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1842 and 1843 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1842 and 1843 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1840 & 1841 August 1, 1842 – November 8, 1843[a] 1844 & 1845 →

All 223 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
112 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JohnWinstonJones.jpg
John White.jpg
Leader John Jones John White
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Virginia 6th Kentucky 6th
Last election 98 seats 142 seats
Seats won 146[b] 73
Seat change Increase 48 Decrease 69
Popular vote 1,051,561 905,910
Percentage 51.27% 44.17%
Swing Increase 3.44% Decrease 6.89%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Law and Order Independent
Last election Pre-creation 1 seat[c]
Seats won 2 2[d]
Seat change Increase 2 Increase 1
Popular vote 7,145 42,236
Percentage 0.35% 2.06%
Swing New Party Increase 1.21%

Speaker before election

John White
Whig

Elected Speaker

John Jones
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 28th Congress were held during President John Tyler's term at various dates in different states between August 1842 and February 1844.[a]

After Whig President William Henry Harrison died within a month of taking office, his successor as President, John Tyler was only nominally a Whig who had not been properly validated for alignment to Whig policy. Effectively an independent, Tyler was disliked by politicians and was unpopular with voters of both parties, leaving the Whigs unexpectedly leaderless and in visible disarray.

Despite the improving economy, rural voters favored Democrats, again rejecting Whig economic nationalism. The Whig Party lost 69 seats and their sizeable majority from the 1840 election, almost half their House delegation (one of the Whigs who won re-election was William Wright of New Jersey, elected as an "Independent Whig"[1] [2]).

The Democrats won a majority, flipping 48 Whig seats (this includes Henry Nes of Pennsylvania, elected as an Independent Democrat[1][e]). In Rhode Island, the Law and Order Party, formed in response to the Dorr Rebellion, won two seats.

Apportionment Act of 1842

Apportionment was based on the Census of 1840 and was unusual in that the number of House seats was decreased, from 242 to 223: [4] this came after the Apportionment Act of 1842 mandated that all members be elected from single-member contiguous districts, thus abolishing plural districts and at-large districts.[5] Four states that did not comply with this new law delayed redistricting under a grandfather clause.

Election summaries

148 2 73
Democratic [f] Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic Whig Law and Order
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Missouri At-large August 1, 1842 5 Increase3 5 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 3, 1842 11 Decrease2 6 Increase1 5 Decrease3 0 Steady
Illinois District August 7, 1842 7 Increase4 6 Increase4 1 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas At-large October 3, 1842 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 3, 1842 8 Decrease1 8 Increase8 0 Decrease9 0 Steady
New Jersey District[g] October 8, 1842 5 Decrease1 4 Increase4 1[h] Decrease5 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1842 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
New York District November 8, 1842 34 Decrease6 24 Increase4 10 Decrease10 0 Steady
Massachusetts District November 14, 1842[i] 10 Decrease2 2 Increase1 8 Decrease3 0 Steady
South Carolina District February 20–21, 1843 7 Decrease2 7 Decrease1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large March 3, 1843 4 Decrease1 4 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term
Connecticut District April 5, 1843 4 Decrease2 4 Increase4 0 Decrease6 0 Steady
Virginia District April 27, 1843 15 Decrease6 12 Increase2 3 Decrease8 0 Steady
Louisiana District July 3–5, 1843 4 Increase1 4 Increase3 0 Decrease2 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 3, 1843 9 Decrease4 5 Steady 4 Decrease4 0 Steady
Alabama District August 7, 1843 7 Increase2 6 Increase1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Indiana District August 7, 1843 10 Increase3 8 Increase7 2 Decrease4 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 7, 1843 10 Decrease3 5 Increase3 5 Decrease6 0 Steady
Rhode Island District[g] August 29, 1843 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease2 2 Increase2
Vermont District September 5, 1843 4 Decrease1 1 Increase1 3 Decrease2 0 Steady
Maine District September 11, 1843 7 Decrease1 5 Increase1 2 Decrease2 0 Steady
Ohio District October 10, 1843 21 Increase2 12 Increase5 9 Decrease3 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District October 10, 1843 24 Decrease4 12[j] Decrease3 12 Decrease1 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 6–7, 1843 4 Increase2 4 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District[g] November 8, 1843 3 Increase2 3 Increase3 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maryland District February 14, 1844 6 Decrease2 0 Decrease2 6 Steady 0 Steady
Total 223 Decrease19 148[j]
66.4%
Increase50 73[h]
32.7%
Decrease71 2
0.9%
Increase2
Popular vote
Democratic
51.27%
Whig
44.17%
Law & Order
0.35%
Independent
2.06%
Others
2.15%
House seats
Democratic
65.47%
Whig
32.74%
Law & Order
0.90%
Independent
0.90%

Special elections

27th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Robert C. Winthrop Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 25, 1842 due to the death of his wife.
New member elected June 3, 1842.
Whig hold.
Successor would later resign and be replaced by his predecessor, see below.
Massachusetts 1 Nathan Appleton Whig 1830
1832 (Retired)
1842 (Special)
Incumbent resigned September 28, 1842.
New member elected November 14, 1842.
Whig hold.
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.

28th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 10 Barker Burnell Whig 1840 Incumbent died June 15, 1843.
New member elected November 13, 1843.
Whig hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1843.
  • Green tickY Joseph Grinnell (Whig) 53.47%
  • Sampson Perkins (Democratic) 42.48%
  • Caleb Belcher (Liberty) 4.05%[8]

Alabama

Alabama gained 2 seats, going from 5 to 7 members. Elections were held August 7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term. In the 1841 elections, Alabama briefly used at-large general-ticket elections, but in these elections it returned to districts.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1 Benjamin Glover Shields
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1841 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Alabama 2 New seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 3 Dixon Hall Lewis
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 4 William Winter Payne
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1841 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 5 George S. Houston
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1841 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 6 Reuben Chapman
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Democratic 1835 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 7 Open seat New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Arkansas

Arkansas stayed at 1 seat, electing its one member at-large October 3, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas at-large Edward Cross Democratic 1838 Incumbent re-elected.

Connecticut

Connecticut lost 2 seats, reduced from 6 to 4 members. Elections were held April 5, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term, but before the House first convened in December 1843.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1 Joseph Trumbull Whig 1834 (Special)
1835 (Lost)
1839
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
John H. Brockway
Redistricted from the 6th district
Whig 1839 Incumbent retired.
Whig loss.
Connecticut 2 William Boardman Whig 1840 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Connecticut 3 Thomas W. Williams Whig 1839 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Truman Smith
Redistricted from the 5th district
Whig 1839 Incumbent retired.
Whig loss.
Connecticut 4 Thomas B. Osborne Whig 1839 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Delaware

Delaware stayed at 1 seat, electing its one member at-large November 8, 1842.

The election was decided by a nine-vote margin.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large George B. Rodney Whig 1840 Incumbent re-elected.

Florida Territory

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Georgia

Georgia lost 1 seat, going from 9 to 8 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket October 3, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
8 at-large seats
Mark A. Cooper Democratic 1841 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Elected on a general ticket:
Thomas F. Foster Whig 1828
1834 (Lost)
1840
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Thomas B. King Whig 1838 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Roger L. Gamble Whig 1838 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
James A. Meriwether Whig 1840 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Richard W. Habersham Whig 1838 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Incumbent died December 2, 1842, leading to a special election.
Edward J. Black Democratic 1838
1840 (Lost)
1841 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Walter T. Colquitt Democratic 1841 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.

Illinois

Illinois gained 4 seats, going from 3 to 7 members. Elections were held August 7, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3
Illinois 4
Illinois 5
Illinois 6
Illinois 7

Indiana

Indiana gained 3 seats, going from 7 to 10 members. Elections were held August 7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7
Indiana 8
Indiana 9
Indiana 10

Kentucky

Kentucky lost 3 seats, going from 13 to 10 members. Elections were held August 7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10

Louisiana

Louisiana gained 1 seats, going from 3 to 4 members. Elections were held July 3–5, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3
Louisiana 4

Maine

Maine lost 1 seat, going from 8 to 7 members. Elections were held September 11, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7

Maryland

Maryland lost 2 seats, going from 8 to 6 members. Elections were held February 14, 1844, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

Maryland's elections to the next Congress were held February 14, 1844, after the 1842–1843 election cycle was passed and almost after the next Congress completed.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts lost 2 seats, going from 12 to 10 members. Elections were held November 14, 1842, but some districts' elections stretched to multiple ballots into 1843 and very early 1844.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Nathan Appleton Whig 1830
1833 (Retired)
1842 (Special)
Incumbent resigned September 28, 1842.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the current term, see above.
Massachusetts 2 Leverett Saltonstall I Whig 1838 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected on the fourth ballot.
Whig hold.
First ballot (November 14, 1842):

Second ballot (February 13, 1843):

Third ballot (April 3, 1843):

Fourth ballot (June 5, 1843):
  • Green tickY Daniel P. King (Whig) 51.36%
  • Jeremiah C. Stickney (Democratic) 39.50%
  • Moses P. Hanson (Liberty) 9.14%[23]
Massachusetts 3 Caleb Cushing Whig 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected on the seventh ballot.
Whig hold.
First ballot (November 14, 1842):

Second ballot (February 13, 1843):

Third ballot (April 3, 1843):

Fourth ballot (June 5, 1843):

Fifth ballot (November 13, 1843):

Sixth ballot (January 1, 1844):

Seventh ballot (January 29, 1844):
Massachusetts 4 William Parmenter Democratic 1836 Incumbent re-elected on the second ballot. First ballot (November 14, 1842):

Second ballot (February 13, 1843):
Massachusetts 5 Charles Hudson Whig 1841 (Special) Incumbent re-elected on the third ballot. First ballot (November 14, 1842):

Second ballot (February 13, 1843):

Third ballot (April 3, 1843):
Massachusetts 6 Osmyn Baker Whig 1839 (Special) Incumbent re-elected on the six ballot. First ballot (November 14, 1842):

Second ballot (February 13, 1843):

Third ballot (April 3, 1843):

Fourth ballot (June 5, 1843):

Fifth ballot (November 13, 1843):

Sixth ballot (January 1, 1844):
Massachusetts 7 George N. Briggs Whig 1833 Incumbent retired.
New member elected on the sixth ballot.
Whig hold.
First ballot (November 14, 1842):

Second ballot (February 13, 1843):

Third ballot (April 3, 1843):

Fourth ballot (June 5, 1843):

Fifth ballot (November 13, 1843):

Sixth ballot (January 1, 1844):
Massachusetts 8 John Quincy Adams
Redistricted from the 12th district
Whig 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 9 Nathaniel B. Borden
Redistricted from the 10th district
Democratic 1834
1838 (Lost)
1841
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Massachusetts 10 Barker Burnell
Redistricted from the 11th district
Whig 1840 Incumbent re-elected.

Michigan

Michigan gained 2 seats, going from 1 to 3 members. Elections were held from districts November 8, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term, having previously elected a single member at-large.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan 1
Michigan 2
Michigan 3

Mississippi

Mississippi gained 2 seats, going from 2 to 4 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket November 6–7, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large
4 seats on a general ticket

Missouri

Missouri gained 3 seats, going from 2 to 5 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket August 1, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri at-large
5 seats on a general ticket

New Hampshire

New Hampshire lost 1 seat, going from 5 to 4 members. Elections were held at-large on a general ticket March 3, 1843.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket

New Jersey

New Jersey lost 1 seats, going from 6 to 5 members. Elections were held from districts October 8, 1842, having previously elected them at-large.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey 1 Joseph Fitz Randolph
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 2 John B. Aycrigg
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[k])
1840
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 3 William Halstead
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[k])
1840
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 4 John Patterson Bryan Maxwell
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[k])
1840
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
New Jersey 5 Charles C. Stratton
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[k])
1840
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig hold.
Thomas Jones Yorke
Redistricted from the at-large district
Whig 1836
1838 (Not seated[k])
1840
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost.
Whig loss.

New York

New York lost 6 seats, going from 40 to 34 members, but remaining the largest delegation. Its thirty-four members were elected November 8, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33
New York 34

North Carolina

North Carolina lost 4 seats, going from 13 to 9 members. Elections were held August 3, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9

Ohio

Ohio gained 2 seats, going from 19 to 21 members. Its twenty-one members were elected October 10, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18
Ohio 19
Ohio 20
Ohio 21

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania lost 4 seats, going from 28 to 24 members. Its twenty-four members were elected October 10, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 1
Pennsylvania 2
Pennsylvania 3
Pennsylvania 4
Pennsylvania 5
Pennsylvania 6
Pennsylvania 7
Pennsylvania 8
Pennsylvania 9
Pennsylvania 10
Pennsylvania 11
Pennsylvania 12
Pennsylvania 13
Pennsylvania 14
Pennsylvania 15
Pennsylvania 16
Pennsylvania 17
Pennsylvania 18
Pennsylvania 19
Pennsylvania 20
Pennsylvania 21
Pennsylvania 22
Pennsylvania 23
Pennsylvania 24

Rhode Island

Rhode Island stayed at 2 seats, but elected its members from districts, having previously elected them at-large. Elections were held August 29, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island 1 Robert B. Cranston
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Whig 1837 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
New member elected.
Law and Order gain.
Rhode Island 2 Joseph L. Tillinghast
(Redistricted from the at-large district)
Whig 1837 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Law and Order gain.

South Carolina

South Carolina lost 2 seats, going from 9 to 7 members. Elections were held February 20–21, 1843.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6
South Carolina 7

Tennessee

Tennessee lost 2 seats, going from 13 to 11 members. Elections were held August 3, 1842.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1
Tennessee 2
Tennessee 3
Tennessee 4
Tennessee 5
Tennessee 6
Tennessee 7
Tennessee 8
Tennessee 9
Tennessee 10
Tennessee 11

Vermont

Vermont lost 1 seat, going from 5 to 4 members. Elections were held September 5, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4

Virginia

Virginia lost 6 seats, going from 21 to 15 members. Elections were held April 27, 1843, after the March 4, 1843 beginning of the term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13
Virginia 14
Virginia 15

Wisconsin Territory

See Non-voting delegates, below.

Non-voting delegates

District Incumbent This race
Delegate Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida Territory at-large
Iowa Territory at-large Augustus C. Dodge Democratic 1840 Incumbent re-elected.
Wisconsin Territory at-large

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Elections in Maryland were held so late that they ran into 1844, as was at least one run-off election in Massachusetts, this article only includes elections during 1842 and 1843.
  2. ^ Includes 4 elected as "Redemption" Democrats.
  3. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  4. ^ Includes 1 Independent and 1 Independent Whig.
  5. ^ Dubin lists Nes as an "Independent" rather than as an Independent Democrat.[3]
  6. ^ The Law and Order Party had 2 members
  7. ^ a b c Changed from at-large
  8. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Whig: William Wright who was elected in New Jersey's 5th congressional district.
  9. ^ Run-off ballots in Massachusetts ran into 1843 and 1844 in some districts.
  10. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat: Henry Nes who was elected in Pennsylvania's 15th congressional district.
  11. ^ a b c d e See the Broad Seal War

References

  1. ^ a b Martis, p. 97.
  2. ^ Dubin, p. 134.
  3. ^ Dubin, p. 135.
  4. ^ US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives. "The Apportionment Act of 1842: Legal, When Convenient". history.house.gov. Retrieved October 13, 2020.
  5. ^ Stat. 491
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 - Special Election Race - Jun 03, 1842". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 - Special Election Race - Nov 14, 1842". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 10 - Special Election Race - Nov 13, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 1 Race - Aug 07, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 6 Race - Aug 07, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL District 7 Race - Aug 07, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - AR At-Large Race - Oct 03, 1842". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 1 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 2 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 3 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT District 4 Race - Apr 03, 1843". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  17. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=275372
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA At Large Race - Oct 03, 1842". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved December 18, 2020.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 Race - Nov 14, 1842". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  20. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=726945
  21. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=726946
  22. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=726947
  23. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=726944
  24. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=727403
  25. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=727404
  26. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=727405
  27. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=727406
  28. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=727407
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Bibliography

External links

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