected but disqualified May 17, 1864.
  • Green tickY Lucius H. Chandler
  • Unopposed[13]
Virginia 3 Vacant
Virginia 4 Vacant
Virginia 5 Vacant
Virginia 6 Vacant
Virginia 7 Lewis McKenzie Unionist 1863 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected but disqualified.
Unionist loss.
Virginia 8 Vacant New member elected January 5, 1863 but disqualified March 2, 1863.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin elected six members of congress on Election Day, November 4, 1862. Three of these seats were newly apportioned. 2nd district incumbent Luther Hanchett was redistricted into the new 6th district, won election there, but died three weeks after the general election—a special election was held December 30, 1862, to replace him.[16]

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 John F. Potter Republican 1856 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 2 Luther Hanchett Republican 1860 Incumbent redistricted to 6th congressional district.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 3 A. Scott Sloan Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Wisconsin 4 New district. New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 5 New district. New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 6 New district. New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Died before taking office, November 23, 1862.
Luther Hanchett Republican 1860 Elected candidate died before taking office.
Special election held December 30, 1862.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Non-voting delegates

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Idaho Territory at-large New seat Territory established.
New delegate elected October 31, 1863 in anticipation of territorial status.
Republican gain.
Delegate seated February 1, 1864.
Nebraska Territory at-large Samuel Gordon Daily Republican 1860 (Won contest) Incumbent re-elected in 1862.
Nevada Territory at-large John Cradlebaugh Independent 1861 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New member elected in 1862.
Republican gain.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ Includes 35 Unionists, 11 Union Republicans, 9 Unionist Democrats, and 1 Unconditional Unionist Democrat.
  4. ^ Includes those who ran as Unionist Republicans, Unionist Democrats, People's Unionists, Unconditional Unionist Democrats, Constitutional Unionists, and Unionists.
  5. ^ There were 2 Independent Republicans
  6. ^ Including Unconditional Unionists.
  7. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  8. ^ New state.
  9. ^ Subsequently, 3 seats were transferred to the new state of West Virginia.
  10. ^ After 3 seats were reassigned from Virginia to West Virginia.

References

  1. ^ a b c "38th Congress (1863–1865)". U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  2. ^ Nevins (1960), 6:318-22, quote on p. 322.
  3. ^ Voegeli (1963).
  4. ^ Tap (1993).
  5. ^ Dubin, p. 197.
  6. ^ 12 Stat. 633
  7. ^ 13 Stat. 32
  8. ^ Stat. 432
  9. ^ 12 Stat. 353
  10. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 150, 151.
  11. ^ a b "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress - Retro Member details". bioguideretro.congress.gov.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 01 Race - May 28, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 02 Race - May 28, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 07 Race - May 28, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA - District 08 Race - Jan 05, 1863". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  16. ^ "Wisconsin U.S. House Election Results" (PDF). Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
  17. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/ContainerHistory.html?ContainerID=61459
  18. ^ "Collections of the NSHS - Volume 18". www.usgennet.org.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 21 September 2020, at 20:26
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