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1860 and 1861 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Senate elections, 1860 and 1861

← 1858/59 Various dates 1862/63 →

22 of the 66 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
34 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Democratic Republican Know Nothing
Last election 38 seats 25 seats 2 seats
Seats before 38 26 2
Seats won 30 29 1
Seat change Decrease 8 Increase 3 Decrease 1
Seats up 14 7 1

Majority Party before election

Democratic Party

Elected Majority Party

Democratic Party

The United States Senate elections of 1860 and 1861 were elections corresponding with Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency. The nascent Republican Party increased their Senate seats in the general elections, and after southern Democrats withdrew to join the Confederacy, Republicans gained control of the United States Senate. To establish a quorum with fewer members, a lower total seat number was taken into account.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth Amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

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  • ✪ The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion: Crash Course US History #18
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  • ✪ President Abraham Lincoln: July 4th, Civil War Speech to Congress, 1861 – Hear and Read the Message
  • ✪ Lincoln Douglas Debate
  • ✪ American History - Part 087 - Lincoln Elected in 1860

Transcription

CCUS18 Election 1860 Hi I’m John Green; this is Crash Course US History and today we discuss one of the most confusing questions in American history: What caused the Civil War? Just kidding it’s not a confusing question at all: Slavery caused the Civil War. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, but what about, like, states rights and nationalism, economics-- Me from the Past, your senior year of high school you will be taught American Government by Mr. Fleming, a white Southerner who will seem to you to be about 182 years old, and you will say something to him in class about states rights. And Mr. Fleming will turn to you and he will say, “A state’s rights to what, sir?” And for the first time in your snotty little life, you will be well and truly speechless. intro The road to the Civil War leads to discussions of states rights...to slavery, and differing economic systems...specifically whether those economic systems should involve slavery, and the election of Abraham Lincoln, specifically how his election impacted slavery, but none of those things would have been issues without slavery. So let’s pick up with the most controversial section of the Compromise of 1850, the fugitive slave law. Now, longtime Crash Course viewers will remember that there was already a Fugitive Slave Law written into the United States Constitution, so what made this one so controversial? Under this new law, any citizen was required to turn in anyone he or she knew to be a slave to authorities. And that made, like, every person in New England into a sheriff, and it also required them to enforce a law they found abhorrent. So, they had to be sheriffs and they didn’t even get little gold badges. Thought Bubble, can I have a gold badge? Oh. Awesome. Thank you. This law was also terrifying to people of color in the North, because even if you’d been, say, born free in Massachusetts, the courts could send you into slavery if even one person swore before a judge that you were a specific slave. And many people of color responded to the fugitive slave law by moving to Canada, which at the time was still technically an English colony, thereby further problematizing the whole idea that England was all about tyranny and the United States was all about freedom. But anyway the most important result of the fugitive slave law was that it convinced some Northerners that the government was in the hands of a sinister “slave power.” Sadly, slave power was not a heavy metal band or Britney Spears’s new single or even a secret cabal of powerful slaves, but rather a conspiracy theory about a secret cabal of pro-slavery congressmen. That conspiracy theory is going to grow in importance, but before we get to that let us discuss Railroads. Underrated in Monopoly and underrated in the Civil War. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Railroads made shipping cheaper and more efficient and allowed people to move around the country quickly, and they had a huge backer (also a tiny backer) in the form of Illinois congressman Stephen Douglas, who wanted a transcontinental railroad because 1. he felt it would bind the union together at a time when it could use some binding, and 2. he figured it would go through Illinois, which would be good for his home state. But there was a problem: To build a railroad, the territory through which it ran needed to be organized, ideally as states, and if the railroad was going to run through Illinois, then the Kansas and Nebraska territories would need to become state-like, so Douglas pushed forward the Kansas Nebraska Act in 1854. The Kansas-Nebraska Act formalized the idea of popular sovereignty, which basically meant that (white) residents of states could decide for themselves whether the state should allow slavery. Douglas felt this was a nice way of avoiding saying whether he favored slavery; instead, he could just be in favor of letting other people be in favor of it. Now you’ll remember that the previously bartered Missouri Compromise banned slavery in new states north of this here line. And since in theory Kansas or Nebraska could have slavery if people there decided they wanted it under the Kansas-Nebraska Act despite being north of that there line, this in practice repealed the Missouri Compromise. As a result, there was quite a lot of violence in Kansas, so much so that some people say the Civil War really started there in 1857. Also, the Kansas Nebraska Act led to the creation of a new political party: The Republicans. Yes, those Republicans. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, Douglas’s law helped to create a new coalition party dedicated to stopping the extension of slavery. It was made of former Free-Soilers, Northern anti-slavery Whigs and some Know- Nothings. It was also a completely sectional party, meaning that it drew supporters almost exclusively from the free states in the North and West, which, you’ll remember from like, two minutes ago, were tied together by common economic interests and the railroad. I’m telling you, don’t underestimate railroads. By the way, we are getting to you, Dred Scott. And now we return at last to “slave power.” For many northerners, the Kansas Nebraska Act which repealed the Missouri Compromise was yet more evidence that Congress was controlled by a sinister “slave power” group doing the bidding of rich plantation owners, which, as conspiracy theories go, wasn’t the most far-fetched. In fact, by 1854, the North was far more populous than the South--it had almost double the South’s congressional representation--but in spite of this advantage, Congress had just passed a law extending the power of slave states, and potentially--because two new states meant four new senators--making the federal government even more pro-slavery. And to abolitionists, that didn’t really seem like democracy. The other reason that many northerners cared enough about Kansas and Nebraska to abandon their old party loyalties was that having them become slave states was seen as a threat to northerner’s economic self-interest. Remember the west was seen as a place where individuals--specifically white individuals--could become self-sufficient farmers. As Lincoln wrote: “The whole nation is interested that the best use be made of these territories. We want them for the homes of free white people. They cannot be, to any considerable extent, if slavery is planted within them. New Free States are places for poor people to go to and better their condition.” So, the real question was: Would these western territories have big slave-based plantations like happened in Mississippi? Or small family farms full of frolicking free white people, like happened in Thomas Jefferson’s imagination? So the new Republican party ran its first presidential candidate in 1856 and did remarkably well. John C. Fremont from California picked up 39% of the vote, all of it from the North and West, and lost to the Democrat James Buchanan, who had the virtue of having spent much of the previous decade in Europe and thus not having a position on slavery. I mean, let me take this opportunity to remind you that James Buchanan’s nickname was The Old Public Functionary. Meanwhile, Kansas was trying to become a state by holding elections in 1854 and 1855. I say trying because these elections were so fraudulent that they would be funny except that everything stops being funny like 12 years before the Civil War and doesn’t get really funny again until Charlie Chaplin. Ah, Charlie Chaplin, thank you for being in the public domain and giving us a much-needed break from a nation divided against itself, discovering that it cannot stand. Right so part of the Kansas problem was that hundreds of so called border ruffians flocked to Kansas from pro-slavery Missouri to cast ballots in Kansas elections, which led to people coming in from free states and setting up their own rival governments. Fighting eventually broke out and more than 200 people were killed. In fact, in 1856, pro-slavery forces laid siege to anti-slavery Lawrence, Kansas with cannons. One particularly violent incident involved the murder of an entire family by an anti-slavery zealot from New York named John Brown. He got away with that murder but hold on a minute, we’ll get to him. Anyway, in the end Kansas passed two constitutions because, you know, that’s a good way to get started as a government. The pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution was the first that went to the U.S. Congress and it was supported by Stephen Douglas as an example of popular sovereignty at work, except that the man who oversaw the voting in Kansas called it a “vile fraud.” Congress delayed Kansas’ entry into the Union (because Congress’s primary business is delay) until another, more fair referendum took place. And after that vote, Kansas eventually did join the U.S. as a free state in 1861, by which time it was frankly too late. Alright so while all this craziness was going on in Kansas and Congress, the Supreme Court was busy rendering the worst decision in its history. Oh, hi there, Dred Scott. Dred Scott had been a slave whose master had taken him to live in Illinois and Wisconsin, both of which barred slavery. So, Scott sued, arguing that if slavery was illegal in Illinois, then living in Illinois made him definitionally not a slave. The case took years to find its way to the Supreme Court and eventually, in 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, from Maryland, handed down his decision. The Court held that Scott was still a slave, but went even further, attempting to settle the slavery issue once and for all. Taney ruled that black people “had for more than a century before been regarded as beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations; and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit.” So...that is an actual quote from an actual decision by the Supreme Court of the United States of America. Wow. I mean, Taney’s ruling basically said that all black people anywhere in the United States could be considered property, and that the court was in the business of protecting that property. This meant a slave owner could take his slaves from Mississippi to Massachusetts and they would still be slaves. Which meant that technically, there was no such thing as a free state. At least that’s how people in the north, especially Republicans saw it. The Dred Scott decision helped convince even more people that the entire government, Congress, President Buchanan, and now the Supreme Court, were in the hands of the dreaded “Slave Power.” Oh, we’re going to do the Mystery Document now? Stan, I am so confident about today’s Mystery Document that I am going to write down my guess right now and I’m going to put it in this envelope and then when I’m right I want a prize. All I ever get is punishment, I want prizes. Okay. The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. I already did that. And then I get rewarded for being right. Alright total confidence. Let’s just read this thing. And then I get my reward. “I look forward to the days when there shall be a servile insurrection in the South, when the black man … shall assert his freedom and wage a war of extermination against his master; when the torch of the incendiary shall light up the towns and cities of the South, and blot out the last vestige of slavery. And though I may not mock at their calamity, nor laugh when their fear cometh, yet I will hail it as the dawn of a political millennium.” [1] I was right! Right here. Guessed in advance. John Brown. What? STAN! Ohio Congressman Joshua Giddings? Seriously, Stan? AH! Whatever. I’m gonna talk about John Brown anyway. In 1859, John Brown led a disastrous raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, hoping to capture guns and then give them to slaves who would rise up and use those guns against their masters. But, Brown was an awful military commander, and not a terribly clear thinker in general, and the raid was an abject failure. Many of the party were killed and he was captured. He stood trial and was sentenced to death. Thus he became a martyr to the abolitionist cause, which is probably what he wanted anyway. On the morning of his hanging, he wrote, “I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” Well, he was right about that, but in general, any statement that begins “I-comma-my-name” meh. And, so the stage was set for one of the most important Presidential elections in American history. Dun dun dun dun dun dahhhhh. In 1860, the Republican Party chose as its candidate Abraham Lincoln, whose hair and upper forehead you can see here. He’d proved his eloquence, if not his electability, in a series of debates with Stephen Douglas when the two were running for the Senate in 1858. Lincoln lost that election, but the debates made him famous, and he could appeal to immigrant voters, because he wasn’t associated with the Know Nothings. The Democrats, on the other hand, were--to use a historian term--a hot mess. The Northern wing of the party favored Stephen Douglas, but he was unacceptable to voters in the deep South. So Southern Democrats nominated John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, making the Democrats, the last remaining truly national party, no longer truly a national party. A third party, the Constitutional Union Party, dedicated to preserving the Constitution “as it is” i.e. including slavery, nominated John Bell of Tennessee. Abraham Lincoln received 0 votes in nine American states, but he won 40% of the overall popular vote, including majorities in many of the most populous states, thereby winning the electoral college. So, anytime a guy becomes President who literally did not appear on your ballot, there is likely to be a problem. And indeed, Lincoln’s election led to a number of Southern states seceding from the Union. Lincoln himself hated slavery, but he repeatedly said that he would leave it alone in the states where it existed. But the demographics of Lincoln’s election showed Southerners and Northerners alike that slave power--to whatever extent it had existed--was over. By the time he took office on March 1, 1861, seven states had seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. And the stage was set for the fighting to begin, which it did, when Southern troops fired upon the Union garrison at Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor on April 12, 1861. So, that’s when the Civil War started, but it became inevitable earlier--maybe in 1857, or maybe in 1850, or maybe in 1776. Or maybe in 1619, when the first African slaves arrived in Virginia. Cuz here’s the thing: In the Dred Scott decision, Chief Justice Taney said that black Americans had quote “had no rights which the white man was bound to respect.” But this was demonstrably false. Black men had voted in elections and held property, including even slaves. They’d appeared in court on their own behalf. They had rights. They’d expressed those rights when given the opportunity. And the failure of the United States to understand that the rights of black Americans were as inalienable as those of white Americans is ultimately what made the Civil War inevitable. So next week, it’s off to war we go. Thanks for watching. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. And our graphics team is Thought Café. Usually every week there’s a libertage with a caption, but there wasn’t one this week because of stupid Chief Justice Roger Taney. However, please suggest captions in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course US History and as we say in my hometown of nerdfighteria, don’t forget to be awesome. election 1860 - ________________ [1] Quoted in Goldfield p. 119

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 37th Congress (1861–1863)

  • Majority Party: Republican (29), later rose to 30
  • Minority Party: Democratic (30), later dropped to 14
  • Other Parties: Unionist (1), later rose to 4
  • Vacant: (8), later rose to 20
  • Total Seats: 68

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the October 2, 1860 special election in Oregon.

D3 D2 D1
D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13
D23 D22 D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14
D24 D25
Ran
D26
Ran
D27
Ran
D28
Unknown
D29
Unknown
D30
Retired
D31
Retired
D32
Retired
D33
Retired
Majority → D34
Resigned
R24
Ran
R25
Unknown
R26
Retired
KN1 KN2
Ran
D38
Withdrew
D37
Withdrew
D36
Withdrew
D35
Withdrew
R23
Ran
R22
Ran
R21
Ran
R20
Ran
R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14
R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13
R3 R2 R1

As a result of the elections

V3
D Loss
V2
D Loss
V1
D Loss
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10
D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11
D21 D23 D22 D24 D25
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
D27
Hold
D28
Hold
D29
Hold
D30
Gain
Plurality ↑ KN1
R21
Re-elected
R22
Re-elected
R23
Re-elected
R24
Re-elected
R25
Hold
R26
Hold
R27
Gain
R28
Gain
R29
Gain
R20
Re-elected
R19 R18 R17 R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10
V4
D Loss
V5
D Loss
V6
D Loss

Beginning of the next Congress

V4
D Loss
V3
D Loss
V2
D Loss
V1
D Loss
V5
D Loss
V6
D Loss
V7
D Loss
V8
D Loss
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19 D20 D21 D22 U1
Changed
R29
Hold
R28 R27
Majority → R26
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
V12 V11 V10 V9 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
V13 V14 V15
New state
V16
New state

End of 1861

V4 V3 V2 V1
V5 V6 V7 V8 V9
D Loss
V10
D Loss
D1 D2 D3 D4
D14
Gain
D13
Gain
D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5
U4
Gain
U3
Gain
U2
Gain
U1 R30
Gain
R29
Hold
R28
Hold
R27
Hold
R26 R25
Majority → R24
R15 R16 R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23
R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7 R6 R5
V16 V15 V14 V13 V12
R Loss
V11
R Loss
R1
Gain
R2
Gain
R3 R4
V17 V18
D Loss
V19
D Loss
V20
D Loss
Key:
D# Democratic
KN# Know Nothing
R# Republican
U# Unionist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 36th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1860 or in 1861 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California
(Class 1)
Henry P. Haun Democratic 1859 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
Winner elected March 5, 1860.
Democratic hold.
Milton Latham (Democratic)
Henry P. Haun (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Oregon
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect in 1858/1859.
Winner elected October 2, 1860.
Republican gain.
Edward D. Baker (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maine
(Class 1)
Hannibal Hamlin Republican 1848 (Special)
1851
1857 (Resigned)
1857
Incumbent resigned to become U.S. Vice President.
Winner elected January 17, 1861.
Republican hold.
Lot M. Morrill (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 37th Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1861; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Benjamin Fitzpatrick Democratic 1848 (Appointed)
1849 (Retired)
1853 (Appointed)
1853 (Special)
1855
Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Arkansas Robert W. Johnson Democratic 1853 (Appointed)
1854 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Successor elected in 1860 or 1861.
Democratic hold.
Charles B. Mitchel (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
California William M. Gwin Democratic 1850
1855 (Failure to elect)
1857 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1860.
Democratic hold.
James A. McDougall (Democratic)
Connecticut Lafayette S. Foster Republican 1854 Incumbent re-elected in 1860. Lafayette S. Foster (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Florida David Levy Yulee Democratic 1855 Incumbent withdrew January 21, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Georgia Alfred Iverson, Sr. Democratic 1854 or 1855 Incumbent withdrew January 28, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1871.
None.
Illinois Lyman Trumbull Republican 1855 Incumbent re-elected, January 9, 1861. Lyman Trumbull (Republican) 54
Samuel S. Marshall (Democratic) 46[1]
Iowa James Harlan Republican 1855
1857 (Election invalidated)
1857 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1860. James Harlan (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana Graham N. Fitch Democratic 1857 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1860.
Republican gain.
Henry Lane (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kansas Vacant Kansas had become a state January 29, 1861 but did not elect its Senators until the next Congress, see below. None.
Kentucky John J. Crittenden Know Nothing 1816
1819 (Resigned)
1835
1841 (Retired)
1842 (Appointed)
1842 or 1843 (Special)
1843
1848 (Resigned)
1853 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected December 12, 1859, far in advance of the term.
Democratic gain.
Winner was subsequently expelled, see below.
John C. Breckinridge (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana John Slidell Democratic 1853 (Special)
1854 or 1855
Incumbent resigned February 4, 1861.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Maryland James Pearce Democratic 1843
1849
1855
Incumbent re-elected in 1861. James Pearce (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Missouri James S. Green Democratic 1857 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until March 17, 1861, see below.
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire Daniel Clark Republican 1857 Incumbent re-elected in 1861. Daniel Clark (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New York William H. Seward Republican 1849
1855
Incumbent retired, expecting appointment to the Lincoln Administration.
Winner elected February 5, 1861.
Republican hold.
Ira Harris (Republican)
Horatio Seymour (Democratic)
North Carolina Thomas Clingman Democratic 1858 (Appointed)
1858 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1861. Asa Biggs (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Ohio George E. Pugh Democratic 1854 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1860.
Republican gain.
Salmon P. Chase (Republican)
George E. Pugh (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Oregon Joseph Lane Democratic 1859 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1860 or 1861.
Democratic hold.
James Nesmith (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Pennsylvania William Bigler Democratic 1856 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected January 8, 1861.
Republican gain.
Edgar Cowan (Republican) 73.68%
Henry Foster (Democratic) 26.32%
South Carolina James Henry Hammond Democratic 1857 Incumbent withdrew November 11, 1860.
No replacement was elected.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1868.
None.
Vermont Jacob Collamer Republican 1855 Incumbent re-elected in 1861. Jacob Collamer (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Wisconsin Charles Durkee Republican 1854 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1861.
Republican hold.
Timothy O. Howe (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Elections during the 37th Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1861 after March 4.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Vacant Incumbent had resigned in the previous Congress.
Winner was elected March 14, 1861.
Republican gain.
David Wilmot (Republican) 72.18%
William H. Welsh (Democratic) 25.56%
Winthrop W. Ketcham (Republican) 0.75%
William Wilkins (Democratic) 0.75%
Missouri
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner was elected March 17, 1861.
Democratic gain.
Waldo P. Johnson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Ohio
(Class 3)
Salmon P. Chase Republican 1849
1855 (Retired)
1860
Incumbent resigned December 4, 1860 to become U.S. Secretary of the Treasury.
Winner was elected March 21, 1861.
Republican hold.
John Sherman (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kansas
(Class 2)
New state Kansas became a state January 29, 1861.
Winner was elected late April 4, 1861.
Republican gain.
James H. Lane (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kansas
(Class 3)
New state Kansas became a state January 29, 1861.
Winner was elected late April 4, 1861.
Republican gain.
Samuel C. Pomeroy (Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia
(Class 1)
James M. Mason Democratic 1847 (Special)
1850
1856
Incumbent expelled July 11, 1861 for supporting the Confederacy.
Winner was elected July 13, 1861.
Unionist gain.
Waitman T. Willey (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Robert M. T. Hunter Democratic 1846
1852
1858
Incumbent expelled July 11, 1861 for supporting the Confederacy.
Winner was elected July 13, 1861.
Unionist gain.
John S. Carlile (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
John C. Breckinridge Democratic 1859 Incumbent expelled December 4, 1861 for supporting the Confederacy.
Winner was elected December 10, 1861.
Unionist gain.
Garrett Davis (Unionist)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Complete list of races

New York

The New York election was held February 5, 1861.

Whig William H. Seward had been re-elected in February 1855 to this seat, had become a Republican upon the foundation of that party in September 1855, and his term would expire on March 3, 1861. Seward did not seek re-election, instead being certain to be appointed to an office in the incoming Lincoln administration.

At the State election in November 1859, 23 Republicans and 9 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1860-1861) in the State Senate. At the State election in November 1860, 93 Republicans and 35 Democrats were elected to the Assembly for the session of 1861. The 84th New York State Legislature met from January 1 to April 16, 1861, at Albany, New York.

Ira Harris was the candidate of the Republican Party. Harris had been a Whig assemblyman in 1845 and 1846, and a justice of the New York Supreme Court from 1847 to 1859.

Ex-Governor Horatio Seymour (in office 1853-1854) was the candidate of the Democratic Party.

Both in the Assembly and the Senate a strict party vote confirmed the caucus selections.

In the Assembly 119 votes were given. Republicans Smith Anthony (Cayuga Co.), Martin Finch (Essex Co.), Henry A. Prendergast (Chautauqua Co.), Victor M. Rice (Erie Co.) and Perez H. Field (Ontario Co.); and Democrats Luke F. Cozans (NYC), Benjamin H. Long (Erie Co.), N. Holmes Odell (Westchester Co.) and Christian B. Woodruff (NYC); did not vote.

In the State Senate, 31 votes were given. William H. Ferry (Rep., 19th D.) was absent.

Ira Harris was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

House Republican Democratic
State Senate (32 members) Ira Harris 22 Horatio Seymour 9
State Assembly (128 members) Ira Harris 88 Horatio Seymour 31

Pennsylvania

General class 3: January 8, 1861

The general election in Pennsylvania was held January 8, 1861. Edgar Cowan was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[2]

Incumbent Democrat William Bigler, who was elected in 1856, was not a candidate for re-election to another term. The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 8, 1861, to elect a new Senator to fill the term beginning on March 4, 1861. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

General Election Results[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Edgar Cowan 98 73.68
Democratic Henry Foster 35 26.32
Totals 133 100.00%

Special class 1: March 14, 1861

A special election was held in Pennsylvania on March 14, 1861. David Wilmot was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly to the United States Senate.[3]

The Republican Simon Cameron was elected to the United States Senate by the General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in January 1857. Sen. Cameron resigned on March 4, 1861, to become United States Secretary of War in the Abraham Lincoln administration, vacating the seat.[4]

Following the resignation of Sen. Simon Cameron, the Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on March 14, 1861, to elect a new Senator to fill the vacancy. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

Special Election Results[3][5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican David Wilmot 96 72.18
Democratic William H. Welsh 34 25.56
Republican Winthrop W. Ketcham 1 0.75
Democratic William Wilkins 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 1 0.75
Totals 133 100.00%

See also

References

  1. ^ Journal of the House of Representatives of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, 1861. Springfield, IL: Bailache & Baker, Printers. 1861.
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 8 January 1861" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 14 March 1861" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  4. ^ "CAMERON, Simon, (1799 - 1889)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 23, 2012.
  5. ^ "PA US Senate - Special Election". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 22, 2012.
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