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1842 and 1843 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1842 and 1843 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1840 / 41 August 1, 1842 – November 8, 1843[a] 1844 / 45 →

All 223 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
112 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JohnWinstonJones.jpg
John White.jpg
Leader John Jones John White
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Virginia 6th Kentucky 6th
Last election 98 seats 142 seats
Seats won 146[b] 73
Seat change Increase 48 Decrease 69
Popular vote 1,051,561 905,910
Percentage 51.27% 44.17%
Swing Increase 3.44% Decrease 6.89%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Law and Order Independent
Last election Pre-creation 1 seat[c]
Seats won 2 2[d]
Seat change Increase 2 Increase 1
Popular vote 7,145 42,236
Percentage 0.35% 2.06%
Swing New Party Increase 1.21%

Speaker before election

John White
Whig

Elected Speaker

John Jones
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 28th Congress were held during President John Tyler's term at various dates in different states between August 1842 and February 1844.[a]

The Whig Party spectacularly lost the seemingly comfortable majority won in 1840. Whig President William Henry Harrison had died within a month of taking office. His successor President John Tyler was only nominally a Whig and had not been properly validated for alignment to Whig policy. Effectively an independent, Tyler was disliked by politicians and unpopular with voters of both parties, leaving the Whigs unexpectedly leaderless and embarrassed by visibly persistent political disarray. Despite the improving economy, rural voters favored Democrats, again rejecting Whig economic nationalism. Whigs won only 73 seats (including William Wright of New Jersey elected as an "Independent Whig"[1] [2]). Democrats won a majority with 148 seats (including Henry Nes of Pennsylvania elected as an Independent Democrat[1][e]). In Rhode Island, the Law and Order Party, formed in response to the Dorr Rebellion, won two seats.

Election summaries

Apportionment was based on the Census of 1840 and was unusual in that the number of House seats was decreased, from 242 to 223. The apportionment bill of 1840 mandated that all Representatives be elected from single-Representative contiguous districts, abolishing plural districts and at-large districts.[4] Four states that did not comply with this new law delayed redistricting.

148 2 73
Democratic [f] Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Whig Law and Order
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Missouri At-large August 1, 1842 5 Increase3 5 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 3, 1842 11 Decrease2 6 Increase1 5 Decrease3 0 Steady
Illinois District August 7, 1842 7 Increase4 6 Increase4 1 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas At-large October 3, 1842 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 3, 1842 8 Decrease1 8 Increase8 0 Decrease9 0 Steady
New Jersey District[g] October 8, 1842 5 Decrease1 4 Increase4 1[h] Decrease5 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1842 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New York District November 8, 1842 34 Decrease6 24 Increase4 10 Decrease10 0 Steady
Massachusetts District November 14, 1842 10 Decrease2 2 Increase1 8 Decrease3 0 Steady
South Carolina District February 20–21, 1843 7 Decrease2 7 Decrease1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large March 3, 1843 4 Decrease1 4 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term
Connecticut District April 5, 1843 4 Decrease2 4 Increase4 0 Decrease6 0 Steady
Virginia District April 27, 1843 15 Decrease6 12 Increase2 3 Decrease8 0 Steady
Louisiana District July 3–5, 1843 4 Increase1 4 Increase3 0 Decrease2 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 3, 1843 9 Decrease4 5 Steady 4 Decrease4 0 Steady
Alabama District August 7, 1843 7 Increase2 6 Increase1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Indiana District August 7, 1843 10 Increase3 8 Increase7 2 Decrease4 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 7, 1843 10 Decrease3 5 Increase3 5 Decrease6 0 Steady
Rhode Island District[g] August 29, 1843 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease2 2 Increase2
Vermont District September 5, 1843 4 Decrease1 1 Increase1 3 Decrease2 0 Steady
Maine District September 11, 1843 7 Decrease1 5 Increase1 2 Decrease2 0 Steady
Ohio District October 10, 1843 21 Increase2 12 Increase5 9 Decrease3 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 10, 1843 24 Decrease4 12[i] Decrease3 12 Decrease1 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 6–7, 1843 4 Increase2 4 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District[g] November 8, 1843 3 Increase2 3 Increase3 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maryland District February 14, 1844 6 Decrease2 0 Decrease2 6 Steady 0 Steady
Total 223 Decrease19 148[i]
66.4%
Increase50 73[h]
32.7%
Decrease71 2
0.9%
Increase2
House seats
Democratic
66.37%
Law and Order
0.90%
Whig
32.74%

Special elections

In 1842, there were two special elections in Massachusetts's 1st congressional district. Incumbent Robert C. Winthrop (Whig) resigned May 25, 1842 due to the death of his wife. A June election was held in which Nathan Appleton (Whig) was elected. Appleton resigned, however, September 28, 1842 and Winthrop was re-elected back to the seat November 29, 1842.

There was also a December 7, 1843 special election in Massachusetts's 10th congressional district in which Joseph Grinnell (Whig) was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the June 15, 1843 death of Barker Burnell (Whig).

Alabama

Alabama gained 2 seats, going from 5 to 7 members. Elections were held August 7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term. In the 1841 elections, Alabama briefly used at-large general-ticket elections, but in these elections it returned to districts.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1 Benjamin Glover Shields
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1841 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Alabama 2 New seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 3 Dixon Hall Lewis
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 4 William Winter Payne
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1841 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 5 George S. Houston
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1841 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 6 Reuben Chapman
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1835 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 7 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Arkansas

Arkansas stayed at 1 seat, electing its one member at-large October 3, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas at-large Edward Cross Democratic 1838 Incumbent re-elected.

Connecticut

Connecticut lost 2 seats, reduced from 6 to 4 members. Elections were held April 5, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1843.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1 Joseph Trumbull Whig 1834 (Special)
1835 (Lost)
1839
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John H. Brockway
Redistricted from the 6th district
Whig 1839 Incumbent retired.
Whig loss.
Connecticut 2 William Boardman Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Connecticut 3 Thomas W. Williams Whig 1839 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Truman Smith
Redistricted from the 5th district
Whig 1839 Incumbent retired.
Whig loss.
Connecticut 4 Thomas B. Osborne Whig 1839 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Delaware

Delaware stayed at 1 seat, electing its one member at-large November 8, 1842.

The election was decided by a nine-vote margin.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large George B. Rodney Whig 1840 Incumbent re-elected.

Georgia

Georgia lost 1 seat, going from 9 to 8 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket October 3, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
8 seats on a general ticket

Illinois

Illinois gained 4 seats, going from 3 to 7 members. Elections were held August 7, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3
Illinois 4
Illinois 5
Illinois 6
Illinois 7

Indiana

Indiana gained 3 seats, going from 7 to 10 members. Elections were held August 7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7
Indiana 8
Indiana 9
Indiana 10

Kentucky

Kentucky lost 3 seats, going from 13 to 10 members. Elections were held August 7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10

Louisiana

Louisiana gained 1 seats, going from 3 to 4 members. Elections were held July 3–5, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3
Louisiana 4

Maine

Maine lost 1 seat, going from 8 to 7 members. Elections were held September 11, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7

Maryland

Maryland lost 2 seats, going from 8 to 6 members. Elections were held February 14, 1844, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

Maryland's elections to the next Congress were held February 14, 1844, after the 1842–1843 election cycle was passed and almost after the next Congress completed.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts lost 2 seats, going from 12 to 10 members. Elections were held November 14, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10

Michigan

Michigan gained 2 seats, going from 1 to 3 members. Elections were held from districts November 8, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term, having previously elected a single member at-large.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1
Michigan 2
Michigan 3

Mississippi

Mississippi gained 2 seats, going from 2 to 4 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket November 6–7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large
4 seats on a general ticket

Missouri

Missouri gained 3 seats, going from 2 to 5 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket August 1, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri at-large
5 seats on a general ticket

New Hampshire

New Hampshire lost 1 seat, going from 5 to 4 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket March 3, 1843.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket

New Jersey

New Jersey lost 1 seats, going from 6 to 5 members. Elections were held from districts October 8, 1842, having previously elected them at-large.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1 Joseph Fitz Randolph
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 2 John B. Aycrigg
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[j])
1840
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 3 William Halstead
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[j])
1840
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 4 John Patterson Bryan Maxwell
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[j])
1840
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 5 Charles C. Stratton
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[j])
1840
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Thomas Jones Yorke
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[j])
1840
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
Whig loss.

New York

New York lost 6 seats, going from 40 to 34 members, but remaining the largest delegation. Its thirty-four members were elected November 8, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33
New York 34

North Carolina

North Carolina lost 4 seats, going from 13 to 9 members. Elections were held August 3, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9

Ohio

Ohio gained 2 seats, going from 19 to 21 members. Its twenty-one members were elected October 10, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18
Ohio 19
Ohio 20
Ohio 21

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania lost 4 seats, going from 28 to 24 members. Its twenty-four members were elected October 10, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 1
Pennsylvania 2
Pennsylvania 3
Pennsylvania 4
Pennsylvania 5
Pennsylvania 6
Pennsylvania 7
Pennsylvania 8
Pennsylvania 9
Pennsylvania 10
Pennsylvania 11
Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania 13
Pennsylvania 14
Pennsylvania 15
Pennsylvania 16
Pennsylvania 17
Pennsylvania 18
Pennsylvania 19
Pennsylvania 20
Pennsylvania 21
Pennsylvania 22
Pennsylvania 23
Pennsylvania 24

Rhode Island

Rhode Island stayed at 2 seats, but elected its members from districts, having previously elected them at-large. Elections were held August 29, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1 Robert B. Cranston
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Whig 1837 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New member elected.
Law and Order gain.
Rhode Island 2 Joseph L. Tillinghast
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Whig 1837 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Law and Order gain.

South Carolina

South Carolina lost 2 seats, going from 9 to 7 members. Elections were held February 20–21, 1843.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6
South Carolina 7

Tennessee

Tennessee lost 2 seats, going from 13 to 11 members. Elections were held August 3, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1
Tennessee 2
Tennessee 3
Tennessee 4
Tennessee 5
Tennessee 6
Tennessee 7
Tennessee 8
Tennessee 9
Tennessee 10
Tennessee 11

Vermont

Vermont lost 1 seat, going from 5 to 4 members. Elections were held September 5, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4

Virginia

Virginia lost 6 seats, going from 21 to 15 members. Elections were held April 27, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13
Virginia 14
Virginia 15

Non-voting delegates

Iowa Territory

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates[19]
Iowa Territory at-large Augustus C. Dodge Democratic 1840 Incumbent re-elected.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Although elections in Maryland were held so late that they ran into 1844, this article only includes elections during 1842 and 1843.
  2. ^ Includes 4 elected as "Redemption" Democrats.
  3. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  4. ^ Includes 1 Independent and 1 Independent Whig.
  5. ^ Dubin lists Nes as an "Independent" rather than as an Independent Democrat.[3]
  6. ^ The Law and Order Party had 2 members
  7. ^ a b c Changed from at-large
  8. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Whig: William Wright who was elected in New Jersey's 5th congressional district.
  9. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat: Henry Nes who was elected in Pennsylvania's 15th congressional district.
  10. ^ a b c d e See the Broad Seal War

References

  1. ^ a b Martis, p. 97.
  2. ^ Dubin, p. 134.
  3. ^ Dubin, p. 135.
  4. ^ Stat. 491
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 1 Race - Aug 07, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 6 Race - Aug 07, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 7 Race - Aug 07, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - AR At-Large Race - Oct 03, 1842". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 1 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 2 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 3 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 4 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  13. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=275372
  14. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=724628
  15. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=724786
  16. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=724804
  17. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=724821
  18. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=724837
  19. ^ Pelzer, Louis (1908). Shambaugh, Benjamin F. (ed.). "The History and Principles of the Democratic Party of the Territory of Iowa". Iowa Journal of History and Politics. Vol. 6 no. 1. Iowa City, Iowa: State Historical Society of Iowa. p. 10. Retrieved May 27, 2020.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 29 September 2020, at 17:28
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