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1850 and 1851 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1850 and 1851 U.S. House of Representatives elections

← 1848 / 49 August 5, 1850 – November 4, 1851 1852 / 53 →

All 233 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
117 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
LinnBoyd.jpg
Edward Stanly by Brady.jpg
Leader Linn Boyd Edward Stanly
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Kentucky 1st North Carolina 8th
Last election 113 seats 108 seats
Seats won 130[a] 86[b]
Seat change Increase 17 Decrease 22

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Unionist Free Soil
Last election 0 seats 9 seats
Seats won 10 4
Seat change Increase 10 Decrease 5

  Fifth party
 
Party States' Rights Party[disambiguation needed]
Last election 0 seats
Seats won 3
Seat change Increase 3

Speaker before election

Howell Cobb
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Linn Boyd
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 32nd Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1850 to November 1851. The Democrats gained 17 seats, increasing their majority relative to the rival Whigs, who lost 22 seats.

Whig President Millard Fillmore, who succeeded to the Presidency in July 1850 after the death of Zachary Taylor, lacked a strong political base. Sectionalism and slavery were increasingly prominent, but not yet politically critical, issues. The Compromise of 1850 was a short-term success in beginning the constructive disposal of the Mexican Cession, but the admission of California as the 31st state augured a future free-soil West. Lingering Southern unhappiness with the results of the Compromise and a sense of foreboding helped motivate later sectional and political conflict over Kansas.

The Unionist Party, formed in support of the Compromise of 1850, gained 10 seats in the South, as did the States' Rights Party. The abolitionist Free Soil Party lost five seats and was reduced to four Representatives, all in New England.

Election summaries

130 7 10 86
Democratic [c] [d] Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Free Soil States' Rights Unionist Whig
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Iowa District August 5, 1850 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District August 5, 1850 5 2 Decrease3 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase3
Vermont District September 3, 1850 4 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Maine District September 9, 1850 7 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Florida At-large October 7, 1850 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Ohio District October 8, 1850 21 11[e] Steady 1 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 9 Increase1
Pennsylvania District October 8, 1850 24[f] 15 Increase6 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 9 Decrease4
South Carolina District October 14–15, 1850 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District November 5, 1850
(Election Day)[g]
7 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Michigan District 3 1 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase1
New Jersey District 5 4 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Decrease3
New York District 34 17 Increase16 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 17 Decrease15
Wisconsin District 3 2[e] Increase1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease1
Massachusetts District November 11, 1850 10[h] 1 Increase1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 7 Decrease1
Delaware At-large November 12, 1850 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease1
Late elections (after the March 4, 1851 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire District March 11, 1851 4 2 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase1
Rhode Island District April 2, 1851 2 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Decrease1
Connecticut District April 7, 1851 4 3 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
Alabama District August 4, 1851 7 4 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase1 2 Steady
Arkansas At-large August 4, 1851 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District August 4, 1851 10 8 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase1
Kentucky District August 4, 1851 10 5 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 5 Decrease1
Texas District August 4, 1851 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 7, 1851 9 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Steady
Tennessee District August 7, 1851 11 7[e] Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady
California At-large September 3, 1851 2[i] 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District October 1, 1851 6 2 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 4[b] Increase1
Georgia District October 6, 1851 8 0 Decrease4 0 Steady 2 Increase2 6 Increase6 0 Decrease4
Virginia District October 23, 1851 15 13 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Mississippi District November 3–4, 1851 4 0 Decrease4 0 Steady 1 Increase1 3 Increase3 0 Steady
Louisiana District November 4, 1851 4 2 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase1
Total 233 130[a]
55.8%
Increase17 4
1.7%
Decrease5 3
1.3%
Increase3 10
4.3%
Increase10 86[b]
36.9%
Decrease22
House seats
Democratic
55.79%
Free Soil
1.72%
Unionist
4.29%
Whig
36.91%
Others
1.29%

One district in Massachusetts had been vacant in the 31st Congress. No new seats were added. The previous election had 1 Know-Nothing and 1 Independent

Special elections

31st Congress

32nd Congress

Alabama

Arkansas

California

California's members were elected late, at-large statewide, September 3, 1851. There were nevertheless seated with the rest of the House at the beginning of the first session.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California at-large George W. Wright Independent 1849 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Edward Gilbert Democratic 1849 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Florida's single at-large member was elected October 7, 1850.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Incumbent re-elected.

Georgia

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Mississippi

Missouri

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Tennessee

Texas

Vermont

Virginia

Wisconsin

Non-voting delegates

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota Territory Henry Hastings Sibley Democratic 1848 (Wisconsin Territory: Special)
1849 (Wisconsin Territory: Eliminated)
1849 (Minnesota Territory)
Incumbent re-elected.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Includes three Independent Democrats from Ohio, Tennessee, and Wisconsin.
  2. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Whig.
  3. ^ Free Soil had 4 seats and States' Rights had 3.
  4. ^ Unionist had 10 seats.
  5. ^ a b c Includes one Independent Democrat.
  6. ^ There was 1 Know-Nothing in the 31st Congress.
  7. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors.[1] Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  8. ^ One seat, Massachusetts's 4th congressional district, had been vacant during the entire 31st Congress.
  9. ^ There was 1 Independent in the 31st Congress.

References

  1. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721

Bibliography

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

This page was last edited on 24 March 2020, at 19:56
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