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1846 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1846 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1844 August 2, 1846 – November 2, 1847[Note 1] 1848 →

All 230[Note 2] seats to the United States House of Representatives
116 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Robert Charles Winthrop.jpg
LinnBoyd.jpg
LCLevin-small.jpg
Leader Robert Winthrop Linn Boyd Lewis Charles Levin
Party Whig Democratic Know Nothing
Leader's seat Massachusetts-1st Kentucky-1st Pennsylvania-1st
Last election 79 seats 142 seats 6 seats
Seats won 116 112[Note 2][Note 3] 1
Seat change Increase 37 Decrease 30 Decrease 5

Speaker before election

John Davis
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Robert Winthrop
Whig

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 30th Congress were held during President James K. Polk's term at various dates in different states from August 1846 to November 1847.

The Whigs gained 37 seats to win 116 and a change in partisan control, while the rival Democrats lost 30, falling to 112.[Note 3] The Whigs gained seats in the Mid-Atlantic and the South. The nativist and anti-Catholic American Party was reduced to a single seat. One Independent, Amos Tuck, was elected from New Hampshire.

The Mexican–American War was the main issue. The incumbent House had voted for war by 174 to 14, but Polk had won the Presidency only by plurality in 1844 over his more famous opponent Henry Clay. War with Mexico was enthusiastically supported west of the Appalachian Mountains, but voters in northeastern, more urban regions widely opposed the war. Growing divisions over slavery factored, as Congressional rejection of the Wilmot Proviso aggravated sectional tensions.

Notable freshmen included Abraham Lincoln, elected as a Whig to his only term in Congress. This was the last time the Whigs ever held a majority in the House (though they would form part of the majority formed after the fractious 1854 election.

Election summaries

The trend toward single-member districts culminated as no multi-member districts featured.

In 1845, Congress established an uniform date for choosing Presidential electors. Gradually, states aligned nearly all other elections with this date, though as of this election, only three states had done so.

Two seats were added for the new State of Wisconsin.[1] Wisconsin was unrepresented for most of the 1st session.

116 1 1 112
Whig I AKN Democratic
State Type Date Total
seats
Whig Democratic Other
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Missouri District[Note 4] August 2, 1846 5 0 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas At-large August 3, 1846 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District August 3, 1846 7 1 Steady 6[Note 5] Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 1, 1846 4 3 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 14, 1846 7 1 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady
Florida At-large October 5, 1846 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Georgia District October 5, 1846 8 4 Increase1 4 Decrease1 0 Steady
South Carolina District October 12–13, 1846 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District October 13, 1846 21 11 Increase3 10 Decrease3 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 13, 1846 24 16 Increase6 7 Decrease5 1[Note 6] Decrease1
Texas District November 2, 1846 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District November 3, 1846
(Election Day)
3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 4 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 23 Increase14 11[Note 7] Decrease10 0 Decrease4
Massachusetts District November 9, 1846 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 10, 1846 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
1847 elections
New Hampshire District[Note 4] March 9, 1847 4[Note 8] 1 Increase1 2 Decrease1 1[Note 9] Increase1
Connecticut District April 5, 1847 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District April 7, 1847 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Virginia District April 22, 1847 15 6 Increase5 9 Decrease5 0 Steady
Alabama District August 2, 1847 7 2 Increase1 5 Decrease1 0 Steady
Indiana District August 2, 1847 10 4 Increase2 6 Decrease2 0 Steady
Iowa District[Note 4] August 2, 1847 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 2, 1847 10 6 Decrease1 4 Increase1 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 2, 1847 11 5 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 5, 1847 9 6 Increase3 3 Decrease3 0 Steady
Maryland District October 6, 1847 6 4 Increase2 2 Decrease2 0 Steady
Mississippi District[Note 4] November 1–2, 1847 4 1 Increase1 3 Decrease1 0 Steady
Louisiana District November 2, 1847 4 1 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
1848 elections
Wisconsin[Note 10] District May 8, 1848 2 0 Steady 2 Increase2 0 Steady
Total[Note 2] 230 116
50.4%
Increase38 112[Note 3]
48.7%
Decrease33 2
0.9%
Decrease4
House seats
Whig
50.43%
Democratic
48.70%
Know-Nothing
0.43%
Others
0.43%

Complete returns

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large William H. Brockenbrough Democratic 1845 (special) Retired
Whig gain
Edward C. Cabell (W) 50.9%
William A. Kain (D) 49.1%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 30th Congress.
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections
  3. ^ a b c Includes 2 Independent Democrats elected to IL-01 and NY-17 – see: Martis, p. 100-101.
  4. ^ a b c d Changed from at-large
  5. ^ Includes Robert Smith, who was elected to IL-01 as an Independent Democrat.
  6. ^ 1 American
  7. ^ Includes George Petrie, who was elected to NY-17 as an Independent Democrat.
  8. ^ One seat had been vacant during the entire 29th Congress.
  9. ^ Amos Tuck was elected to NH-01 as an Independent.
  10. ^ New state

References

  1. ^ Stat. 58

Bibliography

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 June 2019, at 20:31
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