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1848 and 1849 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1848 and 1849 U.S. House of Representatives elections

← 1846 / 47 August 7, 1848 – November 6, 1849[a] 1850 / 51 →

All 233[b] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
117 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
 
Howell Cobb-crop.jpg
Robert Charles Winthrop - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader Howell Cobb Robert C. Winthrop
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Georgia 6th Massachusetts 1st
Last election 110 seats 116 seats
Seats won 115[b] 104
Seat change Increase 5 Decrease 12
Popular vote 1,212,632 1,231,320
Percentage 44.16% 44.84%
Swing Decrease 4.27% Increase 0.32%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Free Soil Know Nothing
Last election New Party 1 seats
Seats won 8 1
Seat change Increase 8 Steady
Popular vote 237,714 10,539
Percentage 8.66% 0.38%
Swing Increase 5.57%[c] Decrease 0.83%

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 2 seats[d]
Seats won 3[e]
Seat change Increase 1
Popular vote 48,223
Percentage 1.76%
Swing Decrease 0.98%

Speaker before election

Robert C. Winthrop
Whig

Elected Speaker

Howell Cobb
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 31st Congress were held at various dates in different states from August 1848 to November 1849.

These elections spanned the presidential election of 1848 and took place amid the U.S. victory over Mexico in the (1846–48) Mexican–American War. The Whigs lost their House majority as Democrats, whose support had driven the war, gained a House plurality. Among minor parties, the Free Soil Party won nine Northern seats, while the American or "Know Nothing" Party retained one.

Following the discovery of gold in January 1848, California boomed, creating immediate pressure for statehood. The Compromise of 1850, though largely crafted in the Senate, was also passed by the House, brokering its admission to the Union. Anticipating statehood, California elected two Representatives at-large on November 11, 1849, to be seated September 11, 1850.

As neither major party held a majority when Congress convened on December 3, 1849, the election of a Speaker proved contentious. The Whigs split, with Northern Whigs nominating incumbent speaker Robert C. Winthrop of Massachusetts and Southern Whigs supporting Meredith P. Gentry of Tennessee. Although Democrats primarily supported Howell Cobb of Georgia, over a dozen other candidates also garnered support. Anti-slavery Free Soilers supported David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, author of the Wilmot Proviso, calling attention to Slave Power's hold over both major parties. After nearly three weeks of heated debate, the House suspended its majority rule for the Speaker election. Cobb was elected on the 63rd ballot by plurality.[1]

Election summaries

Wisconsin was apportioned an additional seat in 1848,[2] and two more seats were added for the new state of California.[3]

113 11 108
Democratic [f] Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Free Soil Whig Other
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Arkansas At-large August 7, 1848 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District August 7, 1848 7 6 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District August 7, 1848 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District August 7, 1848 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 5, 1848 4 1 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 11, 1848 7 5 Decrease1 0 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 2, 1848 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District October 2, 1848 8 4 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District October 9–10, 1848 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District October 10, 1848 21 11 Increase1 2 Increase2 8 Decrease3 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 10, 1848 24 9 Increase2 1 Increase1 13 Decrease3 1[g] Steady
Delaware At-large November 6, 1848 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District November 7, 1848
(Election Day)[h]
3 2 Decrease1 0 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 1 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 1 Decrease10 1 Increase1 32 Increase9 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 3[i] 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District November 13, 1848 10[j] 0 Steady 1 Increase1 8 Decrease2 0 Steady
Late elections, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term
New Hampshire District March 13, 1849 4 2 Steady 1 Increase1 1 Steady 0 Decrease1[k]
Connecticut District April 2, 1849 4 2 Increase2 1 Increase1 1 Decrease3 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 4, 1849 2 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Virginia District April 26, 1849 15 13 Increase4 0 Steady 2 Decrease4 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 2, 1849 11 7 Increase1 0 Steady 4 Decrease1 0 Steady
Alabama District August 6, 1849 7 5 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District August 6, 1849 10 8 Increase2 1 Increase1 1 Decrease3 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 6, 1849 10 4 Steady 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District August 6, 1849 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 7, 1849 9 3 Steady 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District October 3, 1849 6 3 Increase1 0 Steady 3 Decrease1 0 Steady
Louisiana District November 5, 1849 4 3 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District November 5–6, 1849 4 4 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
California At-large November 11, 1849[l] 2 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1[m] Increase1
Total[b] 233 113
48.7%
Increase1 9
3.9%
Increase9 108
46.6%
Decrease8 2
0.9%
Steady
House seats
Democratic
48.71%
Free Soil
3.88%
Know Nothing
0.43%
Whig
46.55%
Others
0.43%

Special elections

Alabama

Elections were held August 6, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
Alabama 2
Alabama 3
Alabama 4
Alabama 5
Alabama 6
Alabama 7

Arkansas

The election was held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas at-large

California

California two at-large members were elected November 11, 1849 in anticipation of statehood and seated September 11, 1850.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None New seat.
New member elected.
Independent gain.
  • Green tickY George W. Wright (Independent) 22%
  • Green tickY Edward Gilbert (Democratic) 20.6%
  • Rodman M. Price 16.3%
  • P. A. Morse 8.3%
  • Lewis Dent 8.2%
  • E. J. C. Kewen 7.3%
  • W. M. Sheppard 7.2%
  • William E. Shannon 5.4%
  • Peter Halsted 2.4%
  • L. W. Hastings 0.9%
  • Pierson B. Reading 0.7%
  • W. H. Russell 0.4%
  • J. S. Thompson 0.3%
  • Kimball H. Dimmick 0.2%
None New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Connecticut

Elections were held April 2, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1
Connecticut 2
Connecticut 3
Connecticut 4

Delaware

The election was held November 6, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large

Florida

Florida's single at-large member was elected October 2, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida at-large Edward C. Cabell Whig 1846 Incumbent re-elected.

Georgia

Elections were held October 2, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia 1
Georgia 2
Georgia 3
Georgia 4
Georgia 5
Georgia 6
Georgia 7
Georgia 8

Illinois

Elections were held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3
Illinois 4
Illinois 5
Illinois 6
Illinois 7

Indiana

Elections were held August 10, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7
Indiana 8
Indiana 9
Indiana 10

Iowa

Elections were held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Iowa 1
Iowa 2

Kentucky

Elections were held August 6, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10

Louisiana

Elections were held November 5, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3
Louisiana 4

Maine

Elections were held September 11, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7

Maryland

Elections were held October 3, 1849 elections were after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the new term, but still before the Congress convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Maryland 5
Maryland 6

Massachusetts

Elections were held November 13, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7 Julius Rockwell Whig 1844 (Late) Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10

Michigan

Elections were held November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1
Michigan 2
Michigan 3

Mississippi

Elections were held November 5–6, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi 1
Mississippi 2
Mississippi 3
Mississippi 4

Missouri

Elections were held August 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1
Missouri 2
Missouri 3
Missouri 4
Missouri 5

New Hampshire

Elections were held March 13, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire 1
New Hampshire 2
New Hampshire 3
New Hampshire 4

New Jersey

Elections were held November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1
New Jersey 2
New Jersey 3
New Jersey 4
New Jersey 5

New York

Elections were held November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33
New York 34

North Carolina

Elections were held August 7, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9

Ohio

Elections were held October 10, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18
Ohio 19
Ohio 20
Ohio 21

Pennsylvania

Elections were held October 10, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 1
Pennsylvania 2
Pennsylvania 3
Pennsylvania 4
Pennsylvania 5
Pennsylvania 6
Pennsylvania 7
Pennsylvania 8
Pennsylvania 9
Pennsylvania 10
Pennsylvania 11
Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania 13
Pennsylvania 14
Pennsylvania 15
Pennsylvania 16
Pennsylvania 17
Pennsylvania 18
Pennsylvania 19
Pennsylvania 20
Pennsylvania 21
Pennsylvania 22
Pennsylvania 23
Pennsylvania 24

Rhode Island

Elections were held April 4, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1
Rhode Island 2

South Carolina

Elections were held October 9–10, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6
South Carolina 7

Tennessee

Elections were held August 2, 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1
Tennessee 2
Tennessee 3
Tennessee 4
Tennessee 5
Tennessee 6
Tennessee 7
Tennessee 8
Tennessee 9
Tennessee 10
Tennessee 11

Texas

Elections were held August 6, 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Texas 1
Texas 2

Vermont

Elections were held September 5, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4

Virginia

Elections were held April 26, 1849, after the March 4, 1849 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1849.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13
Virginia 14
Virginia 15


Wisconsin

Wisconsin members were first elected in advance of its June 1848 statehood. It elected two members to finish the current term in the 30th Congress, and then it gained an elected an additional member for elections to the 31st Congress.

30th Congress

Wisconsin's two members were elected May 8, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Wisconsin 1 New seat New seat.
New member elected May 8, 1848.
Democratic gain.
Wisconsin 2 New seat New seat.
New member elected May 8, 1848.
Democratic gain.

31st Congress

Wisconsin's three members were elected November 7, 1848.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[7]
Wisconsin 1 William Pitt Lynde Democratic 1848 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Free Soil gain.
Wisconsin 2 Mason C. Darling Democratic 1848 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Wisconsin 3 New seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Non-voting delegates

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Minnesota Territory None. New territory. New seat.
New delegate elected July 7, 1849.
Democratic gain.
Oregon Territory None. New territory. New seat.
New delegate elected in 1849.
Democratic gain.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 31st Congress
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ In comparison to its precursor, the Liberty Party, in the last election cycle.
  4. ^ Includes two Independent Democrats.
  5. ^ Includes one Independent, one Independent Whig, and one Anti-Rent Whig.
  6. ^ There were 9 Free Soilers, 1 Know Nothing, and 1 Independent.
  7. ^ 1 Know Nothing
  8. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  9. ^ Increase of 1 seat.
  10. ^ One vacancy, in MA-04, for the duration of the 31st Congress (as no candidate received a majority of the vote after multiple elections).
  11. ^ Previous election had 1 Independent.
  12. ^ Seated September 11, 1850 after admission to the Union.
  13. ^ 1 Independent elected.

References

  1. ^ Brooks, Corey M. (2016). Liberty Power: Antislavery Third Parties and the Transformation of American Politics. University of Chicago Press. pp. 155–160. ISBN 978-0-226-30728-2. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  2. ^ Stat. 235
  3. ^ Stat. 452
  4. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=726143
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 01 Race - Mar 13, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 2 Race - Mar 13, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  7. ^ "Election 1848". Potosi Republican. December 7, 1848. p. 2. Retrieved May 23, 2020 – via Newspapers.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 2 Race - Nov 07, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - WI District 3 Race - Nov 07, 1848". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved May 23, 2020.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 18 October 2020, at 15:36
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