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1852 and 1853 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1852 and 1853 United States Senate elections

← 1850/51 Various dates 1854/55 →

20 of the 62 seats in the United States Senate (with special elections)
32 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Whig
Last election 33 seats 22 seats
Seats before 37 22
Seats won 10 4
Seats after 35 18
Seat change Decrease 1 Decrease 4
Seats up 10 9

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Free Soil Know Nothing (US)
Last election 2 seats
Seats before 3 New party
Seats won 2 1
Seats after 2 1
Seat change Decrease 1 Increase 1
Seats up 1

Majority Party before election

Democratic

Elected Majority Party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1852 and 1853 were elections which had the Democratic Party gain two seats in the United States Senate, and which coincided with the 1852 presidential election. Only six of the twenty Senators up for election were re-elected.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Millard Fillmore: Last of the Whigs (1850 - 1853)
  • ✪ War & Expansion: Crash Course US History #17
  • ✪ Franklin Pierce: The Compromise Candidate (1853 - 1857)
  • ✪ Franklin Pierce
  • ✪ American History - Part 076 - Pierce Elected - Uncle Toms Cabin

Transcription

It’s Professor Dave, let’s discuss Millard Fillmore. Millard Fillmore was the 13th President of the United States, and he was most definitely not lucky thirteen. He was such a mediocre president that he virtually killed off the Whig Party. He was another accidental president, elevated from the role of vice president due to the unexpected death of Zachary Taylor, hero of the Mexican War. He failed to win the Whig nomination for president in 1852, but gained the endorsement of the Know Nothing Party four years later, finishing third in that election. He was another in a string of weak presidencies that predated the Civil War. Fillmore became prominent in the Buffalo area as both an attorney and a politician, gaining election to the New York Assembly in 1828, and to the House of Representatives in 1832. Initially, he was of the Anti-Masonic Party, but became a Whig as the party formed in the mid-1830s. Fillmore was an unsuccessful candidate for Speaker of the House when the Whigs took control in 1841, but was made Ways and Means chairman. He was defeated in bids for the Whig nomination for vice president in 1844, and for New York governor the same year. Fillmore’s political friends got him the vice presidential nomination in 1848 as Zachary Taylor’s running mate, but when the two were elected, he was largely ignored by Taylor. As vice president, Fillmore presided over angry debates in the Senate as Congress decided whether to allow slavery into territories won in the Mexican War. Senator Henry Clay drafted the compromise of 1850, a set of five bills, to settle this issue, which made California a free state, and outlined new Utah and New Mexico territories. Fillmore supported Clay’s compromise, but Taylor did not. After Taylor died in July 1850, Fillmore dismissed the cabinet and changed the administration’s policy, using pressure to gain the passage of the Compromise, which gave legislative victories to both North and South. It was enacted by September of that year. But it was the controversial Fugitive Slave Act, a part of the Compromise that mandated the return of escaped slaves, that was the most damaging to both his standing and that of the Whig Party, which was already divided on the issue. Throughout his career, Fillmore denounced slavery as an evil, but one beyond the powers of government. In 1852, he was passed over by the Whigs in favor of General Winfield Scott, another hero of the Mexican War. As the Whig Party collapsed after his presidency, Fillmore joined the newly formed American Party, the political wing of the nativist and anti-Catholic Know Nothing movement, and was its nominee in the 1856 election, winning only Maryland. During the Civil War, he denounced secession, but was critical of the war policies of Abraham Lincoln. After peace was restored, he supported the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson. Ever since, Millard Fillmore has faded into obscurity.

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 33rd Congress (1853–1855)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (35–38)
  • Minority Party: Whig Party (19–17)
  • Other Parties: Free Soiler (2–5); Know Nothing (1)
  • Vacant: 5–1
  • Total Seats: 62

Change in Senate composition

Before the elections

After the July 6, 1852 appointment in Kentucky.

D1  
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Ran
D28
Ran
D29
Ran
D30
Ran
D31
Ran
Majority → D32
Unknown
W22
Retired
FS1 FS2 FS3
Retired
D37
Retired
D36
Retired
D35
Retired
D34
Unknown
D33
Unknown
W21
Retired
W20
Retired
W19
Retired
W18
Unknown
W17
Unknown
W16
Ran
W15
Ran
W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1  

As a result of the elections

D1  
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27
Re-elected
D28
Re-elected
D29
Re-elected
D30
Re-elected
D31
Re-elected
Majority → D32
Hold
KN1
Gain
FS1 FS2 V1
D Loss
V2
D Loss
D36
Gain
D35
Gain
D34
Hold
D33
Hold
V3
W Loss
V4
W Loss
V5
W Loss
W18
Gain
W17
Hold
W16
Hold
W15
Re-elected
W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1  

At the beginning of the next Congress

D1  
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30 D31
Majority → D32
FS1 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 D35 D34 D33
FS2 KN1 W19
Gain
W18 W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1  

At the beginning of the first session, December 5, 1853

D1  
D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11
D21 D20 D19 D18 D17 D16 D15 D14 D13 D12
D22 D23 D24 D25 D26 D27 D28 D29 D30 D31
Majority → D32
FS2 V2 V2 V3 D37
Gain
D36
Gain
D35 D34 D33
FS1 KN1 W19 W18 W17 W16 W15 W14 W13 W12
W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11
W1  
Key:
D# Democratic
FS# Free Soil
KN# Know Nothing
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Special elections during the 32nd Congress

In these elections, the winners were seated during 1852 or in 1853 before March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
California
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature failed to elect.
Winner elected January 30, 1852.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY John B. Weller (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Henry S. Foote Democratic 1846 or 1847 Incumbent resigned January 8, 1852 to become Governor of Mississippi.
Winner elected February 18, 1852.
Whig gain.
Winner then retired at the end of the term, see below.
Green tickY Walker Brooke (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi
(Class 1)
John J. McRae Democratic 1851 (Appointed) Interim appointee replaced by an elected successor.
Winner elected March 17, 1852.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY Stephen Adams (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Vacant Legislature failed to elect.
Winner elected May 12, 1852.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Isaac Toucey (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky
(Class 3)
David Meriwether Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected September 1, 1852.
Whig gain.
Green tickY Archibald Dixon (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina
(Class 2)
William F. De Saussure Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected November 29, 1852.[1]
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Green tickY William F. De Saussure (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Indiana
(Class 3)
Charles W. Cathcart Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Incumbent retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected January 18, 1853.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY John Pettit (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Races leading to the 33rd Congress

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1853; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama Jeremiah Clemens Democratic 1849 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until November 29, 1853, see below.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Arkansas William K. Sebastian Democratic 1848 (Appointed)
1848 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1853. Green tickY William K. Sebastian (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Delaware Presley Spruance Whig 1846 or 1847 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853.
Whig hold.
Green tickY John M. Clayton (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Georgia Robert M. Charlton Democratic 1852 (Appointed) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY Robert Toombs (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Illinois Stephen A. Douglas Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected in 1852. Green tickY Stephen A. Douglas (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Iowa George Wallace Jones Democratic 1848 Incumbent re-elected in 1852. Green tickY George Wallace Jones (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Kentucky Joseph R. Underwood Whig 1846 or 1847 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1852 or 1853.
Know Nothing gain.
Green tickY John B. Thompson (Know Nothing)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana Solomon W. Downs Democratic 1847 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852.
Whig gain.
Green tickY Judah P. Benjamin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maine James W. Bradbury Democratic 1846 Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1854.
[Data unknown/missing.]
Massachusetts John Davis Whig 1835
1841 (Resigned)
1845 (Special)
1847
Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853.
Whig hold.
Green tickY Edward Everett (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Michigan Alpheus Felch Democratic 1847 Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY Charles E. Stuart (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Mississippi Walker Brooke Whig 1852 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1854.
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Hampshire John P. Hale Free Soil 1846 Incumbent retired to run for U.S. President.
Winner elected in 1852.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Charles G. Atherton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
New Jersey Jacob W. Miller Whig 1841
1846
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852 or 1853.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY William Wright (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
North Carolina Willie Mangum Whig 1830
1840 (Special)
1841
Incumbent lost re-election.
Leglislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
Seat would remain vacant until 1854.
Willie Mangum (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island John Hopkins Clarke Whig 1846 or 1847 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Leglislature failed to elect.
Whig loss.
Seat would remain vacant until July 20, 1853, see below.
[Data unknown/missing.]
South Carolina William F. De Saussure Democratic 1852 (Appointed)
1852 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1852 or 1853.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY Josiah J. Evans (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Tennessee John Bell Whig 1847 Incumbent re-elected in 1853. Green tickY Spencer Jarnagin (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Texas Sam Houston Democratic 1846
1847
Incumbent re-elected in 1853. Green tickY Sam Houston (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Virginia Robert M. T. Hunter Democratic 1846 Incumbent re-elected in 1852. Green tickY Robert M. T. Hunter (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Race leading to the 34th Congress

In this general election, the winner was elected for the term beginning March 4, 1855.

This election involved a Class 3 seat.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Archibald Dixon Whig 1852 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1853, far in advance of the term beginning March 4, 1855.
Whig hold.
Green tickY John J. Crittenden (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Elections during the 33rd Congress

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1853 on or after March 4; ordered by date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Robert F. Stockton Democratic 1851 Incumbent resigned January 10, 1853 to become president of the Delaware and Raritan Canal Company.
Winner elected March 4, 1853.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY John Renshaw Thomson (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected July 20, 1853.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Philip Allen (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Winner elected November 29, 1853.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Clement Claiborne Clay (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Alabama
(Class 3)
Benjamin Fitzpatrick Democratic 1848 (Appointed)
1849 (Elected successor qualified)
1853 (Appointed)
Interim appointee elected December 12, 1853.[2] Green tickY Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Pierre Soulé Democratic 1847 (Special)
1847 (Left office)
1848
Incumbent resigned to become U.S. Minister to Spain.
Winner elected December 5, 1853.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY John Slidell (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Alabama (Class 2: Late election)

The legislature failed to elect a Senator for the other seat, previously held by Jeremiah Clemens (Democratic). On November 29, 1853, Clement Claiborne Clay (Democratic) was finally elected late to the seat.

Alabama (Class 3: Special)

On December 20, 1852, Senator William R. King (Democratic) resigned due to poor health. On January 14, 1853, Benjamin Fitzpatrick (Democratic) was appointed to continue the term, and he was elected December 12, 1853 to finish the term.[2]

Connecticut

Senate (May 11, 1852)[3]

House (May 12, 1852)[4]

Massachusetts

Texas

Virginia

See also

References

  • Party Division in the Senate, 1789-Present, via Senate.gov
  • Byrd, Robert C. (October 1, 1993). Wolff, Wendy (ed.). "The Senate, 1789-1989: Historical Statistics, 1789-1992". United States Senate Historical Office (volume 4 Bicentennial ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  1. ^ Byrd, page 164
  2. ^ a b Byrd, page 76.
  3. ^ Journal of the Senate of the State of Connecticut, May session 1852, pages 41-42.
  4. ^ "Journal of the House of Representatives of the State of Connecticut (May session 1852)". pp. 54, 58.
This page was last edited on 8 July 2019, at 19:31
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