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1852 Democratic National Convention

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1852 Democratic National Convention
1852 presidential election
George Peter Alexander Healy - Franklin Pierce - Google Art Project.jpg
William Rufus DeVane King 1839 portrait.jpg
Nominees
Pierce and King
Convention
Date(s)June 1–5, 1852
CityBaltimore, Maryland
VenueMaryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts [above Centre ("Marsh") Market]
Candidates
Presidential nomineeFranklin Pierce of New Hampshire
Vice Presidential nomineeWilliam R. King of Alabama
‹ 1848  ·  1856 ›

The 1852 Democratic National Convention was a presidential nominating convention that met from June 1 to June 5 in Baltimore, Maryland. It was held to nominate the Democratic Party's candidates for president and vice president in the 1852 election. The convention selected former Senator Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire for president and Senator William R. King of Alabama for vice president.

Four major candidates vied for the presidential nomination- Lewis Cass of Michigan, the nominee in 1848, who had the backing of northerners in support of the Compromise of 1850; James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, popular in the South as well as in his home state; Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, candidate of the expansionists and the railroad interests; and William L. Marcy of New York, whose strength was centered in his home state. Cass led on the first nineteen ballots of the convention, but was unable to win the necessary two-thirds majority. Buchanan pulled ahead on the twentieth ballot, but he too was unable to win a two-thirds majority. Pierce won votes for the first time on the 35th ballot, and was nominated almost unanimously on the 49th ballot.

King was nominated on the second vice presidential ballot, defeating Senator Solomon W. Downs and several other candidates. The Democratic ticket went on to win the 1852 election, defeating the Whig ticket of Winfield Scott and William Alexander Graham.

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Transcription

NEXT, VISIT A PLACE WHERE THE ESSENCE OF AMERICA HAS BEEN BOTH FOUND AND FORMED. <i>WATCH OHIO: 200 YEARS,</i> THE SURPRISING STORY OF AN EXTRAORDINARY STATE. AS AN IMPORTANT PART OF OHIO'S PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE, KEY BANK IS A PROUD SPONSOR OF THIS DOCUMENTARY THAT PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS THAT HAVE HELPED OHIO ACHIEVE A RICH PLACE IN AMERICAN AND WORLD HISTORY. KEY. ACHIEVE ANYTHING. HONDA OF AMERICA MANUFACTURING-- OVER 20 YEARS IN OHIO AND PROUD TO BE PART OF SOMETHING GREATER: OHIO'S BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT FROM THE PEOPLE OF OHIO AND THE OHIO BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION. Man: "IF THERE BE A MATTER OF FACT PEOPLE ON THE EARTH, LOOK AT OHIO AND YOU SHALL SEE THEM. NO VISIONS HERE, NO POETRY HERE, ALL TABERNACLES OF THE FLESH, ALL STERN REALITIES." ISAAC JEWETT, 1831. John Grabowski: IS THERE AN OHIO IN OHIO? I THINK THERE ARE SEVERAL OHIOS IN OHIO. THOSE OUTSIDE OF THE STATE THINK, WELL, OHIO IS THE MIDWEST. AND TO SOME EXTENT THAT HOLDS TRUE. BUT THEN THERE'S THE OHIO OF CINCINNATI WHICH HAS A TINGE OF SOUTHERN CULTURE. THERE'S THE OHIO OF CLEVELAND BUILT BY THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE GREAT LAKES IN THE 19th CENTURY. Woman: CHILLICOTHE HAS ALWAYS BEEN A CENTER OF COMMERCE, OF AGRICULTURE. BOWLING GREEN IS A GIANT PRAIRIE WITH BUILDINGS ON IT. STEUBENVILLE, YOUNGSTOWN, BLUE COLLAR. TOLEDO, OF COURSE, IS A BLUE-COLLAR TOWN. DAYTON IS A CITY FOR WHICH THERE IS NO PLAUSIBLE REASON FOR IT TO EXIST. THERE'S NO GEOGRAPHICAL REASON WHY OHIO SHOULD EXIST AS A STATE. THERE'S NO NATURAL BOUNDARIES TO THE EAST AND THE WEST. THERE ARE FOUR OR FIVE PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS. George Knepper: OHIO HAS SEVEN MAJOR NEWSPAPERS, ALL OF THEM WELL OVER A HUNDRED YEARS OLD. ALL WITH THEIR OWN EDITORIAL OPINIONS. I CAN GO TO AKRON AND TELL A COUPLE OF GOODYEAR JOKES, BUT I CAN'T GO TO CINCINNATI AND SAY, SO, HOW ABOUT THAT VULCANIZED RUBBER, HUH? AM I RIGHT? Narrator: WHEN POLLSTERS WANT TO GET A GOOD CROSS-SECTION OF AMERICA, THEY GO TO OHIO. IT'S BOTH URBAN INDUSTRIAL AND COUNTRY AGRICULTURAL. WHERE ELSE BUT IN THE STATE OF OHIO ARE YOU GOING TO FIND THE POLKA HALL OF FAME AND THE SOFTBALL HALL OF FAME TOGETHER IN ONE BUILDING? [SPEAKING FOREIGN LANGUAGE] Narrator: JUST ABOUT EVERY ETHNIC GROUP IS AT HOME IN OHIO. IT'S THE EASTERN STATE WHERE ANNIE OAKLEY, ZANE GREY, HOPALONG CASSIDY AND ROY ROGERS WERE ALL BORN AND RAISED. Announcer: WELCOME TO THE CIRCLEVILLE PUMPKIN SHOW... Narrator: IT'S THE WESTERN STATE WHERE COMPANIES LIKE STANDARD OIL, GOODYEAR, GOODRICH, AND FIRESTONE BECAME INDUSTRIAL POWERS. OHIO HAS PRODUCED BOTH CHIEF TECUMSEH AND GENERAL GEORGE ARMSTRONG CUSTER; TYCOON JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER AND SOCIALIST NORMAN THOMAS; THE WOMANIZING DEAN MARTIN AND THE FEMINIST GLORIA STEINEM. THERE ARE SO MANY LITTLE OHIOS WITHIN THE STATE OF OHIO THAT YOU JUST CAN'T HAVE ONE FORMULA OR ONE APPROACH IF YOU WANT TO WIN THE STATE OF OHIO, WHICH MAKES OHIO AN INTERESTING CHALLENGE FOR ANY POLITICIAN. Narrator: IN SIZE, OHIO RANKS 35th AMONG THE STATES. IN POPULATION, IT RANKS 7th. WITH 21 VOTES IN THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE, OHIO MATTERS. John Glenn: THE GREAT STATE OF OHIO, THE BIRTHPLACE OF AVIATION AND MOTHER OF PRESIDENTS... Narrator: EACH TIME BILL CLINTON WENT AFTER THE DEMOCRATIC NOMINATION, HE CHOSE OHIO TO PUT HIM OVER THE TOP AT THE CONVENTION. John Glenn: ...CASTS EVERY ONE OF ITS VOTES FOR THE CURRENT AND NEXT PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, BILL CLINTON! [CROWD CHEERING] Interviewer: WHAT'S THE STATE NICKNAME? THE BUCKEYE STATE. (together) BUCKEYE STATE. OH YEAH, BUCKEYE, THAT I KNOW. John Freudenstein: THIS IS A BUCKEYE RIGHT HERE. WE CALL IT A NUT. IT'S IN FACT ACTUALLY A SEED. IT'S CALLED THE BUCKEYE BECAUSE OF ITS RESEMBLANCE TO, FOR SOME PEOPLE AT LEAST, TO THE EYE OF THE WHITETAIL DEER, WHICH WAS A NAME THAT THE EARLY COLONISTS GAVE TO IT HERE. IT'S NEVER BEEN CALLED THAT IN EUROPE, THE EUROPEAN SPECIES. SO THAT'S A UNIQUELY AMERICAN NAME. Narrator: IF THE BUCKEYE IS A VERY AMERICAN NAME, THE STATE IT SYMBOLIZES IS OFTEN SEEN AS THE MOST TYPICAL OF AMERICAN STATES. ITS HISTORY, FOR ONE THING, IS VERY MUCH THE STORY OF AMERICA. OHIO'S WHITE SETTLERS CREATED ABUNDANT FARMS IN THE WILDERNESS; IT BECAME VIOLENTLY DIVIDED OVER SLAVERY; IT INDUSTRIALIZED AT FULL TILT, GIVING BIRTH TO MONOPOLIES AND UNIONS, AND THEN THE IDEALISTIC MOVEMENT CALLED "TEMPERANCE." THE EXPLOSION CALLED "IMMIGRATION" WOULD CHANGE OHIO TIME AND TIME AGAIN. BUT IN THE BEGINNING, OHIO, LIKE ALL OF AMERICA, WAS AN INDIAN PLACE. Bradley Lepper: OHIO WAS A PARADISE FOR THE NATIVE AMERICAN PEOPLES. GAME, FISH IN THE STREAMS, FERTILE SOILS FOR GROWING THE CROPS THAT THE NATIVE AMERICANS GREW. GIGANTIC NUT TREES. THERE REALLY WOULD HAVE BEEN AN ABUNDANCE OF NATURAL RESOURCES. Narrator: 1670: THE FRENCH EXPLORE THE OHIO RIVER. 1788: FORTY-EIGHT HOMESTEADERS ESTABLISH MARIETTA, ONE OF THE FIRST PERMANENT WHITE SETTLEMENTS IN OHIO. Bradley Lepper: NATIVE AMERICANS REALLY WANTED TO FIGHT FOR THIS LAND. THE SHAWNEE, IN PARTICULAR, DIDN'T WANT PEOPLE CROSSING THE OHIO RIVER FROM KENTUCKY INTO THE OHIO VALLEY. ARTHUR ST. CLAIR WAS GOVERNOR OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES SENT INTO THIS AREA BY GENERAL WASHINGTON TO ELIMINATE THE NATIVE AMERICAN THREAT. HE LED AN ARMY UP THROUGH WESTERN OHIO. THAT ARMY WAS ANNIHILATED BY NATIVE AMERICAN FORCES LED BY LITTLE TURTLE. THE DEFEAT OF ST. CLAIR'S ARMY WAS A MUCH BIGGER DEFEAT OF THE AMERICAN ARMY THAN CUSTER'S LAST STAND. Narrator: BUT IT WOULD BE ONE OF THE LAST INDIAN VICTORIES IN OHIO COUNTRY. FOR 20 YEARS THE SHAWNEE CHIEF TECUMSEH WAGED AN UPHILL WAR AGAINST THE SETTLERS. HE WAS FINALLY KILLED IN BATTLE IN 1813. SOME SAY THAT HIS BODY WAS FLAYED BY THE AMERICANS, FOR SOUVENIRS. BUT A SHAWNEE LEGEND HOLDS OTHERWISE. Woman: "HIS NAME MEANT SHOOTING STAR. FROM MAD RIVER COUNTRY NORTH TO THE BORDER HE GATHERED THE TRIBES AND ARMED THEM ONE MORE TIME. HE VOWED TO KEEP OHIO AND IT TOOK HIM OVER TWENTY YEARS TO FAIL. AFTER THE BLOODY AND FINAL FIGHTING, AT THAMES, IT WAS OVER, EXCEPT HIS BODY COULD NOT BE FOUND. IT WAS NEVER FOUND, AND YOU CAN DO WHATEVER YOU WANT WITH THAT, SAY HIS PEOPLE CAME IN THE BLACK LEAVES OF THE NIGHT AND HAULED HIM TO A SECRET GRAVE, OR THAT HE TURNED INTO A LITTLE BOY AGAIN, AND LEAPED INTO A BIRCH CANOE AND WENT ROWING HOME DOWN THE RIVERS. ANYWAY, THIS MUCH I'M SURE OF: IF WE EVER MEET HIM, WE'LL KNOW IT, HE WILL STILL BE SO ANGRY." MARY OLIVER. Narrator: 1796: LAND IN NORTHEAST OHIO IS SURVEYED BY MOSES CLEAVELAND AND HIS CREW. THEY ARE SOON DRIVEN AWAY BY INSECTS AND DISEASE. MOSES CLEAVELAND NEVER RETURNS TO OHIO. 1797: JOHN YOUNG PURCHASES AN ENTIRE TOWNSHIP, MAPS IT, CALLS IT YOUNGSTOWN. OHIO WAS KIND OF THE CALIFORNIA OF THE 19th CENTURY. PEOPLE THOUGHT OF IT AS A LAND OF OPPORTUNITY. Priscilla Hewetson: ś COME ALL YOU BRISK YOUNG FELLOWS ś ś WHO HAVE A MIND TO ROAM... Narrator: 1803: OHIO BECOMES A STATE UNDER THE TERMS OF THE NORTHWEST ORDINANCE: NO SLAVERY ALLOWED. ś ...AND WE'LL SETTLE ON THE BANKS OF THE LOVELY OHIO ś ś AND WE'LL SETTLE ON THE BANKS OF THE LOVELY OHIO ś Andrew Cayton: IF YOU CAME TO OHIO IN 1803, YOU'D FIND PEOPLE FROM MASSACHUSETTS, PEOPLE FROM VIRGINIA, PEOPLE FROM SOUTH CAROLINA. Kathy Nelson: YOU HAD A HUGE POPULATION OF IRISH PEOPLE LIVING HERE, YOU HAD A HUGE POPULATION OF GERMANS LIVING HERE. OHIO HAS ALWAYS BEEN A STATE THAT HAS ATTRACTED A NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS. Narrator: 1813: COMMODORE OLIVER PERRY DEFEATS THE BRITISH FLEET AT THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE-- THE BRITISH NEVER RETURN TO OHIO. 1825: THE ERIE CANAL IN NEW YORK ALLOWS FARMERS TO LEAVE ROCKY NEW ENGLAND FOR THE MORE FERTILE LAND TO THE WEST. 1845: OHIO COMPLETES ITS OWN CANALS, INCLUDING TWO ENORMOUS WATERWAYS RUNNING FROM LAKE ERIE TO THE OHIO RIVER. IT'S JUST HARD TO IMAGINE THIS BEING DONE WITHOUT THE BULLDOZERS AND THE HUGE TRUCKS THAT WE HAVE NOW. THIS WAS HAND LABOR. THEY WERE BUILT ON BUDGET. AND THEY DID EXACTLY WHAT THEIR PROPONENTS SAID THEY WOULD DO IS THEY CREATED PROSPERITY. Narrator: SUDDENLY OHIO FARMERS COULD SELL THEIR CROPS FOR A WHOPPING PROFIT ALL ALONG THE EASTERN SEABOARD. THE STATE SOON LED THE NATION IN PRODUCING HORSES, SHEEP, WHEAT AND CORN. Ohio Village Singers: ś THERE ARE FISHES IN THE RIVER JUST FITTED FOR OUR USE ś Narrator: AND BY 1860 IT HAD ALMOST 3,000 MILES OF RAILROAD TRACK. ONCE ISOLATED, OHIO WAS NOW AT THE HEART AMERICAN COMMERCE. Ohio Village Singers: ś ...OF THE LOVELY OHIO ś WHEN WE SETTLE ON THE BANKS OF THE LOVELY OHIO ś Interviewer: WHAT'S THE STATE INSECT? THE STATE'S INSECT? IS IT THE DRAGONFLY? I'M AFRAID IT'S THE MOSQUITO. THE ANT. OH, THAT'S THE LADYBUG. YEAH. John Wenzel: MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE, NEW YORK, TENNESSEE, AND OHIO ALL HAVE THE LADYBUG AS THE STATE INSECT. THE ADULTS ARE THE ONES THAT EVERYBODY RECOGNIZES. THE LARVAE, THE IMMATURES, ARE THE ONES DOING THE ENORMOUS BENEFIT OF KILLING APHIDS. AND YOU SHOULD BE GLAD THAT LADYBUGS ARE SMALL, BECAUSE THEY ARE SUCH FEROCIOUS PREDATORS THAT IF THEY WERE THE SIZE OF PUPPIES YOU WOULDN'T WANT TO GO OUTSIDE. Narrator: FOR THE FIRST SIXTY YEARS OF THE 19th CENTURY THERE WAS ANOTHER PLACE WHERE CERTAIN OHIOANS WOULDN'T WANT TO GO-- JUST ACROSS THE OHIO RIVER. OHIO WAS FREE; KENTUCKY, ON THE SOUTH BANK, WAS A SLAVE STATE. THE JOURNEY NORTH ACROSS THE RIVER WAS FOR THOUSANDS A VOYAGE TOWARD FREEDOM. J. Lujuana Miller: THERE WERE SEVERAL PATHS THAT SLAVES TOOK AS THEY LEFT THE SOUTH. CROSSING THE OHIO RIVER INTO CINCINNATI WAS THE MOST HEAVILY TRAVELED ROUTE. IT IS ESTIMATED THAT SOME 30,000 PEOPLE CROSSED THE OHIO RIVER INTO CINCINNATI. IT WAS KNOWN AS CROSSING THE RIVER JORDAN INTO HEAVEN. THERE WERE MANY, MANY OTHER STATES THAT WERE INVOLVED IN THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. BUT OHIO WAS TRULY A KEY STATE IN THAT MOVEMENT. AND I DON'T THINK THERE'S A COUNTY IN OUR 88 COUNTIES THAT WAS NOT INVOLVED IN THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD. Narrator: IT WAS A RAILROAD WITHOUT TRAINS: THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD WAS A NETWORK OF PATHS, TRAILS, AND SAFE HOUSES. RUNAWAY SLAVES WERE CONDUCTED NORTHWARD IN PLODDING WAGONS, HIDDEN IN HAY, OR ON RELAYS OF FAST HORSES, TRAVELING BY NIGHT AND ALWAYS HIDING. OHIO WAS FREE, BUT IT WAS NO PARADISE FOR THE RUNAWAYS. OHIO HAD THE OHIO BLACK LAWS THAT MEANT THAT ONCE A SLAVE CROSSED OVER INTO OHIO THEY HAD TO PAY $500 TO THE GOVERNMENT TO SAY THAT THEY WERE GOING TO BE GOOD CITIZENS. THEY ALSO COULD NOT GO INTO COURT TO TESTIFY AGAINST A WHITE PERSON, AND THEY HAD TO CARRY FREE PAPERS WITH THEM ALL THE TIME. Christopher Gillcrest: SLAVES WOULD NOT BE FREE IN THE NORTHERN STATES, BUT THEY WOULD BE FREE IN CANADA. THE FINAL STOP ON THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD IS A SCHOONER OR STEAMER CROSSING LAKE ERIE. OUT SANDUSKY, OHIO, OUT OF HURON, OHIO, OUT OF PAINESVILLE, OHIO, CAPTAINS OF STEAMERS AND SCHOONERS WOULD HIDE SLAVES AWAY AND SAIL THEM ACROSS THE GREAT LAKES, LAKE ERIE, INTO CANADA WHERE THEY EVENTUALLY WERE FREE. Michael Follin: ś OH GIVE THE SLAVES THEIR FREEDOM ś ś YOU DO NO LONGER NEED THEM ś NO LONGER CLOTHE AND FEED THEM... ś Narrator: IT WAS AGAINST THE LAW TO HELP A SLAVE ESCAPE. BUT MANY PEOPLE WERE WILLING TO FACE THE RISK. ABOLITIONIST SOCIETIES FLOURISHED THROUGHOUT THE STATE. AND ON THE BANKS OF THE OHIO RIVER, IN THE SMALL TOWN OF RIPLEY, TWO MEN IN PARTICULAR FOUGHT SLAVERY-- ONE WHITE, AND ONE BLACK. REVEREND JOHN RANKIN WAS A PRESBYTERIAN MINISTER. HE LIVED FOR A TIME WITH HIS FAMILY RIGHT ON WHAT WE NOW CALL LIBERTY HILL. Edwin Rigaud: HE PROVIDED A SAFE HOUSE AT THE VERY TOP OF THE HILL. FROM KENTUCKY YOU CAN SEE THIS HOUSE FOR MILES. JOHN RANKIN WOULD PUT A LIGHT IN THE WINDOW TO GIVE THE SLAVES WHO WERE THINKING ABOUT ESCAPING THE SIGNAL THAT IT WAS SAFE TO CROSS AT THAT TIME AND HIS HOUSE WAS INDEED A SAFE HOUSE. Kathy Nelson: HE AND HIS WIFE AND HIS CHILDREN KEPT AT BAY BOUNTY HUNTERS AND MARSHALS AND SHERIFFS. HE HELPED THOUSANDS OF RUNAWAYS TO FREEDOM AND NEVER LOST ONE. Edwin Rigaud: THERE WAS ANOTHER LITTLE HOUSE ON THE RIVER DOWN FROM JOHN RANKIN'S HOME. IT BELONGED TO A FORMER SLAVE BY THE NAME OF JOHN PARKER. AND JOHN PARKER HAD PURCHASED HIS FREEDOM FOR $1,800, BUILT THIS HOUSE AND A FOUNDRY, AND RAN A VERY SUCCESSFUL BUSINESS. JOHN PARKER WOULD, WHENEVER HE COULD, CROSS THE RIVER TO KENTUCKY AND ACTUALLY HELP SLAVES COME OUT. HE IS LITERALLY HELPING RUNAWAYS OFF OF PLANTATIONS THERE IN KENTUCKY, GETTING THEM BACK TO RIPLEY AND SECRETING THEM UP TO PEOPLE LIKE REVEREND JOHN RANKIN UP ON THE HILL, OR OTHER LOCAL CONDUCTORS IN TOWN. Narrator: ONE NIGHT JOHN PARKER WENT DOWN THE OHIO TO RESCUE A YOUNG FAMILY IN KENTUCKY. BUT THE MARRIED COUPLE DID NOT WANT TO BE RESCUED. THIS MOTHER HAD A YOUNG INFANT AND AS A DETERRENT THE MASTER AND MISSIS WOULD OFTEN KEEP THE BABY IN A BUNDLE IN THEIR BED AT NIGHT. THEY KEPT A CANDLE AND A GUN BESIDE THE BED. PARKER ASSURED HER THAT HE WOULD GO IN THE HOUSE AND CREEP UP THE STEPS TO THE BEDROOM. HE MADE ONE LEAP FOR THE CHILD AND WAS GONE BEFORE THE MASTER COULD COME TO HIS SENSES AND REALIZE WHAT HAD HAPPENED. Narrator: A TEACHER AT THE WESTERN FEMALE INSTITUTE IN CINCINNATI HEARD MANY SUCH TRUE STORIES. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE LIVED IN OHIO FOR 17 YEARS; WHAT SHE SAW OF SLAVERY NEARBY, AND WHAT SHE HEARD FROM ESCAPED SLAVES, FORMED THE BACKGROUND OF A NOVEL. <i>UNCLE TOM'S CABIN, PUBLISHED IN 1852,</i> DID MORE THAN JUST SELL MILLIONS OF COPIES: IT INFLAMED BOTH NORTH AND SOUTH. PEOPLE IN THE NORTH HAD NO SENSE OF THE ATROCITIES OF SLAVERY. HER BOOK TOOK THE LID OFF SLAVERY, IF YOU WILL, AND IT ANGERED AN ENTIRE NATION. Narrator: "GOD WROTE THAT BOOK," HARRIET BEECHER STOWE SAID. "I MERELY TOOK HIS DICTATION." Kathy Nelson: I CROSS THE BRIDGE AND I GO OVER INTO KENTUCKY. I STAND ALONG THE EDGE OF THE RIVER FROM THE KENTUCKY SIDE. I CAN CLEARLY SEE THE LITTLE TOWN OF RIPLEY RIGHT IN VIEW. I CAN EVEN SEE THE LITTLE HOUSE ON THE HILL WHICH BELONGED TO REVEREND RANKIN. AND I OFTEN STAND THERE AND TRY TO IMAGINE WHAT A SLAVE WOULD HAVE SEEN WHILE HE OR SHE WOULD HAVE BEEN STANDING THERE. IF YOU CAN JUST GET ACROSS THAT RIVER YOU'LL FIND FREEDOM ON THE OTHER SIDE. MANY TRIED IT. MANY MADE IT. MANY DIDN'T. MANY DROWNED. MANY WERE TAKEN BACK. I TRY TO IMAGINE THE STRENGTH, THE COURAGE, THE DETERMINATION THEY HAD TO HAVE HAD JUST TO MAKE IT ACROSS THAT RIVER. AS MUCH AS I RESEARCH AND AS MUCH AS I READ, I STILL CANNOT FATHOM THAT JOURNEY. Narrator: THE ISSUE OF SLAVERY DIVIDED THE STATE, JUST AS IT DIVIDED AMERICA. BUT WHEN WAR CAME, NO LESS THAN THREE OUT OF EVERY FIVE MEN IN OHIO RISKED THEIR LIVES FOR THE UNION. John Fleischman: OHIO SENT 340,000 MEN TO THE CIVIL WAR, AND TEN PERCENT OF THEM DIED. THERE WERE ONLY 2.1 MILLION PEOPLE IN OHIO AT THE TIME SO PROPORTIONALLY WE SENT FAR MORE MANPOWER THAN ANY STATE IN THE UNION. WE WON THE CIVIL WAR. OHIO WON THE CIVIL WAR AND DOMINATED NATIONAL POLITICS TILL THE TURN OF THE CENTURY. Narrator: BETWEEN 1840 AND 1920, OHIO SENT EIGHT MEN TO THE WHITE HOUSE. FIVE OF THEM FOUGHT IN THE CIVIL WAR. David Leland: BILL CLINTON USED TO ALWAYS SAY THAT IF YOU FOUGHT IN THE WAR AS A UNION GENERAL AND YOU WERE FROM OHIO, YOU HAD A FIFTY-FIFTY CHANCE OF BEING ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. Narrator: THE OHIOAN WHO WON THAT WAR WAS ELECTED PRESIDENT IN 1868. HE WAS AN EXTRAORDINARY MAN, U.S. GRANT; HE JUST DIDN'T LOOK LIKE ONE. HE WAS DRESSED BADLY, SMOKED TOO MANY CIGARS, AND DRANK TOO MUCH WHISKEY. BUT HE HAD A BRILLIANT COMMAND OF STRATEGY AS A GENERAL, AND WROTE MEMOIRS THAT ARE AN AMERICAN LITERARY CLASSIC. Amos Loveday: GRANT'S THE MILITARY MAN WHO NEVER REALLY WANTED TO BE A POLITICIAN BUT IS THRUST INTO THAT OFFICE BY HIS FAME AT THE CIVIL WAR. HE CLEARLY DOESN'T HAVE THE ADMINISTRATIVE CAPABILITIES BECAUSE THE GRANT ADMINISTRATION IS SO TAKEN WITH SCANDAL. Narrator: GRANT SURROUNDED HIMSELF WITH SCOUNDRELS, AND STAYED LOYAL TO THEM-- THIS BLIND FAITH MADE HIS PRESIDENCY AS MUCH A FAILURE AS HIS MILITARY CAREER HAD BEEN A SUCCESS. RUTHERFORD HAYES, BENJAMIN HARRISON, JAMES GARFIELD AND WILLIAM McKINLEY WERE ALL FORMER SOLDIERS, ABLE LEADERS AND MODEST MEN. HAYES, A LAWYER FROM CINCINNATI, HATED THE IDEA OF FIGHTING THE SOUTH. "THE WAR IS FORCED ON US," HE WROTE. "WE CANNOT ESCAPE IT." BUT HE VOLUNTEERED, FOUGHT WITH BRAVERY, AND BECAME A MAJOR GENERAL. Neil Zurcher: HE'S BURIED UP IN FREMONT, THE HAYES PRESIDENTIAL CENTER. YOU SEE THIS HUGE PIECE OF GRANITE THAT SAYS RUTHERFORD B. HAYES ON IT. BUT JUST OVER THE EDGE OF THE IRON GATE IS A LITTLE BOULDER. IF YOU GO LOOK AT THAT IT SAYS "WHITEY, WAR HORSE." THAT WAS HIS HORSE THAT HE RODE IN THE CIVIL WAR. THOUGHT SO MUCH OF IT, HE BROUGHT IT BACK AND GAVE IT A HOME FOR THE REST OF ITS LIFE. Narrator: JAMES GARFIELD WAS A CLASSICS PROFESSOR AT HIRAM COLLEGE IN OHIO. THE WAR SCARRED HIM FOR LIFE. "AT THE SIGHT OF THESE DEAD MEN WHOM OTHER MEN HAD KILLED, SOMETHING WENT OUT OF ME THAT NEVER CAME BACK AGAIN," HE SAID. "THE SENSE OF THE SACREDNESS OF LIFE." JAMES GARFIELD WAS SHOT AND MORTALLY WOUNDED JUST FOUR MONTHS INTO HIS PRESIDENCY. John Fleischman: IF YOU GO TO ANTIETAM, MARYLAND, THERE'S A MONUMENT TO WILLIAM McKINLEY, AND IT SAYS THAT ON THE GLORIOUS DAY OF BATTLE SERGEANT McKINLEY, WHO WAS IN CHARGE OF THE COMMISSARY, BROUGHT HOT COFFEE AND FOOD TO THE TROOPS AND IN DOING SO PASSED UNDER FIRE. SO, THERE'S A MONUMENT TO A HOT CUP OF COFFEE AT THE BATTLE OF ANTIETAM. Narrator: WILLIAM McKINLEY CAMPAIGNED FOR THE WHITE HOUSE IN 1896 ON A PLATFORM THAT INCLUDED HIGH TARIFFS ON FOREIGN GOODS, GIVING AMERICAN COMMERCE WHAT IT MOST DESIRED: PROTECTION. Ohio Village Singers: ś NOW DUST OFF THAT OLD WHITE HOUSE CHAIR ś ś SING GLORY HALLELUJAH ś WE'LL PUT McKINLEY RIGHT DOWN THERE ś ś SING GLORY HALLELUJAH ś P-R-O "PRO," T-E-C "TEC" ś ś T-I-T-O-N "TION" ś PROTECTION, PROTECTION ś IT'S BOUND TO SAVE THE DAY, YES, YES ś ś PROTECTION, PROTECTION, IT'S BOUND TO SAVE THE DAY ś Interviewer: WHAT'S THE STATE FLOWER? THAT WOULD BE A CARNATION. MM-HMM. Interviewer: DO YOU KNOW WHY? THAT WOULD BE BECAUSE McKINLEY ALWAYS WORE ONE IN THE LAPEL OF HIS COAT. Neil Zurcher: THAT WAS HIS GOOD LUCK CHARM. AND UNFORTUNATELY, ON A DAY IN 1901 IN THE PAN AMERICAN EXPOSITION IN BUFFALO HE WAS AT THE TEMPLE OF MUSIC RECEIVING VISITORS, WHEN A LITTLE GIRL CAME UP TO HIM AND ASKED IF SHE COULD HAVE HIS CARNATION. AND HE TOOK THE CARNATION OFF AND HANDED IT TO HER. AND THEY SAY THAT THE VERY NEXT PERSON IN LINE WAS LEON CZOLGOSZ, WHO SHOT HIM AND ASSASSINATED HIM. Narrator: McKINLEY IS REMEMBERED FOR USHERING IN AN ERA OF AMERICAN INTERNATIONALISM AND PAVING THE WAY FOR YET ANOTHER OHIOAN IN THE WHITE HOUSE. YOU HAD TO HAVE OHIO TO WIN THE ELECTION. THE SOUTH WAS PRETTY MUCH EXCLUSIVELY DEMOCRATIC, OTHER STATES WERE PRETTY MUCH EXCLUSIVELY REPUBLICAN. OHIO COULD GO EITHER WAY. SO WHAT YOU DID WAS TO TRY AND PUT SOME LEADING POLITICIAN FROM OHIO ON THE TICKET. Newsreel announcer: THE ONCOMING TUG IS BEARING PRESIDENT WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, WHO IS MAKING AN INSPECTION OF THE PANAMA CANAL. HERE COMES THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE. TAFT PLAYED AN IMPORTANT PART IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE CANAL WHICH LATER PROVED ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST GIGANTIC ENGINEERING FEATS. Narrator: AS PRESIDENT, TAFT WAS AN ACCOMPLISHED TRUSTBUSTER, PRESIDING OVER THE BREAKUP OF STANDARD OIL AND THE AMERICAN TOBACCO COMPANY. HE WAS THE FIRST AND ONLY PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES TO BECOME CHIEF JUSTICE OF THE SUPREME COURT. THE LAST PRESIDENT FROM OHIO WAS WARREN G. HARDING. A NEWSPAPERMAN FROM MARION, OHIO, HARDING WAS THE FIRST U.S. PRESIDENT TO USE RADIO AND THE NEWSREELS TO HIS ADVANTAGE. David Leland: ONE OF THE REASONS THEY NOMINATED HIM WAS THAT HE WAS A HANDSOME FELLOW AND THAT THE 1920 ELECTION WAS GOING TO BE THE FIRST ELECTION THAT WOMEN WERE ACTUALLY GOING TO BE ABLE TO VOTE. HE WON HIS ELECTION BY A LANDSLIDE. Narrator: ONCE IN OFFICE, HARDING REVERSED WOODROW WILSON'S PRACTICE OF EXCLUDING AFRICAN-AMERICANS FROM FEDERAL JOBS, BUT THIS WOULD BE ONE OF THE FEW BRIGHT SPOTS IN HIS ADMINISTRATION. LIKE GRANT, HARDING APPOINTED CORRUPT ADVISORS. CALLED THE "OHIO GANG," THEY MADE A MUD HOLE OF BRIBERY OUT OF HIS ADMINISTRATION, WITH SCANDALS LIKE THE INFAMOUS TEAPOT DOME. HARDING SEEMED BARELY AWARE OF THE CORRUPTION. "I AM A MAN OF LIMITED TALENT FROM A SMALL TOWN," HE ONCE SAID. "I DON'T SEEM TO GRASP THAT I AM PRESIDENT." BUT HE WAS PRESIDENT, ELECTED IN 1920 OVER HIS FELLOW OHIOAN, JAMES COX. HARDING DIED IN OFFICE IN 1923. NO OHIOAN HAS BEEN ELECTED PRESIDENT SINCE. THE OHIO PRESIDENTS WERE ORDINARY MEN, BUT, AS A GROUP, THEY WERE PART OF A REMARKABLE TRANSFORMATION. IN 1868, THE UNITED STATES WAS A HOUSE DIVIDED. BY 1920, THAT SAME COUNTRY WAS THE MOST POWERFUL NATION IN THE WORLD. ORDINARY MEN, BUT PART OF AN EXTRAORDINARY HISTORY. Interviewer: WHAT'S THE STATE BEVERAGE? WELL, IT HAS TO BE BEER. OVALTINE. COLD WATER. COCA COLA. (together) TOMATO JUICE. Interviewer: HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT? Beauty Queen: BECAUSE WE'RE FROM THE REYNOLDSBURG TOMATO FESTIVAL AND WE MAKE THE BEST TOMATO PRODUCTS. Narrator: TOMATO JUICE IS IN FACT THE STATE BEVERAGE TODAY. BUT IN YEARS GONE BY, MANY, IF NOT MOST OHIOANS, HAD OTHER HABITS. Michelle Stecker: WHISKEY WAS THE DRINK OF CHOICE FOR FOLKS IN THE 19th CENTURY. ANY TIME YOU HAD A BARN RAISING OR ANY TYPE OF OUTDOOR ACTIVITY THERE WAS A BARREL OF WHISKEY. I'VE SEEN FIGURES FROM SOME OHIO COUNTIES, FOR EXAMPLE, THAT SUGGEST THAT THE ANNUAL RATE OF CONSUMPTION, MAN, WOMAN AND CHILD AND IT WAS HUGE. I MEAN, AT ONE POINT, I THINK IN ONE OF THE RURAL COUNTIES EAST OF HERE IT WAS LIKE TWELVE GALLONS A YEAR MAN, WOMAN AND CHILD. ś THERE'S SOMETHING WRONG AND EVERYBODY SEES IT ś ś AND ALONG WITH ALL THE WOMEN IN OHIO ś ś MOTHER'S GONE DOWN TO THE BEER SALOON TO PRAY ś Narrator: IN 1873, THE WOMEN OF SPRINGFIELD, OHIO, TOOK TO THE STREETS TO STOP THE DRINKING. HUNDREDS OF WOMEN WERE INVOLVED IN THE TEMPERANCE CRUSADE IN SPRINGFIELD. THEY WOULD GO OUT IN THE STREETS AND SALOONS AND PREACH AND SING HYMNS. THEY BELIEVED THAT WOMEN HAD A SPECIAL ROLE IN PURIFYING SOCIETY. SOME HISTORIANS SAY THAT IT WAS A FERVOR LEFT OVER FROM THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT, AFTER THE CIVIL WAR, THIS FERVOR, THIS IDEA YOU'RE GOING TO CHANGE THE COUNTRY. AND IN ONE LITTLE TOWN AFTER THE NEXT, THIS WOMAN'S CRUSADE PICKED UP STEAM AND THE NEXT THING YOU KNEW IT ENDED UP SWEEPING THE COUNTRY. Michelle Stecker: THE TEMPERANCE CRUSADE SHUT DOWN SALOONS. THERE WERE TOWNS THAT WENT COMPLETELY DRY. Ian Frazier: THE DISCIPLES OF CHRIST CHURCH WENT THROUGH A CONFLICT OVER WHETHER YOU SHOULD HAVE WINE AT COMMUNION. A DISCIPLE OF CHRIST SAID, "SHOULD WE USE AS A SYMBOL OF CHRIST'S BLOOD A LIQUID 13 PERCENT OF WHICH IS POISON?" Narrator: SOME 54,000 AMERICAN WOMEN PARTICIPATED IN THE NATIONAL TEMPERANCE CAMPAIGN IN THE 1870s-- ASTOUNDINGLY, WELL OVER HALF WERE FROM OHIO. THE WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION WAS FOUNDED IN CLEVELAND IN 1874. Andrew Cayton: OHIO WAS AS THOROUGHLY A MIDDLE CLASS STATE AS EXISTED IN THE UNITED STATES IN THE 19th CENTURY. AND SINCE THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT WAS PARTICULARLY STRONG AMONG MIDDLE-CLASS WOMEN, IT'S NO SURPRISE THAT OHIO WAS AT THE FOREFRONT OF THE MOVEMENT. Narrator: BUT OHIO'S MIDDLE CLASS WAS CHANGING. THE EARLY GERMAN AND IRISH IMMIGRANTS WERE FOLLOWED BY GROUPS FROM ALL ACROSS EUROPE. BY THE LATE 19th CENTURY, NEARLY HALF THE POPULATION OF BOTH CLEVELAND AND CINCINNATI WAS FOREIGN-BORN. Laura Pulfer: AMERICA WAS THE PROMISED LAND. MY GRANDFATHER CAME TO THIS COUNTRY, LANDED ON ELLIS ISLAND, AND HE WAS ITALIAN. WHEN HE GOT TO NEW YORK IT WAS CROWDED AND DIFFICULT. HE IMMIGRATED TO OHIO. AND OHIO BECAME THE MOST PROMISED OF THE PROMISED LAND. OHIO, AFTER THE CIVIL WAR, WAS ONE OF THE MOST RAPIDLY INDUSTRIALIZING AND URBANIZING REGIONS OF THE COUNTRY. OLD INDUSTRIES JUST EXPLODED WITH NEW GROWTH. THEN A WHOLE HOST OF NEW INDUSTRIES AROSE. Narrator: THE BOOMING NEW INDUSTRIES INCLUDED GOODRICH, GOODYEAR, FIRESTONE, SIEBERLING, LIBBEY GLASS, QUAKER OATS, REPUBLIC STEEL IN YOUNGSTOWN, TOLITE IN TOLEDO. Timothy Messer-Kruse: AUTOLITE WAS THE MICROSOFT OF THE 1920s, THE DYNAMIC CUTTING-EDGE VENTURE CAPITAL COMPANY THAT WAS SHOWING TREMENDOUS SUCCESS. Narrator: BUT LIKE MANY COMPANIES, AUTOLITE HAD SOME PRIMITIVE PRACTICES WHEN IT CAME TO LABOR. EVEN IN BOOM TIMES THERE WAS NO JOB PROTECTION; WORKERS COULD GET FIRED FOR ANY REASON-- OR FOR NO REASON. CONDITIONS DID NOT GET BETTER WHEN TIMES GOT WORSE. THE GREAT DEPRESSION COMPLETELY DEVASTATED TOLEDO. Timothy Messer-Kruse: THE AUTO PLANTS BEGAN LAYING PEOPLE OFF BY THE THOUSANDS. ALL THE BANKS FAILED IN 1931. MOST PEOPLE LOST NOT ONLY THEIR JOBS BUT THEIR SAVINGS. WHEREVER YOU FIND WORKERS WHO ARE EXPERIENCING WRENCHING CHANGE IN THE MASS PRODUCTION FACTORY YOU'RE GOING TO FIND A LABOR MOVEMENT. Narrator: LABOR UNIONS BEGAN IN OHIO AS EARLY AS 1813. THE AFL WAS FOUNDED IN COLUMBUS IN 1886, THE UNITED MINE WORKERS IN THE SAME CITY IN 1890. IN TOLEDO, UNIONS HAD RELATIVELY LITTLE SUCCESS. BUT IN THE SPRING OF 1934, MASSIVE LAYOFFS CHISELED A CRACK IN THE SOLID ANTI-UNION WALL. Timothy Messer-Kruse: A FEW INSIDE ORGANIZERS BEGIN RECRUITING FELLOW WORKERS TO SIGN UP TO THE UNION. THEY HAD ORGANIZED MAYBE A THIRD OF THE WORKERS AT THE PLANT. THEY WENT ON STRIKE AND WITHIN A FEW DAYS THE STRIKE WAS AN UTTER FAILURE. Narrator: THERE WERE MANY SCABS EAGER TO TAKE PLACES THAT STRIKERS VACATED. THE STRIKE WAS DOOMED. BUT ITS FAILURE, ODDLY, WAS NOT THE END. THE UNION GOT SOME UNEXPECTED HELP-- FROM THE COMMUNITY AT LARGE. Timothy Messer-Kruse: THE LUCAS COUNTY UNEMPLOYED LEAGUE, UNAFFILIATED WITH THE AUTOLITE PLANT, BEGAN TO ORGANIZE PICKETS, BEGINNING WITH A FEW HUNDRED EVERY DAY, DOUBLING, TRIPLING THE NUMBERS UNTIL THEY WERE ABLE TO MOBILIZE UPWARDS OF 10,000 PEOPLE. AT THAT POINT THE PICKET LINE BECAME EFFECTIVE. AT THAT POINT THE STRIKE WAS NEAR WINNING. Narrator: AT THAT POINT, THE STRIKE BEGAN TO RESEMBLE A WAR. THE COMPANY HIRED A SMALL ARMY OF GUN-TOTING PINKERTON DETECTIVES. AND IN THE LARGEST PEACETIME MOBILIZATION IN OHIO'S ENTIRE HISTORY, THE STATE CALLED IN THE NATIONAL GUARD. BRUTAL FIGHTING BROKE OUT ON THE PICKET LINE. TWO STRIKERS DIED. TWO HUNDRED MORE WERE INJURED. AFTER SIX WEEKS OF VIOLENCE, THE STRIKE WAS FINALLY SETTLED. THE STRIKERS WON UNION RECOGNITION, A SMALL INCREASE IN PAY, AND A LARGE MEASURE OF NOTORIETY. Timothy Messer-Kruse: WELL, THE AUTOLITE STRIKE VERY QUICKLY LEADS TO THE ORGANIZATION OF UNIONS AT ALL OTHER MASS PRODUCTION PLANTS IN THE CITY OF TOLEDO. IT INSPIRES WORKERS ALL ACROSS AMERICA TO TRY THE SAME THING. IF WORKERS IN A PLANT LIKE AUTOLITE IN TOLEDO CAN WIN A CONTRACT FROM A POWERFUL CORPORATION, WHY CAN'T WE? Newsreel announcer: THAT'S JOHNNY CHONKO ON THE SNORT VALVE CONTROLLING THE BLAST. MIKE KUBINSKI IS THE HEADMAN ON THE SHIFT. EARL STRONG IS HIS ASSISTANT. MIKE'S PEOPLE CAME HERE FROM CZECHOSLOVAKIA; EARL'S ANCESTORS CAME FROM ENGLAND. FRANK CAME HERE FROM ITALY 45 YEARS AGO; JOHN CAME HERE FROM CROATIA. Narrator: 1920: CLEVELAND'S POPULATION NOW INCLUDES 46,000 CZECHS, 19,000 SLOVENES, 19,000 SLOVAKS, AND 49,000 POLES. YOUNGSTOWN IS 60 PERCENT FOREIGN-BORN. SOON THEREAFTER, A NEW KIND OF IMMIGRATION BEGINS: A WAVE OF AFRICAN AMERICANS COMES UP FROM THE SOUTH. BY 1930, CLEVELAND IS KNOWN AS "ALABAMA NORTH." Spencer Crew: AFRICAN AMERICANS CAME NORTH LOOKING FOR OPPORTUNITY JUST LIKE OTHER GROUPS WHO CAME FROM EUROPE OR OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD CAME HERE LOOKING FOR OPPORTUNITY, JUST AS RURAL WHITES FROM THE SOUTH CAME NORTH TO OHIO TO FIND NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND NEW POSSIBILITIES. Narrator: IN THE THIRTIES, OHIO'S POPULATION INCLUDED 390,000 PEOPLE BORN IN THE APPALACHIAN PARTS OF TENNESSEE, KENTUCKY, AND WEST VIRGINIA. AKRON BEGAN TO BE CALLED "THE CAPITAL OF WEST VIRGINIA." Katie Laur: I WAS BORN IN THE SOUTH, MY FAMILY MOVED NORTH BECAUSE THAT'S WHERE THE MONEY WAS, THAT'S WHAT WE HAD HEARD. WE HAD FRIENDS AND RELATIVES THERE. I EVENTUALLY FOUND MY WAY TO CINCINNATI. IT'S A HANDY PLACE TO BE IF YOU'RE A SOUTHERNER BECAUSE YOU'RE NOT THAT FAR FROM HOME. Newsreel announcer: CINCINNATI, QUEEN CITY ON THE MIGHTY OHIO RIVER, AND SOUTHERN CITADEL OF THE STATE. ANOTHER GREAT AMERICAN AIRWAYS CITY IS CLEVELAND, CHIEF PORT OF ENTRY OF THE GREAT LAKES. Spencer Crew: MY FAMILY WOUND UP IN CLEVELAND, OHIO, WITH THE OLDEST CHILDREN GETTING THERE FIRST AND THEN FINALLY THE MOTHER AND THE FATHER AND THE YOUNGER CHILDREN FOLLOWING. AND THEY'VE BEEN IN CLEVELAND PRETTY MUCH SINCE THE 1920s AND IT'S SORT OF BEEN HOME FOR ALL OF US FOR A LONG TIME. WE COME HERE BECAUSE HERE THERE ARE A LOT OF SOMALIS, ALMOST 20,000, 30,000 SOMALIS. THAT'S WHY WE'RE MOVING HERE. ORIGINALLY WE'RE FROM SOMALIA. COLUMBUS, AS YOU SAID, IT'S AN IMMIGRANT CITY, AND PEOPLE COME HERE AT DIFFERENT TIMES. THE GERMANS AND THE IRISH AND THE SCANDINAVIANS, THEY USED TO COME DIFFERENT TIMES. AND WE ARE THE NEW FACES OF THE CITY. Maryan Warsame: WE LIKE TO CONTRIBUTE WHEREVER WE GO, AND IT SHOWS TO YOU LESS THAN THREE YEARS HOW MANY SHOPS, HOW MANY STORES, HOW MANY BUSINESSES THAT SOMALI PEOPLE CONTRIBUTED. PLEASE ACCEPT US AS WE ARE, BEFORE LOOKING AT OUR HAIR COVERS, BEFORE LOOKING AT OUR COLOR, OR OUR BIG ACCENT. WE ARE HERE. WE ARE HAPPY THAT WE ARE AMERICAN. Teacher: YOU ARE WRITING ENGLISH. August Pust: IF YOU WANT TO REALLY STUDY ETHNICITY THERE IS NO BETTER PLACE IN AMERICA BUT HERE IN OHIO. THIS IS WHERE THE BASE WAS, THE SURVIVAL SHIP OF ETHNICITY. LIKE IN EUROPE THERE WERE WARS, FIRST, SECOND WARS, ALL TYPES OF MASSACRES AROUND THE WORLD, ETHNIC CLEANSING. HERE WE SURVIVED; NOT ONLY THAT, BUT WE SURVIVED TOGETHER. WE ARE A MULTITUDE OF CULTURES AND PEOPLE. AND WHEN YOU LOOK AT ME AND YOU HEAR ME DO THIS SONG, IF IT RAISES ANY SENSE OF PRIDE WITHIN YOU MY JOB IS DONE, I THINK. BECAUSE YOU SEE SOMEONE THAT LOOKS LIKE ME DELIVERING OUR SONG, THE COUNTRY'S SONG. ś O SAY, CAN YOU SEE ś BY THE DAWN'S EARLY LIGHT ś WHAT SO PROUDLY... Narrator: FOR TWO CENTURIES, THE SUCCESSIVE WAVES OF IMMIGRATION HAD PEOPLED OHIO, JUST AS THEY HAD AMERICA. BUT OHIO HAS DONE MORE THAN SIMPLY FOLLOW THE GRAND MOVEMENTS AND LARGE-SCALE DESIGN OF AMERICAN HISTORY. FROM THE LATE 19th CENTURY ON, THE STATE BEGAN TO HELP CREATE THAT HISTORY-- AND THE AMERICA WE HAVE TODAY. Newsreel announcer: OHIO HAS MANY FAMOUS NATIVE SONS, AMONG THEM THOMAS A. EDISON. TODAY, EDISON'S GENIUS IS APPROPRIATELY REFLECTED BY THE WORLD'S LARGEST LIGHT BULB, HERE SHOWN IN CLEVELAND'S GENERAL ELECTRIC LIGHTING INSTITUTE. Narrator: THOMAS ALVA EDISON, BORN IN MILAN, OHIO, IS A FAMILIAR AMERICAN ICON-- THE MAN RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LIGHT BULB, THE PHONOGRAPH, THE MOTION-PICTURE CAMERA. BUT OTHER OHIOANS HAVE CREATED AN AMAZING AMOUNT OF THE TECHNOLOGY WE USE EVERY DAY. Newsreel announcer: GOODYEAR'S STRIKING NEW PRODUCT, PLIOFILM, IS PUT TO A NEW USE BY THE MANUFACTURERS AND BROUGHT TO YOUR ATTENTION BY SOME BEAUTIFUL GOODYEAR GIRLS. INTO PLIOFILM BAGS, MILADY PUTS HER SWIMSUIT... Narrator: LET'S TAKE YOUR HOUSE. IN THE KITCHEN, OHIO INVENTIONS ARE EVERYWHERE-- THE PAPER BAG, THE GALLON MILK JUG, CRISCO, QUAKER OATS, THE FREON IN YOUR REFRIGERATOR, THE FORMICA ON YOUR COUNTER. IN YOUR BABY'S BEDROOM, PLAY-DOH AND DISPOSABLE DIAPERS, FROM OHIO. YOU HAVE A VACUUM CLEANER AND A STEPLADDER--OHIO-- LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS ILLUMINATE YOUR DIGITAL WATCH AND POCKET CALCULATOR--OHIO. IN THE DRIVEWAY THERE ARE TUBELESS TIRES, WINDSHIELD WIPERS, SHOCK ABSORBERS, SAFETY GLASS-- ALL FROM OHIO. [GUNSHOT] Narrator: THE BULLETPROOF VEST AND THE GAS MASK WERE DEVELOPED IN OHIO. OF COURSE THIS WAS AFTER DR. RICHARD GATLING OF CINCINNATI HAD INVENTED THE FIRST MACHINE GUN. OHIOANS INVENTED THE BAR CODE, THE SWITCHBOARD, THE POP TOP, READY MIX CEMENT. FIBERGLASS COMES FROM TOLEDO, ROLLED SHEET METAL FROM MIDDLETOWN. BUT THE GEOGRAPHICAL HEART OF OHIO'S INVENTIVE SPIRIT WAS DAYTON. IN 1880 THE U.S. PATENT OFFICE DETERMINED THAT DAYTON RELATIVE TO POPULATION PRODUCED THE THIRD MOST PATENTS OF ANY CITY IN THE COUNTRY. AND BY 1900 IT RANKED FIRST. AND IT RANKED FIRST, INCIDENTALLY, BEFORE THE AUTO INVENTOR CHARLES KETTERING CAME ALONG. Narrator: CHARLES KETTERING WAS A GENIUS, PURE AND SIMPLE. IN 1908, HE WAS MOONLIGHTING IN A BARN BEHIND HIS HOUSE, WORKING ON A KNOTTY PROBLEM CALLED THE "AUTOMOBILE." Mark Bernstein: IN 1908 AN AUTOMOBILE DIDN'T WORK VERY WELL. TO START IT YOU HAD TO CRANK IT BY HAND. THE IGNITION SYSTEM RAN OFF A BATTERY, WHICH WOULD BE DEPLETED QUITE RAPIDLY. AND THE HEADLIGHTS WERE ACETYLENE LAMPS USED BY MINERS AT THE TIME. KETTERING TOOK THOSE THREE PROBLEMS AND CAME UP WITH ONE SOLUTION WHICH WAS THE INTEGRATED STARTING LIGHTING IGNITION SYSTEM, WHICH YOUR CAR HAS TODAY. Narrator: KETTERING'S UNIFIED SYSTEM STARTED THE CAR, LIT THE LIGHTS AND IGNITED THE GAS, ALL AT ONCE. AND IT DID SOMETHING THAT WAS EVEN MORE REVOLUTIONARY. HOW SHALL WE PHRASE THIS ONE? MIDDLE CLASS WOMEN IN 1908 WERE NOT SUPPOSED TO BE MECHANICALLY VERSED. IF A CAR WAS GOING TO BE HAND CRANKED, THEN IT WAS NOT GOING TO BE DRIVEN BY A WOMAN. THE SELF STARTER COULD ALLOW A CAR TO BE DRIVEN BY ANYONE. Narrator: KETTERING HAD INVENTED THE SOCCER MOM. BUT HE WASN'T QUITE DONE. HE DEVELOPED THE FIRST GUIDED MISSILE, THEN WENT ON TO OVERSEE THE INVENTION OF MODERN REFRIGERATION, BALLOON TIRES, THE HIGH COMPRESSION ENGINE, AND HIGH-OCTANE GAS. IN ONE QUIET LIFETIME THIS OHIOAN HAD DONE AS MUCH AS ANYONE TO DRIVE AMERICA INTO THE AGE WE LIVE IN NOW-- THE AGE OF THE AUTOMOBILE. Narrator: LIKE KETTERING, JOHN H. PATTERSON WAS FROM DAYTON. LIKE KETTERING, HE WOULD HAVE A GREAT-- AND GREATLY UNACKNOWLEDGED-- EFFECT ON OUR WORLD. HE'S OFTEN REMEMBERED NOW BECAUSE HE WAS ODD... VERY ODD. HE WAS NUTS. PATTERSON TOOK FOUR BATHS A DAY. AND THEY WERE TIMED BATHS. HE WOULD TAKE A TEN-MINUTE BATH, A TWELVE-MINUTE BATH, AN EIGHT-MINUTE BATH. HE WORE UNDERWEAR MADE FROM POOL TABLE FELT AND HE SLEPT WITH HIS HEAD HANGING OFF THE SIDE OF THE BED BECAUSE IF YOU SLEPT LIKE A NORMAL PERSON YOU WOULD USE UP ALL THE OXYGEN NEAR YOU AND YOU WOULD DIE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT, WITHOUT EVEN GETTING REVENGE ON ALL THE PEOPLE YOU PLANNED TO GET REVENGE ON THE FOLLOWING DAY. Narrator: PATTERSON WAS FAR FROM THE CORPORATE TYPE-- YET HE WOULD CHANGE THE WAY CORPORATIONS EVERYWHERE WOULD DO BUSINESS. Mark Bernstein: IN 1884, PATTERSON WAS NEARLY BANKRUPT AND NEARING 40, HE SPENT $6,500 TO ACQUIRE THE RIGHTS TO A DEVICE KNOWN AS A CASH REGISTER, WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN VALUABLE HAD ANYONE AT THE TIME WANTED ONE, WHICH NO ONE DID. Narrator: THE YEAR HE BOUGHT THE COMPANY, NATIONAL CASH REGISTER SOLD ABOUT 300 MACHINES. ITS BANK BALANCE? 91 CENTS. Mark Bernstein: PATTERSON WAS PERSUADED THAT THE CASH REGISTER WAS THE GREATEST MACHINE EVER INVENTED, AND THAT PEOPLE WOULD BUY IT IF ONLY THEY KNEW ABOUT IT. SO HE INVENTED DIRECT MAIL ADVERTISING. HE WROTE OUT TWELVE SEPARATE ADVERTISEMENTS ON THE MARVELS OF THE CASH REGISTER, GOT TOGETHER A LIST OF 5,000 PROSPECTS, AND MAILED EVERYBODY ON THE LIST ONE OF THE SHEETS EVERY DAY FOR TWO WEEKS, NOT COUNTING SUNDAYS. HE OPENED THE FIRST SALES TRAINING FORCE, ESTABLISHED THE FIRST SALES TERRITORIES. SALESMEN WERE SUPPOSED TO DRESS WITH A SORT OF FASHIONABLE DIGNITY. NO CIGARS. NO BACKSLAPPING. NO FEET ON THE COUNTER. THEY WERE TO BE ALL BUSINESS. Narrator: HIS SALES TECHNIQUES WORKED. OVER THE NEXT TWO DECADES, NCR WOULD SELL AN AVERAGE OF 50,000 MACHINES A YEAR. Mark Bernstein: PATTERSON CREATED IN DAYTON WHAT HE MODESTLY CALLED THE MODEL FACTORY OF THE WORLD. HIS EMPLOYEES HAD PROFIT SHARING, FREE MEDICAL CARE AND DENTAL CARE. EVERY SIX MONTHS EVERYONE WHO WORKED AT NCR WAS WEIGHED, AND IF THEY WERE UNDERWEIGHT, A GLASS OF MALTED MILK WAS BROUGHT TO THEIR WORKPLACE EVERY MORNING UNTIL THEIR WEIGHT CAME UP TO THE NUMBER PATTERSON THOUGHT IT SHOULD BE. Narrator: BUT PATTERSON STILL HAD CERTAIN TICS. ONE OF THEM WAS THE OVERWHELMING IMPULSE TO FIRE PEOPLE. AT ONE TIME, CHARLES KETTERING HAD WORKED FOR PATTERSON. PATTERSON FIRED HIM SIX TIMES. ONE EXECUTIVE LEARNED HE WAS FIRED WHEN HE SAW HIS DESK BEING BURNT ON THE LAWN. THERE WAS A SAYING ABOUT PATTERSON THAT HE FIRED SOME PEOPLE BECAUSE THEY BORED HIM, SOME PEOPLE BECAUSE THEY THREATENED HIM AND SOME JUST FOR PRACTICE. ONE OF THE PEOPLE THAT COLONEL PATTERSON HIRED WAS A GUY NAMED THOMAS WATSON. AND HE WAS AN UP-AND-COMER OF NCR AND FINALLY THE COLONEL DECIDED HE DIDN'T HAVE WHAT IT TAKES SO WATSON WENT AND FOUNDED A COMPANY CALLED IBM. Newsreel announcer: DAYTON, OHIO-- WORKERS BACK ON THE JOB AT THE NATIONAL CASH REGISTER COMPANY, PRODUCING AT FULL CAPACITY. Narrator: PATTERSON ALWAYS KEPT A LIST IN HIS OFFICE: "THINGS TO DO IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS BY MR. PATTERSON." HIS CHORES INCLUDED: "HELP OTHER NATIONS GET OFF THEIR FEET," "STOP SOCIAL DISEASE," "BETTER LAWS," "LESS SNOBBERY." IN 1922, PATTERSON DIED AT 78, WITHOUT ACCOMPLISHING THESE LOFTY GOALS. BUT HE HAD CHANGED THE CORPORATION IN AMERICA-- THE WAY IT SOLD THINGS, THE WAY IT TREATED EMPLOYEES. JOHN H. PATTERSON CREATED THE FORERUNNER OF THE MODERN COMPANY, AND HE DID IT IN DAYTON, OHIO. Mark Bernstein: OHIO IS A KIND OF EARTH-BOUND PLACE, YOU KNOW. IT'S AGRICULTURAL, AND IT'S JUST THERE. AND YET FOR SOME REASON IT HAS BEEN THE BIRTHPLACE OF AVIATION. Ian Frazier: THE FIRST MAN TO FLY, THE FIRST AMERICAN TO ORBIT THE EARTH, AND THE FIRST MAN TO STEP ON THE MOON, THEY'RE ALL FROM OHIO, ALL THREE. Man: "IF I WERE GIVING A YOUNG MAN ADVICE AS TO HOW HE MIGHT SUCCEED IN LIFE, I WOULD SAY TO HIM, PICK OUT A GOOD FATHER AND MOTHER, AND BEGIN LIFE IN OHIO." WILBUR WRIGHT. Narrator: ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT, THE BACHELOR SONS OF A BISHOP OF THE UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH, GREW UP IN DAYTON, AND RAN A MODEST BICYCLE SHOP THERE. John Fleischman: THEY COME OUT OF THIS 19th CENTURY TRADITION OF "YOU CAN DO ANYTHING." THEY DECIDE AROUND 1900 THAT THEY'RE GOING TO FIND OUT HOW TO FLY. THEY'RE GOING TO READ ALL THE AVAILABLE LITERATURE AND LEARN HOW TO FLY. THERE ARE THREE PROBLEMS THAT HAVE TO BE SOLVED BEFORE YOU CAN FLY. YOU HAVE TO DESIGN A WING FOR LIFT, YOU HAVE TO DESIGN A SYSTEM OF CONTROL, AND YOU HAVE TO DESIGN AN ENGINE FOR PROPULSION. PRIOR TO THE WRIGHTS, NO ONE HAD GOTTEN ANYWHERE ON THESE PROBLEMS. THE WRIGHTS SOLVED ALL THREE IN FIFTY-FOUR MONTHS WORKING PART TIME FOR UNDER $900. Man: "WE WORKED OUT A THEORY AND SOON DISCOVERED, AS WE USUALLY DO, THAT ALL THE PROPELLERS BUILT HERETOFORE ARE ALL WRONG. AND THEN WE BUILT A PAIR OF PROPELLERS BASED ON OUR THEORY, WHICH ARE ALL RIGHT." ORVILLE WRIGHT. Mark Bernstein: PRIOR TO THE WRIGHTS, NO ONE DID ANYTHING CORRECTLY AND AFTER THEM NO ONE DID ANYTHING DIFFERENTLY. NO AIRPLANE HAS LEFT THE GROUND EXCEPT BY THE SYSTEMS AND DESIGNS BASICALLY ESTABLISHED BY ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT. KITTY HAWK, NORTH CAROLINA, IS OBVIOUSLY WHERE THE FIRST FLIGHT OCCURRED. THE WRIGHT BROTHERS FLEW AT KITTY HAWK IN 1903, BUT THEY FLEW 125 FEET AND BASICALLY CRASHED THE PLANE. AND THEN THEY CAME BACK TO DAYTON AND THEN THEY REALLY INVENTED THE PLANE. Narrator: IN DAYTON ON SEPTEMBER 20, 1904, WILBUR FLEW THE FIRST CONTROLLED CIRCLE EVER MADE BY AN AIRPLANE. A YEAR LATER, THEY COULD KEEP THEIR PLANE ALOFT FOR 38 MINUTES. John Fleischman: THE DAYTON NEWSPAPERS DID NOT REPORT THIS. THE MANAGING EDITOR OF ONE OF THE DAYTON NEWSPAPERS SAID THEIR FATHER, BISHOP WRIGHT, WAS REALLY WORRIED THAT THE BOYS WERE LETTING THEIR BICYCLE BUSINESS GO TO HELL. Narrator: IT WASN'T LONG BEFORE THE WRIGHTS HAD COMPANY IN THE AIR ABOVE OHIO. AMERICA'S FIRST AIR FREIGHT TOUCHED DOWN IN COLUMBUS IN 1910; THE FIRST CROP DUSTER DRONED OVER TROY IN 1921. THE AKRON RUBBER COMPANIES JUMPED INTO THE PRODUCTION OF DIRIGIBLES; BUT A SERIES OF SPECTACULAR CRASHES DOOMED THE BLIMP-- EXCEPT, OF COURSE, FOR THE PROMOTIONAL GOODYEAR BLIMP OF TODAY. IN THE LATE 1950s, AN AKRON ENGINEER DESIGNED THE FIRST PRESSURIZED SPACE SUIT, BASED ON THE FLEXIBLE ANATOMY OF THE TOMATO WORM. IN FEBRUARY 1962, AN OHIOAN WORE SUCH A SUIT AS HE ORBITED THE EARTH. Ed Herlihy: THE RETURN OF A CONQUERING HERO. THE FAMILY OF THE MAN OF THE HOUR. Narrator: TO MILLIONS, JOHN GLENN EXEMPLIFIED WHAT WAS GOOD ABOUT AMERICA. HE WAS AN HONOR STUDENT FROM NEW CONCORD, OHIO, A THREE-SPORT LETTERMAN, PRESIDENT OF HIS CLASS. Astronaut: OK, ENGINES STOPPED. <i>HOUSTON, TRANQUILLITY BASE HERE. THE EAGLE HAS LANDED.</i> Houston: ROGER, TRANQUILLITY, WE COPY YOU ON THE GROUND... Narrator: IN 1969, ANOTHER OHIO NATIVE-- NEIL ARMSTRONG, FROM WAPAKONETA-- STEPPED ONTO THE MOON. Neil Armstrong: THAT'S ONE SMALL STEP FOR MAN, ONE GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND. Ian Frazier: WHAT IS HARDER THAN THINKING UP SOMETHING INTERESTING TO SAY AS YOU'RE HEADING TO THE MOON? AND HE THOUGHT IT UP HIMSELF, YOU KNOW. ONE SMALL STEP FOR MAN, ONE GIANT LEAP FOR MANKIND. THAT'S A GREAT THING TO THINK OF ON TOP OF EVERYTHING ELSE YOU HAVE TO DO FLYING TO THE MOON. Narrator: BACK ON EARTH, NEIL ARMSTRONG SAID, "I'M AFRAID I DID A GREAT MANY ORDINARY THINGS." [APPLAUSE] Carl Stokes: SO LET ME THANK ALL OF YOU FOR COMING OUT TODAY. Narrator: ARMSTRONG'S MOONWALK WAS NOT THE ONLY EXTRAORDINARY EVENT IN OHIO IN THE 1960s. IN 1967, CLEVELAND ELECTED CARL STOKES; HE WAS THE FIRST AFRICAN-AMERICAN MAYOR EVER IN A MAJOR AMERICAN CITY. BUT ANOTHER PLACE IN NORTHEASTERN OHIO WOULD BE REMEMBERED FOREVER FOR A MOMENT WHEN POLITICS TURNED INTO TRAGEDY. IN APRIL 1970, STUDENTS AT KENT STATE UNIVERSITY GATHERED TO PROTEST THE EXPANDING WAR IN VIETNAM. Protestor: THAT'S THE POINT! LET'S GO OUT ON CAMPUS, LET'S START RAPPING, LET'S START GETTING IN THE DORMS AND ALL THOSE BOARDING HOUSES AND BRING EVERYBODY OUT... Narrator: WHEN THE CAMPUS ROTC BUILDING BURNED, GOVERNOR JAMES RHODES CALLED OUT THE NATIONAL GUARD. ON MAY 4th, HUNDREDS OF DEMONSTRATORS FACED OFF AGAINST 113 GUARDSMEN. THE STUDENTS THREW ROCKS; THE SOLDIERS RESPONDED WITH TEAR GAS. THE PROTESTORS MOVED FORWARD; THE GUARDSMEN RETREATED-- THEN, SUDDENLY, THE SOLDIERS TURNED AND FIRED THEIR RIFLES. FOUR STUDENTS DIED. TWO OF THEM WERE PASSERS-BY. Andrew Cayton: THIS IS TAKING PLACE IN A BUCOLIC LITTLE COLLEGE TOWN IN OHIO. A PLACE THAT NOBODY ASSOCIATED WITH REALLY EXTREMES OF ANY KIND. AND I THINK WHAT IT DID FOR AMERICANS IN GENERAL WAS TO SAY IF THE WAR CAN SO DISRUPT THE FABRIC OF AMERICAN LIFE IN A PLACE LIKE KENT, OHIO, THEN IT HAS PERMEATED IN SOME KIND OF WAY TO THE VERY HEART OF WHAT THE UNITED STATES IS. <i>Man: HOMAGE TO THE CORN.</i> "IT'S SWEETNESS, LIGHT, ALL OUR LIVES. 80,000 YEARS WE'VE WORSHIPPED, YET YOUNG AS JUNE IT STAYS. KERNELS LEFT IN EARTH 1,000 YEARS PUT TO FLAME TODAY STILL POP THEIR BLOSSOMS. WHEN I GO, PUT ME IN A SHALLOW MOUND, LIKE THE RUDDY ONES WHO NAMED THIS TASSELED, RUSTLING OHIO." DAVID CITINO. Kathy Wade: MY DAUGHTER ATTENDED HIGH SCHOOL IN MASSACHUSETTS. ONE OF THE QUESTIONS SHE WAS BEING ASKED WAS, "DID YOU GROW UP ON A FARM?" WHAT DO YOU MEAN, DID YOU GROW UP ON A FARM? SOMEBODY ASKED YOU, DID YOU GROW UP ON A FARM IN CINCINNATI? SHE SAID, "YEAH, BECAUSE THEIR IMPRESSION OF OHIO IS THAT IT'S ALL FARMLAND AND COWS AND CORN." I THINK THAT THE REST OF THE COUNTRY IS NOT QUITE SURE ABOUT US. I THINK THAT THEY THINK WE'RE ONE OF THOSE STATES SOMEWHERE OUT THERE IN THE MIDDLE WITH A LOT OF VOWELS. I THINK THAT THEY DON'T THINK THAT WE'RE DIFFERENT FROM IOWA OR ILLINOIS. Interviewer: WHAT'S THE STATE ROCK SONG? Singers: ś HANG ON SLOOPY, SLOOPY HANG ON ś <i>[BAND PLAYING HANG ON SLOOPY]</i> Newsreel announcer: COLUMBUS, OHIO, HAS LONG BEEN NOTED AS ONE OF THE NATION'S MOST FANATIC FOOTBALL TOWNS. THE FANS DEMAND PERFECTION. [CROWD ROARS] <i>Jeff Robinson: THERE WAS JUST AN ARTICLE IN THE COLUMBUS DISPATCH</i> ABOUT A GIRL WHO SAID SHE WOULD NEVER MARRY A NON-BUCKEYE, BECAUSE THEY WOULD NEVER UNDERSTAND THE IMPORTANCE OF OHIO STATE FOOTBALL. Neil Zurcher: I HAVE NEVER SEEN A STATE THAT'S MORE SPORTS-CRAZY. CLEVELAND, CINCINNATI, COLUMBUS, SPORTS BECOMES JUST ALL ENCOMPASSING IN THESE TOWNS. Woman: ś TIME AND CHANGE WILL SURELY SHOW ś ś HOW FIRM THY FRIENDSHIP ś O-HI-O GO BUCKS. Ed Herlihy: A SHRINE TO THE MEMORY OF THE GREATS OF PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL IS DEDICATED IN CANTON, OHIO. IT WAS HERE THAT THE NATIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUE WAS FOUNDED IN 1920. Neil Zurcher: FOOTBALL, OF COURSE, STARTED HERE IN OHIO. I'M SURE JIM THORPE, SOME OF THOSE, PLAYED A ROLE OVER IN PENNSYLVANIA, THAT OTHER STATE NEARBY. BUT IT WAS PAUL BROWN THAT REALLY INVENTED PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL THE WAY IT IS TODAY. HE'S AN OHIO PRODUCT. I MEAN, RIGHT OUT OF MASSILLON, OUT OF THE CLEVELAND BROWNS. Newsreel announcer: THEN THE BROWNS BUST THINGS WIDE OPEN WITH O'CONNELL THROWING STRIKES. THIS LONG ONE BREWSTER COMPLETES FOR 32 YARDS. Narrator: BASEBALL, TOO, IS LARGELY AN OHIO PRODUCT. IN 1869, A JEWELER NAMED HARRY WRIGHT ESTABLISHED THE FIRST PRO TEAM IN AMERICA, THE CINCINNATI RED STOCKINGS BASEBALL TEAM. Announcer: SO WE HAVE TWO CONTESTANTS WITH THE VERY SAME PULL... Narrator: BUT SPORT, PERHAPS, IS MERELY A SYMPTOM OF A WIDER TENDENCY: COMPETITION. OHIOANS COMPETE IN EVERYTHING. Announcer: 720 POUNDS ON THE SLED RIGHT NOW. WE'LL BE ADDING PROBABLY ANOTHER 25 TO 30 POUNDS. AARGH! Woman: AND IF WE CAN HAVE THE LITTLE GIRLS 7 TO 12 MONTHS, GO AHEAD AND LINE UP. NUMBER THREE IS GRACIE LOU HEIN, AND SHE'S THE DAUGHTER OF MIKE AND KIM HEIN. Woman, laughing: WE'RE NOT WAVING AT YOU, JIMMY. <i>THE STATE SONG IS BEAUTIFUL OHIO.</i> NOBODY KNOWS HOW IT GOES. I COULDN'T HUM IT IF I HAD TO. DRIFTING WITH THE CURRENT DOWN THE MOONLIT STREAM... ś WHILE ABOVE THE HEAVENS IN THEIR GLORY GLEAM ś THAT'S WHY I HATE IT. Park Ranger: WELCOME, EVERYONE, TO PERRY'S VICTORY AND INTERNATIONAL PEACE MEMORIAL. THIS IS A MONUMENT THAT HONORS OLIVER HAZARD PERRY'S VICTORY OVER THE BRITISH FLEET AT THE BATTLE OF LAKE ERIE DURING THE WAR OF 1812. Narrator: OHIO-- AN ORDINARY PLACE WHERE THE ESSENCE OF AMERICA HAS BEEN BOTH FOUND AND FORMED: AMERICAN INVENTIVENESS, PLURALISM, EXPERIMENTATION, INDUSTRIAL MIGHT, RACIAL STRIFE AND RACIAL HARMONY. MUCH OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE PRESENT AGE HAS BEEN INVENTED HERE-- AND OHIOANS HAVE TAKEN US OUT OF THE WORLD, INTO SPACE AND INTO THE FUTURE. NO, NOTHING SPECIAL ABOUT THAT. A STORY, AS NEIL ARMSTRONG SAID, OF A GREAT MANY ORDINARY THINGS. Ohio Village Singers: ś THE HILLS OF OHIO ś HOW PROUDLY THEY RISE ś IN THE WILDNESS OF GRANDEUR TO BLEND WITH THE SKIES ś ś WITH FAIR AZURE OUTLINE AND TALL ANCIENT TREES ś ś OHIO, MY COUNTRY ś I LOVE THEE FOR THESE Priscilla Hewetson: ISN'T THAT PRETTY? THAT SHOULD HAVE BEEN OUR STATE SONG. VISIT OHIO ON THE WEB AT www.ohio200.com. <i>OHIO: 200 YEARS</i> IS AVAILABLE ON VIDEOCASSETTE FOR $19.95 PLUS $4.95 SHIPPING. TO ORDER CALL 1-877-305-9138 OR VISIT US ON THE WEB. <i>[BAND PLAYING HANG ON SLOOPY]</i> AS AN IMPORTANT PART OF OHIO'S PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE, KEY BANK IS A PROUD SPONSOR OF THIS DOCUMENTARY THAT PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS THAT HAVE HELPED OHIO ACHIEVE A RICH PLACE IN AMERICAN AND WORLD HISTORY. KEY. ACHIEVE ANYTHING. HONDA OF AMERICA MANUFACTURING-- OVER 20 YEARS IN OHIO AND PROUD TO BE PART OF SOMETHING GREATER: OHIO'S BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. ADDITIONAL SUPPORT FROM THE PEOPLE OF OHIO AND THE OHIO BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION.

Contents

Location

The Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts, then an academic institution founded 1825-1826 with a variety of curriculums including mechanical arts along with visual art and design, was located on the second floor of their recently constructed 1851 landmark structure with two clock towers at each end of the long structure set atop arched, stone and brick piers which covered the ancient "Centre Market", founded in the 1760s as the original main marketplace of old Baltimore Town. Located at Market Place (formerly Harrison Street) and South Frederick Street between East Baltimore Street on the north and Water Street (old colonial shoreline) to the south. It was also known as "Marsh Market" because of the old colonial marsh of Thomas Harrison then located along the western bank of the Jones Falls stream which flowed through downtown Baltimore to the Harbor, and east of "The Basin" (today's "Inner Harbor re-developed entertainment, commercial and hotel area) along the northern shore of the Patapsco River's Northwest Branch. 16th President Abraham Lincoln spoke at the Institute a decade later with his "Liberty Address" or "Baltimore Address" during the Sanitary Fair to raise money to benefit orphans and widows of Union Army soldiers and sailors, held by the United States Sanitary Commission in April 1864. Old Maryland Institute and the Centre Market buildings perished in the Great Baltimore Fire of February 1904. The Institute's buildings were rebuilt with three new parallel structures here for the marketplace and the second floors for the M.I.'s mechanical arts along with another "Main Building" at Mount Royal Avenue in northwestern city in 1906. They were razed in the 1980s for an entranceway into the new Baltimore "Metro" subway system, and one building (the old "Fish Market") was renovated as the "Port Discovery" children's museum, part of the new "Power Plant Live!" entertainment complex of the 1990s.

Officials

The convention was called to order by Democratic National Committee chairman Benjamin F. Hallett. Romulus M. Saunders served as the temporary convention chairman and John W. Davis served as the permanent convention president.

Presidential nomination

Dark Horse candidates

Major Presidential candidates

Minor Presidential candidates

Declined

Balloting

As Democrats convened in Baltimore in June 1852, four major candidates vied for the nomination- Lewis Cass of Michigan, the nominee in 1848, who had the backing of northerners in support of the Compromise of 1850; James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, popular in the South as well as in his home state; Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, candidate of the expansionists and the railroad interests; and William L. Marcy of New York, whose strength was centered in his home state. Throughout the balloting, numerous favorite son candidates received a few votes.

Cass led on the first 19 ballots, with Buchanan second, and Douglas and Marcy exchanging third and fourth places. Buchanan took the lead on the 20th ballot and retained it on each of the next nine tallies. Douglas managed a narrow lead on the 30th and 31st ballots. Cass then recaptured first place through the 44th ballot. Marcy carried the next four ballots.

Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, a former Congressman and Senator, did not get on the board until the 35th ballot, when the Virginia delegation brought him forward as a compromise choice, selecting Pierce as their dark horse by one vote over former New York Congressman and Brooklyn Mayor Henry C. Murphy, and then supporting him as a unit.[1] After being nominated by the Virginia delegation, Pierce's support remained steady until the 46th ballot, when it began to increase at Cass's expense. Pierce's support was consolidated in subsequent voting, and he was nominated nearly unanimously on the 49th ballot.[2]

According to Edward Stanwood, there was "no doubt that the nomination of General Pierce was carefully planned before the convention met. The originator of the scheme was James W. Bradbury, then a senator from Maine, a college mate and lifelong friend of Pierce."[3]

Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th
Franklin Pierce 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lewis Cass 116 118 119 115 114 114 113 113 112 111 101 98 98 99 99 99 99 96 89 81 60 43 37 33 34
James Buchanan 93 95 94 89 88 88 88 88 87 86 87 88 88 87 87 87 87 85 85 92 102 104 104 103 101
William L. Marcy 27 27 26 25 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 26 26 26 26 26 25 26 26 26 26 27 26 26
Stephen A. Douglas 20 23 21 33 34 34 34 34 39 40 50 51 51 51 51 51 50 56 63 64 64 77 78 80 79
Others 40 33 36 34 34 34 35 35 31 32 31 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 33 33 44 46 50 54 56
Presidential Ballot
Ballot 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th 45th 46th 47th 48th 49th
Franklin Pierce 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 30 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 44 49 55 282
Lewis Cass 33 32 28 27 33 65 93 123 130 131 122 120 107 106 107 107 101 101 101 96 78 75 72 2
James Buchanan 101 98 96 98 91 83 74 72 49 39 28 28 28 28 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 0
William L. Marcy 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 25 33 34 58 70 84 85 85 85 91 91 91 97 98 95 89 0
Stephen A. Douglas 80 85 88 91 92 92 80 60 53 52 43 34 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 32 32 33 33 2
Others 56 55 58 54 54 30 23 16 31 25 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 19 10

Source: US President - D Convention. Our Campaigns. (August 24, 2009).


Vice Presidential nomination

Vice Presidential candidates

Declined

Democratic Pierce/King campaign poster
Democratic Pierce/King campaign poster

In a peace gesture to the Buchanan wing of the party, Pierce's supporters allowed Buchanan's allies to fill the second position, knowing that they would select Alabama Senator William R. King, to whom Pierce had no objections. King won the nomination on the second ballot. During the ensuing campaign, King's tuberculosis, which he believed he had contracted while living in Paris, denied him the active behind-the-scenes role that he might otherwise have played, although he worked hard to assure his region's voters with the statement that New Hampshire's Pierce was a "northern man with southern principles."

Vice Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st 2nd
William R. King 125 277
Solomon W. Downs 30 0
John B. Weller 28 0
David R. Atchison 25 0
Gideon J. Pillow 25 0
Robert Strange 23 0
William O. Butler 13 0
Thomas J. Rusk 13 0
Jefferson Davis 2 11
Howell Cobb 2 0
Abstaining 2 0

Source: US Vice President - D Convention. Our Campaigns. (August 25, 2009).


See also

References

  1. ^ Stiles, Henry Reed (1883). Memoir of Hon. Henry C. Murphy, LL.D., of Brooklyn, N.Y. The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, Volumes 13-14. p. 14.
  2. ^ William DeGregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents, Gramercy 1997
  3. ^ Stanwood, Edward (1898). A History of the Presidency: From 1788 to 1897. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 248.

External links


Preceded by
1848
Baltimore, Maryland
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1856
Cincinnati, Ohio
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