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1838 Grand Liverpool Steeplechase

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1838 Grand Liverpool Steeplechase
Grand Liverpool Steeplechase
LocationAintree
Date5 March 1838
Winning horseSir William
Starting price2/1
JockeyAllen McDonough
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The 1838 Grand Liverpool Steeplechase was the last of three unofficial annual precursors of a Handicap Steeple-chase, later to become known as the Grand National Steeplechase Horse race which took place at Aintree Racecourse near Liverpool on Monday 5 March 1838 and attracted a field of only three runners. This race did not carry the prestige of the future Grand Nationals and its status as an official Grand National was revoked some time between 1862-1873.

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  • ✪ The Biggest lie of all Time With 200 Proofs - Eric Dubay - Flat Earth Discussion

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200 Proofs Earth is Not a Spinning Ball by Eric Dubay This videos has been published with the author's permission 200 proofs earth is not a spinning ball by Eric Dubay 1 the horizon always appears perfectly flat 360 degrees around the observer regardless of altitude all amateur balloon rocket plane and drone footage show completely flat horizon over 20-plus miles high only NASA and other government space agencies show curvature and they're fake cgi photos and videos to the horizon always rises to the eye level of the observer as altitude is gained so you never have to look down to see it if earth were in fact a globe no matter how large as you ascended the horizon would stay fixed and the observer would have to tilt looking down further and further to see you 3 the natural physics of water is to find and maintain its level if earth were a giant sphere tilted wobbling and hurdling through infinite space then truly flat consistently level surfaces would not exist here but since Earth is in fact an extended flat plane this fundamental physical property of fluids finding and remaining level is consistent with experience and common sense for rivers run down to sea level finding the easiest course north-south-east-west and all other intermediary directions over the earth at the same time if Earth were truly a spinning ball then many of these rivers would be impossibly flowing uphill for example the Mississippi in its 3,000 miles would have to ascend 11 miles before reaching the Gulf of Mexico 5 one portion of the nile river flows for a thousand miles with a fall of only one foot parts of the West African Congo according to the supposed inclination and movement of the ball earth would be sometimes running uphill and sometimes down this would also be the case for the piranhas Paraguay and other long rivers 6 if earth were a ball 25,000 miles in circumference as NASA and modern astronomy claimed spherical trigonometry dictates the surface of all standing water must curve downward and easily measurable eight inches per mile multiplied by the square of the distance this means along a six-mile channel of standing water the earth would dip six feet on either end from the central peak every time such experiments have been conducted however standing water has proven to be perfectly level seven surveyors engineers and architects are never required to factor the supposed curvature of the earth into their projects canals railways bridges and tunnels for example are always cut and laid horizontally often over hundreds of miles without any allowance for curvature a the Suez Canal connecting the Mediterranean with the Red Sea is a hundred miles long without any locks making the water an uninterrupted continuation of the two seas when constructed the Earth's supposin curvature was not taken into account it was dug along a horizontal datum line 26 feet below sea level passing through several lakes from one sea to the other with the datum line and the water's surface running perfectly parallel over the hundred miles mine engineer W Winkler was published in the earth review regarding the Earth's supposed curvature stating as an engineer of many years standing I saw that this absurd allowance is only permitted in schoolbooks no engineer would dream of allowing anything of the kind I have projected many miles of railways and many more of canals and the allowance has not even been thought of much less allowed for this allowance for curvature means this that it is eight inches for the first mile of a canal and increasing at the ratio by the square of the distance and miles thus a small navigable canal for boats say 30 miles long will have by the above rule an allowance for curvature of 600 feet think of that and then please credit engineers is not being quite such fools nothing of the sort is allowed we no more think of allowing 600 feet for a line of 30 miles of railway or canal than a wasting our time trying to square the circle 10 the London and North Western Railway forms a straight line 180 miles long between London and live cool the railroads highest point Midway at Birmingham station is only 240 feet above sea level if the world were actually a globe however curving 8 inches per mile squared the 180 mile stretch of rail would form an arc with the center point at Birmingham raised over a mile a full 5,400 feet above London and Liverpool 11 a surveyor and engineer of 30 years published in the Birmingham weekly mercury stated I am thoroughly acquainted with the theory and practice of civil engineering however bigoted some of our professors may be in the theory of surveying according to the prescribed rules yet it is well known amongst us that such theoretical measurements are incapable of any practical illustration all our locomotives are designed to run on what may be regarded as true levels or flats there are of course partial inclines or gradients here and there but they are always accurately defined and must be carefully traversed but anything approaching to eight inches in the mile increasing as the square of the distance could not be worked by any engine that was ever yet constructed taking one station with another all over England and Scotland it may be stated that all the platforms are on the same relative level the distance between eastern and western coasts of England may be set down as 300 miles if the prescribed curvature was indeed as represented the central stations at rugby or Warwick ought to be close upon three miles higher than a chord drawn from the two extremities if such was the case there is not a driver or stoker within the kingdom that would be found to take charge of the Train we can only laugh at those of your readers who seriously give us credit for such adventuresome exploits as running trains round spherical curves horizontal curves on levels are dangerous enough vertical curves would be a thousand times worse and with our rolling stock constructed as at present physically impossible 12 the Manchester Ship Canal Company published in the earth review stated it is customary in railway and canal constructions for all levels to be referred to a datum which is nominally horizontal and is so shown on all sections it is not the practice in laying out public works to make allowances for the curvature of the earth 13 in a 19th century French experiment by mm Bo and arago a powerful lamp with good reflectors was placed on the summit of desire ll Thomas in Spain and able to be seen all the way from Capri on the island of Ibiza since the elevation of the two points were identical and the distance between covered nearly a hundred miles if the earth were about twenty five thousand miles in circumference the light should have been more than sixty six hundred feet a mile and a quarter below the line of sight fourteen the lieutenant-colonel Portlock experiment used oxy-hydrogen Drummond's lights and heliostats to reflect the sun's rays across stations set up across a hundred and eight miles of st. George's channel if the earth were actually a ball twenty-five thousand miles in circumference port locks light should have remained hidden under a mile and a half of curvature fifteen if the earth were truly a sphere twenty-five thousand miles in circumference airplane pilots would have to constantly correct their altitudes downwards so as to not fly straight off into outer space a pilot wishing to simply maintain their altitude at a typical cruising speed of five hundred miles per hour would have to constantly dip their nose downwards and descend two thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven feet over half a mile every minute otherwise without compensation in one hours time the pilot would find themselves thirty 1.5 miles higher than expected sixteen the experiment known as Ares failure proved that stars move relative to a stationary earth and not the other way around by first filling a telescope with water to slow down the speed of light inside then calculating the tilt necessary to get the Starlight directly down the tube Airy failed to prove the heliocentric theory since the Starlight was already coming in the correct angle with no change necessary and instead proved the geocentric model correct seventeen Olbers paradox states that if there were billions of stars which are Suns the sky would be filled completely with light as Edgar Allan Poe said with a succession of stars endless than the background of the sky would present us a uniform luminosity since there could exist absolutely no point in all that background at which would not exist a star in fact Olbers paradox is no more paradox than George Aires experiment was a failure both are actually excellent reputations of the heliocentric spinning ball earth model 18 the Mickelson Morley and psychic experiments attempted to measure the change in speed of light due to Earth's assumed motion through space after measuring in every possible different direction in various locations they failed to detect any significant change whatsoever again proving the stationary geocentric model 19 techo bra he famously argued against the heliocentric theory in his time positing that if the earth revolved around the Sun the change in relative position of the stars after six months orbital motion could not fail to be seen he argued that the Stars should seem to separate as we approach and come together as we received in actual fact however after one hundred and ninety million miles of supposed orbit around the Sun not a single inch of parallax can be detected in the Stars proving that we have not moved at all twenty if earth were truly constantly spinning eastwards at over a thousand miles per hour vertically fired cannonballs and other projectiles should fall significantly due west in actual fact however when this has been tested and vertically fired cannonballs shoot upwards an average of 14 seconds ascending 14 seconds descending and fall back to the ground no more than two feet away from the cannon often directly back into the muzzle 21 if the earth were truly constantly spinning eastward at over a thousand miles per hour helicopters and hot-air balloons should be able to simply hover over the surface of the earth and wait for their destinations to come to them 22 if earth were truly constantly spinning eastward at over a thousand miles per hour during the Red Bull stratosphere dive Felix Baumgartner spending three hours ascending in New Mexico should have landed 2500 miles west into the Pacific Ocean but instead landed a few dozen miles east of the take-off point 23 Bamba leaders often claim gravity magically and inexplicably drags the entire lower atmosphere of the earth in perfect synchronization up to some undetermined height where this progressively faster spinning atmosphere gives way to the non spinning non gravities non atmosphere of infinite vacuum space such nonsensical theories are debunked however by rain fireworks burns bugs clouds smoke planes and projectiles all of which would behave very differently if both of the ball earth and its atmosphere were constantly spinning eastward at a thousand miles per hour 24 if earth and its atmosphere were constantly spinning eastward over a thousand miles per hour then north south facing cannons should establish a control while east firing cannonballs should fall significantly farther than all others while west firing cannonballs should fall significantly closer in actual effect however regardless of which direction cannons are fired the distance covered is always the same 25 if earth and its atmosphere were constantly spinning eastwards over a thousand miles per hour than the average commercial airliner traveling 500 miles per hour should never be able to reach its eastern destinations before they come speeding up from behind likewise westward destinations should be arrived at thrice the speed but this is not the case 26 quoting heaven and earth by gabrielle Henriette if flying had been invented at the time of Copernicus there is no doubt that he would have soon realized that his contention regarding the rotation of the earth was wrong on account of the relation existing between the speed of an aircraft and that of the Earth's rotation if the Earth rotates as it is said at a thousand miles an hour and a plane flies in the same direction at only 500 miles it is obvious that its place of destination will be farther removed every minute on the other hand if flying took place in the opposite direction to that of the rotation a distance of 1,500 miles would be in one hour instead of 500 since the speed of the rotation is to be added to that of the plane it could also be pointed out that such a flying speed of a thousand miles an hour which is supposed to be that of the Earth's rotation has recently been achieved so that an aircraft flying at this rate in the same direction as that of the rotation could not cover any ground at all it would remain suspended in midair over the spot from which it took off since both speeds are equal 27 if earth and its atmosphere were constantly spinning eastwards over a thousand miles per hour landing airplanes on such fast-moving runways which face all manner of directions north south east west and otherwise would be practically impossible yet in reality such fictional concerns are completely negligible 28 if the earth and its atmosphere were constantly spinning eastwards over a thousand miles per hour then clouds wind and weather patterns could not casually and unpredictably go every which way with clouds often traveling in opposing directions at varying altitudes simultaneously 29 if the earth and its atmosphere were constantly spinning eastwards over a thousand miles per hour this should somewhere somehow be seen heard felt or measured by someone yet no one in history has ever experienced this alleged eastward motion meanwhile however we can hear feel and experimentally measure even the slightest westward breeze 30 in his book south sea voyages Arctic and Antarctic Explorer Sir James Clark Ross described his experience on the night of November 27th 1839 and his conclusion that the earth must be motionless the sky being very clear it enabled us to observe the higher stratum of clouds to be moving in an exactly opposite direction to that of the wind a circumstance which is frequently recorded in our meteorological journal both in the northeast and southeast trades and has also often been observed by former voyagers captain basil hall with 'no stit from the summit of the peak of Tenerife and calsters lechi on ascending the volcanic mountain of Caronia in away he reached at 4,000 feet an elevation above that of the trade wind and experienced the influence of an opposite current of air of a different Hydra metric and thermometric condition count straddle a chi further informed me of the following seemingly anomalous circumstance that at the height of 6000 feet he found the current of air blowing at right angles to both the lower strata also of a different thermometric condition but warmer than the inter stratum such a state of the atmosphere is compatible only with the fact which other evidence has demonstrated that the earth is at rest thirty-one quoting zetetic cosmogony thomas Winship states let imagination picture to the mind what force air would have which was set in motion by a spherical body of 8,000 miles in diameter which in one hour was spinning around a thousand miles per hour rushing through space at 65,000 miles per hour and gyrating across the heavens then let conjecture endeavor to discover whether the inhabitants on such a globe could keep their hair on if the earth globe rotates on its axis at the terrific rate of a thousand miles per hour such an immense mass would of necessity cause Truman a tremendous rush of wind in the space it occupied the wind would go all one way and anything like clouds which got within the sphere of influence of the rotating sphere would have to go the same way the fact that the earth is at rest is proved by kite flying 32 if gravity is credited with being a force strong enough to hold the world's oceans buildings people and atmosphere stuck to the surface of a rapidly spinning ball then it is impossible for gravity to also simultaneously be weak enough to allow little birds bugs and planes to take off and travel freely unabated in any direction 33 if gravity is credited with being a force strong enough to curve the massive expanse of oceans around a globular earth it would be impossible for fish and other creatures to swim through such forcefully held water 34 ship captains in navigating great distances at sea never need to factor the supposin curvature of the earth into their calculations both plain sailing and great circle sailing the most popular navigation methods use plane not spherical trigonometry making all mathematical calculations on the assumption that the earth is perfectly flat if the earth were in fact a sphere such an arrant assumption would lead to constantly glaring inaccuracies plain sailing has worked perfectly fine in both theory and practice for thousands of years however and plane trigonometry has time and again proven more accurate than spherical trigonometry in determining distances across the oceans 35 if the earth were truly a globe then every line of latitude south of the equator would have to measure a gradually smaller and smaller circumference thus farther south travel if however the earth is an extended plane then every line of latitudes south of the Equator should measure a gradually larger and larger circumference the farther south traveled the fact that many captains navigating south of the Equator assuming the globular Theory have found themselves drastically out of reckoning more so the farther south traveled testifies to the fact that earth is not at all 36 during captain james clark rasa's voyages around the antarctic circumference he often wrote in his journal perplexed at how they routinely found themselves out of accordance with their charts stating that they found themselves an average of 12 to 16 miles outside their reckoning every day later on further south as much as 29 miles 37 lieutenant Charles Wilkes commanded a United States Navy exploration expedition to the Antarctic from 1838 to 1842 and in his journals also mentioned being consistently east of his reckoning sometimes over 20 miles in less than 18 hours 38 to quote Reverend Thomas Milner in the their hemisphere navigators to India have often fancied themselves east of the Cape when still west and have been driven ashore on the African coast which according to their reckoning lay behind them this misfortune happened to a fine frigate the Challenger in 1845 how came her Majesty's ship conqueror to be lost how have so many other noble vessels perfectly sound perfectly manned perfectly navigated but wrecked in calm weather not only in dark night or in a fog but in broad daylight and sunshine in the former case upon the coasts in the latter upon sunken rocks from being out of reckoning the simple answer is that Earth is not at all thirty-nine practical distance measurements taken from the Australian handbook Almanac shippers and importers directory state took a straight line distance between Sydney and Nelson is fifteen hundred and fifty statute miles they're given difference in longitude is twenty-two degrees two minutes and 14 seconds therefore if twenty two degrees two minutes for fourteen seconds out of 360 is fifteen hundred and fifty miles the entirety would measure twenty-five thousand 182 miles this is not only larger than the ball earth is said to be at the equator but a whole four thousand two hundred and sixty two miles greater than it would be a Sydney's southern latitude on a globe of set proportions forty from near Cape Horn Chile to Port Phillip in Melbourne Australia the distance is ten thousand five hundred miles or 143 degrees of longitude away factoring in the remaining degrees to 360 makes for a total distance of twenty six thousand four hundred and thirty miles around this particular latitude which is over a thousand five hundred miles wider than the earth is supposed to be at the equator and many more thousands of miles wider than it is supposed to be at such southern latitudes forty-one similar calculations made from the Cape of Good Hope South Africa to Melbourne Australia at an average latitude of 35.5 degrees cell have given an approximate figure of over 25,000 miles which is again equal to or greater than the Earth's supposed greatest circumference at the equator calculations from in Australia to Wellington New Zealand at an average of 37 point five degrees south have given an approximate circumference of 25 thousand five hundred miles greater still according to the baller theory the circumference of the earth at thirty-seven point five degrees southern latitude should be only nineteen thousand seven hundred and fifty-seven statute miles almost six thousand miles less than such practical measurements 42 in the ball earth model Antarctica is an ice continent which covers the bottom of the ball from 78 degrees south latitude to 90 and is therefore not more than twelve thousand miles in circumference many early explorers including Captain Cook and James Clark Ross however in attempting Antarctic circumnavigation took three to four years and clocked fifty to sixty thousand miles around the British ship challenger also made an indirect a complete circumnavigation of Antarctica traversing sixty nine thousand miles this is entirely inconsistent with the ball model 43 if earth was a ball there are several flights in the southern hemisphere which would have their quickest straightest path over the Antarctic continent such as Santiago Chile to Sydney Australia instead of taking the shortest quickest route in a straight line over Antarctica all such flights detour all manner of directions away from Antarctica instead claiming the temperatures too cold for airplane travel considering the fact that there are plenty of flights to/from and over Antarctica and NASA claims to have technology keeping them in conditions both far colder and far hotter than any experienced on earth such an excuse is clearly just an excuse and these flights aren't made because they are impossible 44 if earth was a ball and Antarctica was too cold to fly over the only logical way to fly from Sydney to Santiago would be a straight shot over the Pacific staying in the southern hemisphere the entire way refuelling could be done in New Zealand or other southern hemisphere destinations along the way if absolutely necessary in actual fact however Santiago to Sydney flights go into the northern hemisphere making stopovers at LAX and other North American airports before continuing back down to the southern hemisphere such ridiculously wayward detours making no sense on the globe but make perfect sense and form nearly straight lines when shown on a flat earth map 45 on a ball earth Johannesburg South Africa to Perth Australia should be a straight shot over the Indian Ocean with convenient refueling possibilities on Meritus or Madagascar in actual practice however most Johannesburg to Perth flights curiously stop over either in Dubai Hong Kong or Malaysia all of which make no sense on the ball but are completely understandable when mapped on a flat earth 46 on a bottle earth Cape Town South Africa the boy knows Aires Argentina should be a straight shot over the Atlantic following the same line of latitude across but instead every flight goes to connecting locations in the northern hemisphere first stopping over anywhere from London to Turkey to Dubai once again these make absolutely no sense on the globe but are completely understandable options when mapped on a flat earth 47 on a baller at the Johannesburg South Africa to South Paulo Brazil should be a quick straight shot along the 25th southern latitude but instead nearly every flight makes a refueling stop at the fiftieth degree north latitude in London first the only reason such a ridiculous stopover works in reality is because the earth is flat 48 on a ball earth Santiago Chile to Johannesburg South Africa should be an easy flight all taking place below the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere yet every listed flight makes a curious refuelling stop in Senegal near the Tropic of Cancer in the North hemisphere first when mapped on a flat earth the reason why is clear to see however Senegal is actually directly in a straight line path halfway between the two 49 if earth were a spinning ball heated by a Sun 93 million miles away it would be impossible to have simultaneously sweltering summers in Africa while just a few thousand miles away bone-chilling frozen Arctic and Antarctic winters experiencing little to no heat from the Sun whatsoever if the heat from the Sun traveled 93 million miles to the Sahara Desert it is absurd to assert another four thousand miles point zero zero zero zero four percent further to Antarctica would completely negate such a sweltering heat resulting in such drastic differences 50 if the earth were truly a globe the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions and areas of comparable latitude north and south of the equator should share similar conditions and characteristics such as comparable temperatures seasonal changes like the daylight plant and animal life in reality however the Arctic and Antarctic regions and areas of comparable latitude north and south of the equator differ greatly in many ways entirely inconsistent with the ball model an entirely consistent with the flat model 51 Antarctica is by far the coldest place on earth with an average annual temperature of approximately minus 57 degrees Fahrenheit and a record low of minus 135 point 8 the average annual temperature at the North Pole however is a comparatively warm four degrees throughout the year temperatures in the Antarctic very less than half the amount at comparable Arctic latitudes the northern Arctic region enjoys moderately warm summers and manageable winters whereas the southern Antarctic region never even warms enough to melt the perpetual snow and ice on a tilting wobbling ball earth spinning uniformly around the Sun Arctic and Antarctic temperatures and seasons should not vary so greatly 52 Iceland at 65 degrees north latitude is home to 870 species of native plants and abundant various animal life compare this with the Isle of Georgia at just 54 degrees south latitude where they're only 18 species of native plants and animal life is almost non-existent the same latitude as Canada or England in the north where dense forests of various tall trees abound the infamous Captain Cook wrote of Georgia that he was unable to find a single shrub large enough to make a toothpick Cook wrote not a tree was to be seen the lands which lie too Souths are doomed by nature to perpetual frigid nests never to feel the warmth of the sun's rays whose horrible and savage aspect I have not words to describe even marine life is sparse in certain tracts of vast extent and the seabird is seldom observed flying over such lonely wastes the contrasts between the limits of organic life in the Arctic and Antarctic zones is very remarkable and significant 53 at places of comparable latitude north and south the Sun behaves very differently than it would on a spinning ball earth but precisely how it should on a flat earth for example the longest summer days north of the Equator are much longer than those south of the equator and the shortest winter days north of the equator are much shorter than the shortest south of the Equator this is inexplicable on a uniformly spinning wobbling ball earth that fits exactly on a flat model with the Sun traveling circles over and around the earth from topic to topic 54 at places of comparable latitude north and south dawn and dusk happen very differently than they would on a spinning ball but precisely how they should on a flat earth in the North dawn and dusk come slowly and last far longer than in the south where they come and go very quickly certain places in the North Twilight can last for over an hour while at comparable southern latitudes within a few minutes the sunlight completely disappears this is inexplicable on a uniformly spinning wobbling ball earth but is exactly what is expected on a flat earth with the Sun traveling faster wider circles over the south and slower narrower circles over the north 55 if the Sun circles over and around the earth every 24 hours steadily traveling from topic to topic every six months it follows that the northern central region would annually receive far more heat and sunlight than the Southern circumferential region since the Sun must sweep over the larger southern region in the same 24 hours it has to pass over the smaller northern region its passage must necessarily be proportionally faster as well this perfectly explains the differences in Arctic and Antarctic temperatures seasons length of daylight plant and animal life this is why the Antarctic morning dawn and evening Twilight are very abrupt compared with north and this explains why many midsummer Arctic nights the Sun does not set at all 56 the Midnight Sun is an Arctic phenomenon occurring annually during the summer solstice where for several days straight an observer significantly far enough north can watch the Sun traveling circles overhead rising and falling in the sky throughout the day but never fully setting for upwards of 72 plus hours if the earth were actually a spinning globe revolving around the Sun the only place such a phenomenon as the Midnight Sun could be observed would be at the poles and the other advantage point from 89 degrees latitude downwards could never regardless of any tilt or inclination see the Sun for 24 hours straight to see the Sun for an entire revolution on a spinning globe at a point other than the poles you would have to be looking through miles and miles of land and sea for part of the revolution 57 the establishment claims the Midnight Sun is experienced in Antarctica but they conveniently do not have any uncut videos showing this nor do they allow independent explorers to travel to Antarctica during the winter solstice to verify or refute these claims conversely there are dozens of uncut videos publicly available showing the Arctic Midnight Sun and it has been verified beyond any shadow of a doubt 58 the Royal Belgian geographical society in their expedition antarctic bells recorded that during the most severe part of the Antarctic winter from 71 degrees south latitude onwards the Sun sets on May 17th and is not seen above the horizon again until July 21st this is completely at odds with the baller a theory but easily explained by the Flat Earth model the Midnight Sun is seen from high altitudes in extreme northern latitudes during Arctic summer because the Sun and its innermost cycle is circling tightly enough around the polar centre that it remains visible above the horizon for someone at such a vantage point likewise in extreme southern latitudes during Arctic summer the Sun completely disappears from view for over two months because there at the northern Tropic the innermost arc of its boomerang journey the Sun is circling the northern centre too tightly to be seen from the southern circumference 59 quoting gabrielle Henriette the theory of the rotation of the earth may once and for all be definitely disposed of as impracticable by pointing out the following inadvertence it is said that the rotation takes 24 hours and that its speed is uniform in which case necessarily days and nights should have an identical duration of 12 hours each all the year round the Sun should invariably rise in the morning and set in the evening at the same hours with the result that it would be the equinox every day from the 1st of January to the 31st of December one should stop and reflect on this before saying that the earth has a movement of rotation how does the system of gravitation account for the seasonal variations in the length of days and nights if the earth rotates at a uniform speed in 24 hours 16 anyone can prove the sea horizon perfectly straight and the earth perfectly flat using nothing more than a level tripods and a wooden plank at any altitude above sea level simply fix a 6 to 12 foot long smooth levelled board and dries upon tripods and observe the skyline from eye level behind it the distant horizon will always appear perfectly level with the upper edge of the board furthermore if you move in a half circle from one end of the board to the other whilst observing the skyline over the upper edge you'll be able to trace a clear flat 10 to 20 miles depending on your altitude this would be impossible if the earth were low 25,000 miles in circumference the horizon would align over the center of the board then gradually noticeably decline towards the extremities just 10 miles on each side would necessitate an easily visible curvature of 66.6 feet from each end to the center 61 if the earth were actually a big ball 25,000 miles in circumference the horizon would be noticeably curved even at sea level and everything on or approaching the horizon would appear to tilt backwards slightly from your perspective distant buildings along the horizon would all look like leaning towers of Pisa falling away from the observer a hot-air balloon taking off then drifting steadily away from you on a ball earth when slowly and constantly appear to lean back and more the farther away of flu the bottom of the basket coming gradually into view as the top of the balloon disappears from sight in reality however buildings balloons trees people anything and everything at right angles to the ground and horizon remain so regardless the distance or height of the observer 62 Samuel Rowbotham experiments at the Old Bedford level proved conclusively the canals water to be completely flat over a six mile stretch first he stood in the canal with his telescope held eight inches above the surface of the water then his friend in a boat with a five-foot tall flag sailed the six miles away if earth were about twenty-five thousand miles in circumference the six mile stretch of water should have comprised an arc exactly six feet high in the middle so the entire boat and flag should have ultimately disappeared when in fact the entire boat and flag remained visible at the same height for the entire journey 63 in a second experiment dr. Rowbotham affixed flags five feet high along the shoreline one at every mile marker then using his telescope mounted at five feet just behind the first flag looked over the tops of all six flags which lined up in a perfectly straight line if the earth were a ball 25,000 miles in circumference the flags should have progressively dipped down after the first establishing line of sight the second would have descended eight inches 32 inches for the third six feet for the fourth 10 feet eight inches for the fifth and sixteen feet eight inches for the six sixty four quoting earth not a globe by Samuel Rowbotham it is known that the horizon at sea whatever distance it may extend to the right and left of the observer on land always appears as a straight line the following experiment has been tried in various parts of the country at Brighton on a rising ground near the racecourse two poles who are fixed in the earth six yards apart and directly opposite the sea between these poles a line was tightly stretched parallel to the horizon from the center of the line the view embraced not less than 20 miles on each side making a distance of 40 miles a vessel was observed sailing directly westwards the line cut the rigging a little above the bulwarks which it did for several hours or until the vessel had sailed the whole distance of 40 miles the ship coming into view from the east would have to ascend an inclined plane for 20 miles until it arrived at the center of the arc once it would have to descend for the same distance the square of 20 miles multiplied by 8 inches gives 266 feet as the amount the vessel would be below the line at the beginning and at the end of the 40 miles 65 also quoting dr. Rowbotham on a shore near Waterloo a few miles to the north of Liverpool a good telescope was fixed at an elevation of 6 feet above the water it was directed to a large steamer just leaving the River Mersey and sailing out to Dublin gradually the masthead of the receiving vessel came nearer to the horizon until at length after more than four hours had elapsed it disappeared the ordinary mate of sailing of the Dublin steamers was fully 8 miles an hour so that the vessel would be at least 32 miles distant when the masthead came to the horizon the 6 feet of elevation of the telescope would require 3 miles to meet deducted for convexity which would leave 29 miles the square of which multiplied by 8 inches gives 560 feet deducting 80 feet for the height of the main mast and we find that according to the doctrine of fraternity the masthead of the outward-bound steamer should have been 480 feet below the horizon many other experiments of this kind have been made upon seagoing steamers and always with the results entirely incompatible with the theory that the earth is a globe 66 dr. Rowbotham conducted several other experiments using telescopes spirit levels sextants and theodolites special precision instruments used for measuring angles in the horizontal or vertical plane by positioning them at equal Heights aimed at each other successively he proved over and over the earth to be perfectly flat for miles without a single inch of curvature his findings caused quite a stir in the scientific community and thanks to 30 years of his efforts the shape of the earth became a hot topic of debate around the turn of the 19th century 67 the distance across the Irish Sea from the isle of man's douglas harbour to great arms head in north wales at 60 miles if the earth was a globe then the surface of the water between them would form a 60 mile arc centre towering nineteen hundred and forty four feet higher than the coastlines at either end it is well known and easily verifiable however but on a clear day from a modest altitude of a hundred feet the great arms head is visible from Douglas harbour this would be completely impossible on a globe of 25,000 miles assuming 100 foot altitude causes the horizon to appear approximately 13 miles off the 47 miles remaining means the Welsh coastline should still fall an impossible fourteen hundred and seventy-two feet below the line of sight 68 the Philadelphia skyline is clearly visible from apple-pie Hill in the New Jersey Pine Barrens 40 miles away if earth were about twenty-five thousand miles in circumference factoring in the 205 foot elevation of apple-pie Hill the Philly skyline should remain well hidden beyond three hundred and thirty-five feet of curvature 69 the New York City skyline is clearly visible from Harriman state parks Bear Mountain 60 miles away if earth were about twenty-five thousand miles in circumference viewing from their mountains thousand two hundred and eighty three foot summit the Pythagorean theorem determining distance to the horizon being one point two three times the square root of the height in feet New York City skyline should be invisible behind the hundred and seventy feet of curved er seventeen from Washington's Rock in New Jersey at just a four hundred foot elevation it is possible on a clear day to see the skylines of both New York and Philadelphia in opposite directions at the same time covering a total distance of 120 miles if earth were about twenty five thousand miles in circumference both of these skylines should be hidden behind over a hundred feet of Earth's curvature 71 it is often possible to see the Chicago skyline from sea level 60 miles away across Lake Michigan in 2015 after photographer Joshua nawicki photographed this phenomenon several news channels quickly claimed his picture to be a superior Mirage an atmospheric anomaly caused by temperature inversion while these certainly do occur the skyline in question was facing right-side up and clearly seen unlike a hazy illusory Mirage and on a ball earth 25,000 miles in circumference should be 2,400 feet below the horizon 72 October 16th 1854 The Times newspaper reported the Queen's visit to great Grimsby from Hull recording they were able to see the 300 foot tall dock tower from 70 miles away on a ball worth 25,000 miles in circumference factoring their 10-foot elevation above the water and the towers 300 foot height at 70 miles away the doctor should have remained an entire 2,600 feet below the horizon 73 in 1872 captain Gibson and crewmates sailing the ship Thomas wood from China to London reported seeing the entirety of st. Helena Island on a clear day from 75 miles away factoring in their height during measurement on a ball earth 25,000 miles in circumference it was found the island should have been three thousand six hundred and fifty feet below their line of sight 74 from Genoa Italy at a height of just 70 feet above sea level the island of Gorgona can often be seen 81 miles away if earth were ball 25,000 miles in circumference Gorgona should be hidden beyond 3332 feet of curvature 75 from genoa italy at a height of just 70 feet above sea level the island of Corsica can often be seen 99 miles away if earth were of all 25 thousand miles in circumference Corsica should fall five thousand two hundred and forty-five feet almost an entire mile below the horizon 76 from Genoa Italy 70 feet above sea level the island of Capri ax 102 miles away can often be seen as well if earth were ball twenty-five thousand miles in circumference cap Reyes should always remain hidden behind 5,000 605 feet over a mile of supposed curvature 77 also from Genoa on bright clear days the island of elba can be seen an incredible 125 miles away if earth were a ball 25,000 miles in circumference Elba should be forever invisible behind eight thousand seven hundred and seventy feet of curvature 78 from Anchorage Alaska at an elevation of 102 feet on clear days mount Foraker can be seen with the naked eye 120 miles away if earth were a ball 25,000 miles in circumference mount for occurs seventeen thousand four hundred foot summit should be leaning back away from the observer covered by seven thousand seven hundred and nineteen feet of curved earth in reality however the entire mountain can be quite easily seen standing straight from base to summit 79 from Anchorage Alaska at an elevation of 102 feet on clear days Mount McKinley can be seen with the naked eye from a hundred and thirty miles away if earth were a ball 25,000 miles in circumference Mount McKinley is twenty thousand three hundred and twenty foot summit should be leaning back away from the observer and almost half covered by nine thousand two hundred and twenty feet of curved earth in reality however the entire mountain can be quite easily seen standing straight from base to summit 80 in chambers journal February 1895 a sailor near Meritus in the Indian Ocean reported having seen a vessel which turned out to be an incredible 200 miles away the incident caused much heated debate in nautical circles at the time gaining further confirmation in Aden Yemen where another witness reported seeing a missing Bombay steamer from 200 miles away he correctly stated the precise appearance location and direction of the steamer all later corroborated and confirmed correct by those on board such sightings are absolutely inexplicable if the earth were actually a ball 25,000 miles around as ships 200 miles distant would have to fall approximately five miles below a line of sight anyone the distance from which various lighthouse lights around the world are visible let's see far exceeds what could be found on a ball earth 25,000 miles in circumference for example the Dunkirk light in southern France at an altitude of 194 feet is visible from a boat 10 feet above sea level 28 miles away spiracle trigonometry dictates that if the earth was a globe with the given curvature of 8 inches per mile squared this light should be hidden 190 feet below the horizon 82 the Port Nicholson light in New Zealand is 420 feet above sea level and visible from 35 miles away where it should be 220 feet below the horizon 83 the ocurro light in Norway is 154 feet above high-water and visible from 28 statute miles where it should be 230 feet below the horizon 84 the light at Madras on the Esplanade is 132 feet high and visible from 28 miles away or it should be 250 feet below the line of sight 85 the coordinate light on the west coast of France is 207 feet high and visible from 31 miles away where it should be 280 feet below the line of sight 86 the light at Cape Bonavista Newfoundland is 150 feet above sea level and visible at 35 miles or it should be 491 feet below the horizon 87 the lighthouse steeple of st. Anne Bowl tops parish church in Boston is 290 feet tall and visible from over 40 miles away where it should be hidden a full 800 feet below the horizon 88 the Isle of Wight lighthouse in England is 180 feet high and meat can be seen up to 42 miles away a distance at which modern astronomers say the light should fall 996 feet below the line of sight 89 the Cape 'la coolest lighthouse in South Africa is 33 feet high 238 feet above sea level and can be seen for over 50 miles if the world work globe this light would fall 1,400 feet below an observers line-of-sight 90 the Statue of Liberty in New York stands 326 feet above sea level and on a clear day can be seen as far as sixty miles away if the earth were a globe that would put Lady Liberty at an impossible two thousand seventy four feet below the horizon ninety one the lighthouse at Port Syed Egypt at an elevation of only sixty feet has been seen an astonishing 58 miles away where according to modern astronomy it should be two thousand one hundred and eighty-two feet below the line of sight ninety two the notre-dame antwerp spire stands 403 feet high from the foot of the tower with Strasburg measuring 468 feet above sea level with the aid of a telescope ships can be distinguished on the horizon and captain's declare they can see the cathedral spire from an amazing hundred and fifty miles away if the earth were our globe however at that distance the spire should be an entire mile 5,280 feet below the horizon 93 the st. George's channel between Holyhead and Kingston Harbor near Dublin is 60 miles across when half way across a ferry passenger will notice behind them the light on Holyhead pier as well as in front of them the pool bag light in Dublin Bay the Holyhead pier light is 44 feet high while the pool peg lighthouse 68 feet therefore a vessel in the middle of the channel 30 miles from either side standing on a deck 24 feet above the water can clearly see both lights on a ball earth 25,000 miles in circumference however both lights should be hidden well below both horizons by over 300 feet 94 from the high land near Portsmouth Harbor and Hampshire England looking across Spithead to the Isle of Wight the entire base of the island where water and land come together composes a perfectly straight line 22 statute miles long according to the baller theory the Isle of Wight decline 80 feet from the centre on each side to account for the necessary curvature the crosshairs of a good theof the light directed there have repeatedly shown the land and water line to be perfectly level 95 on a clear day from the high head near Douglas harbor on the Isle of Man the whole length of the coast of North Wales is often plainly visible to the naked eye from the point of air at the mouth of the River d2 holy head comprises a 50-mile stretch which has also been repeatedly found to be perfectly horizontal if the earth actually had curvature of eight inches per mile squared as NASA and modern astronomy claimed the 50-mile length of Welsh Coast seen along the horizon in Liverpool Bay would have to decline from the center point an easily detectable 416 feet on each side 96 from 100 proofs the earth is not a globe by William carpenter if we take the journey down chesapeake bay by night we shall see the light exhibited at sharps island for an hour before the steamer gets to it we may take up a position on deck so that the rail of the vessel side will be in a line with the light and in the line of sight and we shall find that in the whole journey the light won't vary in the slightest degree in its apparent elevation but say that a distance of 13 miles has been traversed the astronomers theory of curvature demands a difference one way or the other in the apparent elevation of the light of 112 feet 8 inches since however there is not a difference of 100 hairs and breaths we have a plain proof that the water the Chesapeake Bay is not curved which is a proof that the earth is not aglow 97 NASA and modern astronomy say the earth is a giant ball tilted back wobbling and spinning 1,000 miles per hour around its central axis traveling 67,000 miles per hour circles around the Sun spiraling 500,000 miles per hour around the Milky Way while the entire galaxy Rockets are ridiculous 670 million miles through the universe with all of these motions originating from an alleged Big Bang cosmic explosion 14 billion years ago that's a grand total of 67 million five hundred and sixty eight thousand miles per hour in several different directions we're all supposedly speeding along at simultaneously yet no one has ever seen felt heard measured or proven a single one of these motions to exist whatsoever 98 NASA and modern astronomy say Polaris the North Pole star is somewhere between 323 and 434 light-years or about two quadrillion miles away from us firstly note that is between 1 quadrillion 938 trillion 2 to quadrillion 604 trillion miles making a difference of over 600 trillion miles if modern astronomy cannot even agree on the distance to stars within hundreds of trillions of miles perhaps their science is flawed and their theory needs re-examining however even granting them their obscurely distant stars it is impossible for helium centrists to explain how Polaris manages to always remain perfectly aligned straight above the North Pole throughout Earth's various alleged tilting wobbling rotating and revolving motions 99 viewed from a baller Polaris situated directly over the North Pole should not be visible anywhere in the southern hemisphere for Polaris to be seen from the southern hemisphere above globular Earth the observer would have to be somehow looking through the globe and miles of land and sea would have to be transparent Polaris can be seen however up to over 20 degrees south latitude 100 if earth were a ball the Southern Cross and other southern constellations would all be visible at the same time from every longitude on the same latitude as is the case in the North with Polaris and its surrounding constellations or some major and minor and many others can be seen from every northern meridian simultaneously whereas in the South constellations like the Southern Cross cannot this proves that the southern hemisphere is not turned under as in the ball model but simply stretching further outwards away from the northern center point as in the Flat Earth model 101 Sigma Act entus is claimed to be a southern central pole star similar to Polaris around which the southern hemisphere stars all rotate around the opposite direction unlike Polaris however Sigma Cantus cannot be seen simultaneously from every point along the same latitude it is not central but allegedly one degree off center it is not motionless and in fact cannot be seen at all using publicly available telescopes there's legitimate speculation regarding whether Sigma Act antis even exists either way the direction in which stars move overhead is based on perspective in the exact direction you're facing not which hemisphere you're in 102 some heliocentric have tried to suggest that the pole stars gradual declination overhead as an observer travels southward is proof of a globular far home at the declination of the pole star or any other object is simply a result of the law of perspective on plain flat surfaces the law of perspective dictates that the angle and height at which an object is seen diminishes the farther one recedes from the object until at a certain point the line-of-sight and the seemingly Uprising surface of the earth converges to a vanishing point ie the horizon line beyond which the object is invisible in the ball earth model the horizon is claimed to be the curvature of the earth whereas in reality the horizon is known to simply be the vanishing line of perspective based on the strength of your eyes instruments weather and altitude 103 there are several constellations which can be seen from far greater distances over the face of the earth then should be possible if the world were rotating revolving wobbling ball for instance Ursa Major very close to Polaris can be seen from 90 degrees north latitude the North Pole all the way down to 30 degrees south latitude for this to be possible on a ball earth the southern observers would have to be seeing through hundreds or thousands of miles of bulging earth to the northern sky 104 the constellation of vulpecula can be seen from 90 degrees north latitude all the way to 55 degrees south latitude Taurus Pisces and Leo can be seen from 90 degrees north all the way to 65 degrees cell and observer on a ball earth regardless of any tilter inclination should not logically be able to see this bar 105 Aquarius and Libra can be seen from 65 degrees north to 92 sell the constellation virgo is visible from 80 degrees north down to 80 degrees south the Narayan can be seen from 85 degrees north all the way to 75 degrees south latitude these are all only possible because the hemispheres are not spheres at all but concentric circles of latitude extending outwards from the central North Pole with the Stars rotating over and around 106 the so-called South Pole is simply an arbitrary point along the Antarctic ice marked with a red and white barbershop pole topped with a middle baller the ceremonial South Col is admittedly and provably not the actual South Pole however because the actual South Pole could be demonstrably confirmed with the aid of a compass showing North to be 360 degrees around the observer since this feat has never been achieved the model remains pure theory along with the establishments excuse that the geomagnetic poles supposedly constantly move around and making verifications of their claims impossible 107 ring magnets of the kind found in loudspeakers have a central North Pole with the opposite South Pole actually being all points along the outer circumference this perfectly demonstrates the magnetism of our Flat Earth whereas the alleged source of magnetism in the ball earth model is emitted from a hypothetical molten magnetic core in the center of the ball which they claim conveniently causes both poles to constantly move thus evading independent verification at their - ceremonial poles in reality the deepest drilling operation in history the Russian Kola ultra deep managed to get only 8 miles down so the entire ball earth model taught in schools showing a crust outer mantle inner mantle outer core and inner core layers are all purely speculation as we have never penetrated through beyond the crust 108 the Mariners compass is an impossible and nonsensical instrument for use on a ball earth it simultaneously points north and south over a flat surface yet claims to be pinpointing - constantly moving geomagnetic poles at opposite ends of a spinning sphere originating from a hypothetical molten metal core if compass needles are actually drawn to the north pole of a globe opposing self needle would actually be pointing up and off into outer space 109 there are no fixed East or West points just as there's no fixed South the north central pole is the only proven fixed point on our Flat Earth with the South being all straight lines outwards from the pole east and west being concentric circles at constant right angles 90 degrees from the bowl a westerly circumnavigation of Earth is thus going around with Polaris continually on your right while an easterly circumnavigation is going around with Polaris always at your left 110 Magellan and others east-west circumnavigations of Earth are often quoted as proof of the ball model in actual fact however sailing or flying at right angles to the North Pole and eventually returning to one's original location is no more difficult or mysterious than doing so on a globe just as an architect's compass can place its centre point on a flat piece of paper and trace a circle either way around the pole so can a ship or plane circumnavigate a Flat Earth 111 since the North Pole in Antarctica are covered in ice and guarded no-fly zones no ships or planes have ever been known to circumnavigate the earth in north-south directions the only kind of circumnavigation which could not happen on a flat earth is north and southbound which is likely the very reason for the heavily enforced flight restrictions the fact that there is yet to be a single verified North to South circumnavigation of Earth serves as standing proof the world is not a ball 112 the Sun brings Newton to every time zone as it passes directly overhead every 15 degree demarcation point 24 times per day in its circular path over and around the earth if time zones were instead caused by the uniform spinning of the ball earth around the Sun every six months as Earth found itself on the opposite side of the Sun clocks all over Earth would have to flip twelve hours day would be night and night would be day 113 the idea that people are standing ships are sailing and planes are flying upside down on certain parts of Earth while others tilted at 90 degrees and all other impossible angles is complete absurdity the idea that a man digging a hole straight down could eventually reach sky on the other side is ludicrous common sense tells every free thinking person correctly that there truly is an up-and-down in nature unlike the everything is relative rhetoric of the Newtonian einsteinium paradigm 114 quoting on the false wisdom of the philosophers bilah conscious a sphere where people on the other side lived with their feet above their heads or rain snow and hail fall upwards where trees and crops grow upside down and the sky is lower than the ground the ancient wonder of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon dwindle into nothing in comparison to the fields seas towns and mountains that pagan philosophers believed to be hanging from the earth without support 115 the existing laws of density and buoyancy perfectly explained the physics of falling objects long before a knighted freemason Sir Isaac Newton bestowed his theory of gravity upon the world it is a fact that objects placed in denser mediums arise up while objects place in less dense mediums sink down to fit with the heliocentric model which has no up or down Newton instead claimed objects are attracted to large masses and fall towards the center not a single experiment in history however has shown an object a massive enough to by virtue of its mass alone cause other smaller masses to be attracted to it as Newton claims gravity does with the earth the Sun Moon stars and planets 116 there is also never been a single experiment in history showing an object massive enough to by virtue of its mass alone cause another smaller mass to orbit around it the magic theory of gravity allows for oceans buildings and people to remain forever stuck to the underside of a spinning ball while simultaneously causing objects like the moon and satellites to remain locked in perpetual circular orbits around the earth if these were both true then people should be able to jump up and start orbiting circles around the Earth or the moon should've long ago been sucked into the earth neither of these theories have ever been experimentally verified and their alleged results are mutually exclusive 117 Newton also theorized and it is now commonly taught that the Earth's ocean tides are caused by gravitational lunar attraction if the moon is only 2160 miles in diameter and the earth 8,000 miles however using their own math and law it follows that the earth is 87 times more massive and therefore the larger object should attract the smaller to it and not the other way around if the Earth's greater gravity is what keeps the moon in orbit it is impossible for the moon's and lesser gravity to supersede the Earth's gravity especially at Earth's sea level or its gravitational attraction would even further out trump the moon's and if the moon's gravity truly did supersede the earth is causing the tides to be drawn towards it there should be nothing to stop them from continuing onwards and upwards towards their Great Attractor 118 furthermore the velocity and path of the moon are uniform and should therefore exist a uniform influence on the Earth's time when in actuality Earth's tides vary greatly and do not follow the moon Earth's lakes ponds marshes and other inland bodies of water also inexplicably remain forever outside the moon's gravitational grasp if gravity was truly drawing Earth's oceans up to it all lakes ponds and other bodies of standing water should certainly have tides as well 118 it is claimed the other planets are spheres and so therefore earth must also be a sphere firstly earth is a plane not a planet so the shape of these planets in the sky have no bearing on the shape of the earth beneath our feet secondly these planets have been known for thousands of years around the world as wandering stars since they differ from the other fixed stars in their relative motions only when looked at with an unprejudiced naked eye or through a telescope the fixed and wandering stars appear as luminous disks of light not spherical terra firma the pictures and videos shown by NASA of spherical Terra Firma planets are all clearly fake computer-generated images and not photographs 120 the etymology of the word planet actually comes from the late old english planet or from old french planet from Latin Planeta from Greek planet s planet I wandering stars or to wander of unknown origin to spread or notion of spread out from Latin plenum flat surface plain level plain they just added a tee to our earth plane and everyone bought it 121 when you observed the Sun and Moon you see two equally sized equidistant circles tracing similar paths at similar speeds around a flat stationary earth the experts at NASA however claim your common sense everyday experiences false on all counts to begin with they say the earth is not flat but a big ball not stationary but spinning around 19 miles per second they say the Sun does not revolve around the earth as it appears but Earth revolves around the Sun the moon on the other hand does revolve around the earth though not east to west as it appears rather west to east and the Sun is actually 400 times larger than the moon and 400 times farther away you can clearly see they are the same size and distance you can see there at this flat you can feel the earth is stationary but according to the gospel of modern astronomy you are wrong in a simpleton worthy of endless ridicule if you dare to trust your own eyes and experience 122 quoting Allen Dame's if the government or NASA had said to you that the earth is stationary imagine that and then imagine we are trying to convince people that no no it's not stationary it's moving forward at 32 times rifle bullet speed and spinning at a thousand miles per hour we would be laughed at we would have so many people telling us you're crazy the Earth's not moving we would be ridiculed for having no scientific backing for this convoluted moving earth theory and not only that but then people would say oh then how do you explain a fixed calm atmosphere in the sun's observable movement how do you explain that imagine saying to people no no the atmosphere is moving also but is somehow magically velcroed to the moving earth the reason is not simply because the earth is stationary so what we are actually doing is what makes sense we are saying that the moving earth theory is nonsense the stationary earth theory makes sense and we are being ridiculed you've got to picture it being the other way around to realize just how ridiculous the situation is this theory from the government and NASA that the earth is rotating and orbiting and leaning over and wobbling is absolute nonsense and yet people are clinging to it tightly like a teddy bear they just can't bring themselves to face the possibility that the earth is stationary though all evidence shows it we feel no movement the atmosphere hasn't been blown away we see the Sun move from east to west everything can be explained by a motionless earth without bringing in all these assumptions to cover our previous assumptions gone bad 123 Helio centrists astronomical figures always sound perfectly precise but they have historically been notorious for regularly and drastically changing them to suit their various models for instance in his time Copernicus calculated the sun's distance from Earth to be three million three hundred and ninety one two hundred miles the next century Johannes Kepler decided it was actually 12 million three hundred and seventy six thousand eight hundred miles away Isaac Newton once said it matters not whether we reckon at 28 or 54 million miles distant for either would do just as well how scientific Benjamin Martin calculated between 81 and 82 million miles Thomas Dilworth claimed at 93 million seven hundred and twenty six thousand nine hundred miles John Hines stated positively ninety-five million two hundred and ninety eight thousand two hundred and sixty miles Benjamin Gould said more than 96 million miles and Christian Mayer thought it was more than 104 million flat-earthers throughout the ages conversely have used sextant sand plane trigonometry to make such calculations and found the Sun and the moon both to be only about 32 miles in diameter and less than a few thousand miles from Earth 124 amateur balloon footage taken above the clouds has provided stunning visual proof that the Sun cannot be millions of miles away in several shots you can see a clear hot spot reflecting on the clouds directly below the Sun spotlight like influence if the Sun were actually millions of miles away such a small localized hot spot could not occur 125 another proof the Sun is not millions of miles away is found by tracing the angle of some rays back to their source above the there are thousands of pictures showing how sunlight comes down through cloud cover at a variance of converging angles the area of convergence is of course the Sun and is not millions of miles away but rather relatively close to earth just above the clouds 126 the sun's annual journey from topic to topic solstice to solstice is what determines the length and character of days nights and seasons this is why equatorial regions experience almost year-round summer and heat while higher latitudes north and especially south experienced more distinct seasons with harsh winters the heliocentric model claims seasons change based on the ball earth's alleged axial tilt an elliptical orbit around the Sun yet they're flawed current model places us closest to the Sun 91 million miles in January when it is actually winter and farthest from the Sun ninety four point five million miles in July when it's actually summer throughout most of the earth 127 the fact that the Sun and moons reflections on water always form a straight line path from the horizon to the observer proves the earth astana ball if the Earth's surface was curved it would be impossible for the reflected light to curve over the ball from Horizon to observer 128 there are huge centuries-old Stone sundials and moon dials all over the world which still tell the time now down to the minute as perfectly as the day they were made if the earth Sun and Moon were truly subject to the number of contradictory revolving rotating wobbling and spiraling motions claimed by modern astronomy it would be impossible for these monuments to so accurately tell time without constant adjustment 129 to quote William carpenter why in the name of common sense should observers have to fix their telescopes on solid stone bases so that they should not move a hair's breath if the earth on which they fix them moves at the rate of 19 miles in a second indeed to believe that 6000 million million million tons is rolling searching flying darting on through space forever with a velocity compared with which a shot from a cannon is a very slow coach with such unerring accuracy that a telescope fixed granite pillars in an observatory will not enable a link side astronomer to detect a variation in its onward motion of the thousandth part of a hair's breadth is to conceive a miracle compared with which all the miracles on record put together would sink into utter insignificance since we can in middle North latitudes see the North Star on looking out of a window that faces it and out of this very same corner of the very same pane of glass in the very same window all the year round it is proof enough for any man in his senses that we have not made any motion at all and that the earth is not a globe 130 from Earth not a globe by a Samuel Rowbotham take to carefully board metallic tubes not less than 6 feet in length and placed them one yard asunder on the opposite sides of a wooden frame or a solid block of wood or stone so adjust them that their centres or axes of vision shall be perfectly parallel to each other now direct them to the plane of some notable fixed star a few seconds previous to its Meridian time let an observer be stationed at each tube in the moment the star appears in the first tube that a loud knock or other signal be given to be repeated by the observer at the second tube when he sees the same star a distinct period of time will elapse between the signals given the signals will follow each other and very rapid succession but still time between a sufficient show the same star is not visible at the same moment by two parallel lines of sight when only one yard is under a slight inclination of the second tube towards the first tube would be required for the star to be seen through both tubes at the same instant but the tubes remain in their positions for six months at the end of which time the same observation or experiment will produce the same results the star will be visible at the same Meridian time without the slightest alteration being required in the direction of the tubes from which it is concluded that if the earth had moved one single yard in an orbit through space there would at least be observed the slight inclination of the tube which difference in position of one yard had previously required but has no such difference in the direction of the tube required the conclusion is unavoidable that in six months a given meridian upon the Earth's surface does not move a single yard and therefore that the earth is not the slightest degree of orbital motion 131 NASA and modern astronomy maintained that the moon is a solid spherical earth-like habitation which man has actually flown to and set foot on they claimed the moon as a non luminescent planetoid which receives and reflects all its light from the Sun the reality is however that the moon is observably not a solid body it is clearly circular but not spherical and not in any way an earth-like planet oi which humans could set foot on in fact the moon has been proven largely transparent and completely self luminescent shining with its own unique light 132 the sun's light is golden warm drying preservative and antiseptic while the moon's light is silver cool damp purifying and septic the sun's rays decrease the combustion of a bonfire while the moon's rays increased combustion plant and animal substances exposed to sunlight quickly dry shrink coagulate and lose the tendency to decompose and purify grapes and other fruits become solid partially candied and preserved like raisins dates and prunes animal flesh coagulates loses its volatile gaseous constituents becomes firm dry and slow to decay when exposed to moonlight however plant and animal substances tend to show symptoms of creature faction and decay this proves that sun and moon light are different unique and opposites as they are in the geocentric flat model 133 in direct sunlight a thermometer will read higher than another thermometer placed in the shade but in full direct moonlight a thermometer will read lower than another placed in the shade if the sun's light is collected in a large lens and thrown to a focus point it can create significant heat while the moon's light collected similarly creates no heat in The Lancet medical journal from March 14th 1856 particulars are given of several experiments which prove the moon's rays when concentrated can actually reduce the temperature upon a thermometer more than eight degrees so sunlight and moonlight clearly have altogether different property 134 furthermore the moon itself cannot physically be both a spherical body and a reflector of the sun's light reflectors must be flat or concave light rays to have any angle of incidence if a reflectors surface is convex than every ray of light points in a direct line with the radius perpendicular to the surface resulting in no reflection 135 not only is the moon clearly self luminescent shining its own unique light but it is also largely transparent when the waxing or waning moon is visible during the day it is possible to see the blue sky right through the moon and on a clear night during a waxing or waning cycle is even possible to occasionally see stars and planets directly through the surface of the Moon the Royal Astronomical Society has on record many such occurrences throughout a history which all defied the heliocentric model 136 many people think that modern astronomy z' ability to accurately predict lunar and solar eclipses as a result and proof positive of the heliocentric theory of the universe the fact of the matter however is that eclipses have been accurately predicted by cultures worldwide for thousands of years before the heliocentric ball earth was even a glimmer and Copernicus's imagination Ptolemy in the 1st century AD accurately predicted eclipses for 600 years on the basis of a flat stationary earth with equal position as anyone living today all the way back in 600 BC say Lee's accurately predicted an eclipse which ended the war between the Medes and the Lydians eclipses happen regularly with precision in eighteen-year cycles so regardless of geocentric or heliocentric flat or globe earth cosmologies eclipses can be accurately calculated independent of such factors 137 another assumption and supposed proof of the Earth's shape heliocentric lame that lunar eclipses are caused by the shadow of the ball earth occulting the moon they claim the Sun Earth and Moon spheres perfectly aligned like three billiard balls in a row so that the sun's light casts the Earth's shadow onto the moon unfortunately for heliocentric this explanation is rendered completely in the valid due to the fact that lunar eclipses have happened and continue to happen when both Sun and Moon are still visible together above the horizon for the sun's light to be casting earth's shadow onto the moon the three bodies must be aligned in a straight hundred and eighty degrees syzygy but as early as the time of Pliny there are records of lunar eclipses happening while both the Sun and Moon are visible in the sky therefore the eclipse of the Moon cannot be the earth or earth shadow and some other explanation must be sought 138 another favorite proof of ball earthers is the appearance from an observer on shore of ships hulls being unfit by the water and disappearing from view when sailing away towards the horizon their claim is that ships hulls disappear before their mastheads because this ship is beginning its declination around the convex curvature of the ball earth once again however their hasty conclusion is drawn from a faulty premise namely that only on a ball earth could this phenomenon occur the fact of the matter is that the law of perspective on plane surfaces dictates and necessitates the exact same occurrence for example a girl wearing a dress walking away towards the horizon will appear to sink into the earth the farther away she walks her feet will disappear from view first and the distance between the ground in the bottom of her dress will gradually diminish until after a half a mile it seems like her dress is touching the ground as she walks on invisible legs such as the caisson plane surfaces the lowest parts of objects receiving from a given point of observation necessarily disappear before the highest 139 not only is the disappearance of ships hulls explained by the law of perspective on flat surfaces it is proven undeniably true with the aid of a good telescope if he watch a ship sailing away into the horizon with the naked eye until its hull has completely disappeared from view under the supposed curvature of the earth then look through a telescope you will notice the entire ship quickly zooms back into view hull and all proving that the disappearance was caused by the law of perspective not by a wall of curved water this also proves that the horizon is simply the vanishing line of perspective from your point of view not the alleged curvature of the earth 144 cult's pendulums are often quoted as proof of a rotating earth but upon closer investigation proved the opposite to begin with fficult spend rooms do not uniformly swing in any one direction sometimes they rotate clockwise and sometimes counterclockwise sometimes they fail to rotate and sometimes they rotate far too much the behavior of the pendulum actually depends on one the initial force beginning its swing and to the ball-and-socket joint which most readily facilitates circular motion over any other the supposedly of the earth is completely inconsequential and irrelevant to the pendulum swing if the alleged constant rotation of the earth affected pendulums in any way then there should be no need to manually start pendulums in motion if the Earth's diurnal rotation caused the 360 degree uniform diurnal rotation of pendulums then there should not exist a stationary pendulum anywhere on earth 141 the Coriolis effect is often said to cause sinks and toilet bowls in the northern hemisphere to drain spinning in one direction while in the southern hemisphere causing them to spin the opposite way thus providing proof of the spinning ball earth once again however just like for cults pendulum spinning either which way sinks in toilets in the northern and southern hemispheres do not consistently spin in any one direction sinks and toilets in the very same household are often found to spin opposite directions depending entirely upon the shape of the basin and the angle of the water's entry not the supposin rotation of the earth 142 people claim that if the earth were flat they should be able to use a telescope and see clear across the oceans this is absurd whoever as the air is full of precipitation especially over the oceans and especially at the lowest densest layer of atmosphere is not transparent picture the blurry haze over roads on hot humid days even the best telescope will blur out long before you could see across an ocean you can however use a telescope to zoom in much more of our Flat Earth than would be possible on a ball 25,000 miles in circumference 143 people claim that if the earth were flat with the Sun circling over and around us we should be able to see the Sun from everywhere all over the earth and there should be daylight even at nighttime since the Sun is not 93 million miles away but rather just a few thousand and shining down like a spotlight once it is moved significantly far enough away from your location it becomes invisible beyond the horizon and daylight slowly fades until it completely disappears if the Sun were 93 million miles away in the earth the spinning ball the transition from daylight to night would instead be almost instantaneous as you passed the Terminator line 144 pictures of the moon appearing upside down in the southern hemisphere and right-side up in the North are often cited as proof of the ball earth but once again upon closer inspection provide another proof of the flat model in fact time-lapse photography shows the moon itself turns clockwise like a wheel as it circles over and around the earth you can find pictures of the moon at 360 degrees of various inclination from all over the earth simply depending on where and when the picture was taken 145 Helio centrist believed the moon is a ball even though its appearance is clearly that of a flat luminous disc we only ever see the same one face albeit at various inclinations of the moon yet it is claimed that there is another Dark Side of the Moon which remains hidden NASA states the moon spins opposite the spin of the earth in such a perfectly synchronized way that the motions cancel each other out so we will conveniently never be able to observe the supposed Dark Side of the Moon outside of their terrible fake CGI images fact of the matter is however if the moon were sphere observers in Antarctica would see a different face from those at the equator yet they do not just the same flat face rotated at various degrees 146 the ball earth model claims the moon orbits around the earth once every 28 days yet it is plain for anyone to see that the moon orbits around the earth every single day the moon's orbit is slightly slower than the Suns but follows the sun's same paths from topic to topic solstice to solstice making a full circle over the earth in just under 25 hours 147 the ball earth model claims the Sun is precisely 400 times larger than the moon and 400 times further away from Earth making them falsely appear exactly the same size once again the ball model asks us to accept as coincidence something that cannot be explained other than by natural design the Sun and Moon occupied the same amount of space in the sky and have been measured with sextants to be of equal size and equal distance so claiming otherwise is against our eyes experience experiments and common sense 148 quoting earth not a globe by Samuel Rowbotham it is found by observation that the Stars come to the Meridian about 4 minutes earlier every 24 hours than the Sun taking the solar time as the standard this makes 120 minutes every 30 days and 24 hours in the year hence all the constellations have passed before or in advance of the Sun at that time this is the simple fact as observed in nature with a theory of rotundity and motion on axes and in an orbit has no place for it visible truth must be ignored because this theory stands in the way and prevents its votaries from my understanding it 149 throughout thousands of years the same constellations have remained fixed in their same patterns without moving out of position whatsoever if the earth were a big ball spinning around a bigger Sun spinning around a bigger galaxy shooting off from the biggest bang as NASA claims it is impossible that the constellations would remain so fixed based on their model we should in fact have an entirely different night sky every single night and never repeat exactly the same star pattern twice 150 if earth were a spinning ball it would be impossible to photograph star trail time-lapses turning perfect circles around Polaris anywhere but the North Pole at all other vantage points the stars would be seen to travel more or less horizontally across the observers horizon due to the alleged thousand mile per hour motion beneath their feet in reality however Polaris's surrounding stars can always be photographed turning perfect circles around the central star all the way down to the Tropic of Capricorn 151 if earth were spinning ball revolving around the Sun it would actually be impossible for star trail photos to show perfect circles even at the North Pole since the earth is also allegedly moving 67,000 miles per hour around the Sun the Sun will beam 500,000 miles per hour around the Milky Way and the entire galaxy going 67 million miles per hour these four contradictory motions would make star trail time-lapses all show a ring they're curved lines 152 in 2003 three University geography professors collaborated in an experiment to prove that the state of Kansas is indeed actually flatter than a pancake using topographical geodetic survey is covering over 80 thousand square miles it was determined that Kansas has a flatness ratio of 0.99 97 over the entire state while the average pancake precisely measured using a confocal laser microscope comes in at 0.957 making Kansas better by literally flatter than a pancake 153 quoting Reverend Thomas Milner's atlas of physical geography we find that vast areas exhibit a perfectly dead level scarcely arise existing through 1,500 miles from the Carpathians to the Urals south of the Baltic the country is so flat that a prevailing north wind will drive the waters of the Statler half into the mouth of the Oder and give the River of backwards flow 30 or 40 miles the plains of Venezuela and New Granada in South America chiefly on the left of the Orinoco are termed elinoz or level fields often in the space of two hundred and seventy square miles the surface does not vary a single foot the Amazon only Falls 12 feet in the last 700 miles of its course the la plata has only a descent of 130 third of an inch per mile 150 for the felix baumgartner red bull dive outside camera shows the same amount of curvature of Earth from surface level to jump height proving it to be a deceiving fish-eyed wide-angle lens while the inside regular camera shows a perfectly flat horizon eye level at 128 thousand feet which is only consistent with a flat plane 155 some people claim to have seen the curvature of the earth out there airplane windows the glass used in all commercial airplanes however is curved to remain flush with the fuselage this creates a slight effect mixed with the confirmation bias people mistake for being the alleged curvature of the earth in actuality the fact that you see the horizon at eye level at 35,000 feet out both port and starboard windows proves the earth is flat if the earth were a ball no matter how big the horizon would stay exactly where it was and you would have to look down further and further to see the horizon at all looking straight out the window at 35,000 feet you should see nothing but outer space from the port and starboard windows as the earth and horizon are supposed to be below you if they are visible at eye level outside both windows it's because the earth is flat 156 people also claimed to see curvature in GoPro or other high-altitude camera footage of the horizon while it is true that the horizon often appears convex in such footage it just as often appears concave or flat depending on the tilt and movement of the camera the effect is simply a distortion due to wide-angle lenses in lens corrected and footage taken without wide-angle technology all amateur high altitude horizon shots appear perfectly flat 157 if gravity magically dragged the atmosphere along with the spinning ball earth that would mean the atmosphere near the equator would be spinning up over a thousand miles per hour the atmosphere over the mid-latitudes would be spinning around 500 miles per hour and gradually slower to the poles with the atmosphere would be unaffected at 0 miles per hour in reality however the atmosphere at every point on earth is equally unaffected by this alleged force as it has never been measured or calculated and proven non existent but the ability of airplanes to fly unabated in any direction without experiencing any such atmospheric changes 158 if gravity magically dragged the atmosphere along with the spinning ball earth that would mean the higher the altitude the faster the spinning atmosphere would have to be turning around the center of rotation in reality however if this were happening then rain and fireworks would behave entirely differently as they fell down through progressively slower and slower spinning atmosphere hot-air balloons would also be forced steadily faster eastwards as they ascended through the ever increasing atmospheric speeds 159 if they were progressively faster and faster spinning atmosphere the higher the altitude that would mean it would have to abruptly end at some key altitude or the fastest layer of gravity is spinning atmosphere meets the supposed non gravity to non-spinning nan atmosphere of infinite vacuum space NASA has never even mentioned what altitude this impossible feat allegedly happens but it is easily philosophically refuted by the simple fact that vacuums cannot exist connected to non vacuums while maintaining the properties of a vacuum not to mention the effect such a transition would have on a rocket spaceship would be disastrous 160 it is impossible for rockets or any type of jet propulsion engines to work in the alleged non atmosphere of vacuum space because without air or atmosphere to push against there is nothing to propel the vehicle forwards instead the rockets and shuttles would be sent spinning around their own axis uncontrollably in all directions like a gyroscope it would be impossible to fly to the moon or go in any direction whatsoever especially if gravity were real and constantly sucking you towards the closest densest body 161 if earth were really a ball there would be no reason to use rockets for flying into outer space anyway because simply flying an airplane straight at any altitude for long enough should and would send you off into outer space to prevent their airplanes from flying tangent to the ball earth pilots would have to constantly course-correct downwards or else within just a few hours the average commercial airliner traveling 500 miles per hour would find themselves lost in outer space the fact that this never happens artificial horizons remain level at pilots desired altitudes and do not require constant downward adjustments proves the earth is not a ball 162 all NASA and other space agencies rocket launches never go straight up every rocket forms a parabolic curve peeks out and inevitably starts falling back to earth the Rockets which are declared successful are those few which don't explode or start falling too soon but make it out of range of a spectator view before crashing down into restricted waters and recovered there is no magic altitude where rockets or anything else can simply go up up and then suddenly just start free-floating in space this is all a science fiction illusion created by wires green screens dark pools some permed hair and zero-g planes 163 NASA and other space agencies have been caught time and again with air bubbles forming and floating off in their official outer space footage astronauts have also been caught using scuba space gear kicking their legs to move an astronaut Luca parmitano even almost drowned when water started filling up his helmet while allegedly on a spacewalk it is admitted the astronauts train for their spacewalks in underwater training facilities like NASA's neutral buoyancy lab but what is obvious from their space bubbles and other blunders is that all officials spacewalk footage is also faked and filmed underwater 160 for analysis of many interior videos from the International Space Station have shown the use of camera tricks such as green screens harnesses and even wildly permed hair to achieve a zero-gravity type effect footage of the astronauts seemingly floating in the zero-gravity of their space station is indistinguishable from vomit comet zero-g airplane footage by flying parabolic maneuvers this zero-g floating effect can be achieved over and over again then edited together for longer uncut shots nASA has been caught using simple wires and green screen technology 165 NASA claims one can observe the International Space Station pass by overhead proving its existence yet analysis of the ISS seen through zoom cameras proves it to be some type of hologram or drone not a physical floating space base as you can see in my documentary ISS hoaxes when zooming in and out the ISS dramatically and impossibly changes shape and color displaying a prismatic rainbow effect until coming into focus much like an old television turning on and off 166 the geostationary communications satellite was first created by Freemasons science fiction writer Arthur C Clarke and supposedly became science fact just a decade later before this radio television and navigation systems like Lauren and Decca were already well established and worked fine using only ground-based technologies nowadays huge fiber optic cables connect the internet across oceans gigantic cell towers triangulate GPS signals and I am an aspherical Gatien allows radio waves to be all without the aid of the science fiction bestseller known as satellites 167 satellites are allegedly floating around in the thermosphere where temperatures are claimed to be upwards of four thousand five hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit the medals using satellites however such as aluminium gold and titanium have melted points of 1221 1948 and three thousand and thirty four degrees respectively all far lower than they could possibly handle 168 so-called satellite phones have been found to have reception problems in countries like Kazakhstan with very few cell phone towers if the earth were bald with 20,000 plus satellites surrounding such blackouts should not regularly occur in any rural countryside areas 169 so-called satellite TV dishes are almost always positioned at a 45-degree angle towards the nearest ground-based repeater tower if TV antenna were actually picking up signals from satellites 100 plus miles away in space most TV dishes should be pointing more or less straight up to the sky the fact that satellite dishes are never pointing straight up and almost always positioned at a 45-degree angle proves they are picking up ground-based tower signals and not outer space satellites 170 people even claim to see satellites with their naked eyes but this is ridiculous considering they are smaller than a bus and allegedly 100 plus miles away it is impossible to see anything so small that far away even using telescopes no one claims to discern the shape of satellites but rather described seeing passing moving lights which could easily be any number of things from airplanes to drones to shooting stars or other unidentified flying objects 171 NASA claims there are upwards of 20,000 satellites floating around Earth's upper atmosphere sending us radio television GPS and taking pictures of the planet all these supposed satellite pictures however are admittedly composite images edited in Photoshop they claim to receive ribbons of imagery from satellites which must then be spliced together to create composite images of the earth all of which are clearly CGI and not photographs if earth were truly a ball with 20,000 satellites orbiting it would be a simple matter to mount a camera and take some real photographs the fact that no real satellite photographs from the supposed ball earth exists in favour of NASA's ribbons of composite CG imagery is further proof that we are not being told the truth 172 if you pick any cloud in the sky and watch for several minutes two things will happen the clouds will move and they will morph gradually changing shape in official NASA footage of the spinning ball earth such as the Galileo time lapse video however clouds are constantly shown for 24 plus hours at a time and not moving or morphing whatsoever this is completely impossible further proof that NASA produces fake CGI videos and further evidence that earth is not a spinning ball 173 nASA has several alleged photographs of the ball earth which shows several exact duplicate cloud patterns the likelihood of having two or three clouds of the exact same shape in the same picture is as likely as finding two or three people with the exact same fingerprints in fact it is a solid proof that the clouds were copied and pasted in a computer program and that such pictures showing a ball shaped earth are fakes 174 NASA graphics artists have placed things like faces dragons and even the word sex into cloud patterns over their various ball earth pictures their recent 2015 Pluto pictures even clearly have a picture of Disney's Pluto the dog layered into the background such blatant fraud goes unnoticed by the hypnotized masses but provides further proof of the illegitimate II of NASA and their spinning ball planet mythos 175 professional photo analysts have dissected several NASA images of the ball earth and found undeniable proof of computer editing for example images of the earth allegedly taken from the moon have proven to be copied and pasted in as evidenced by rectangular cuts found in the black background around the earth by adjusting brightness and contrast levels if they were truly on the moon and earth was truly a ball there would be no need to fake such pictures 176 when NASA's images of the ball earth are compared with one another the coloration of the land and oceans and relative size of the continents are consistently so drastically different from one another as to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that the pictures are all fake 177 in the documentary a funny thing happened on the way to the moon we can watch official leaked NASA footage showing Apollo 11 astronauts Buzz Aldrin Neil Armstrong and Michael Collins for almost an hour using transparencies and camera tricks to fake shots of around Earth they communicate over audio with control and Houston about how to accurately stage the shot and someone keeps prompting them on how to effectively manipulate the camera to achieve the desired effect first they blacked out all the windows except for a downward facing circular one which they aimed the camera towards from several feet away this created the illusion of a ball shaped earth surrounded by the blackness of space when in fact it was simply a round window in their dark cabin Neil Armstrong claimed at this point to be one hundred and thirty thousand miles from the earth halfway to the moon but when camera tricks were finished the viewer could see for themselves the astronauts were not more than a couple dozen miles above the Earth's surface likely flying in a high-altitude plane 178 people claimed google earth somehow proves the ball model without realizing that Google Earth is simply a composite program of images taken from high-altitude planes and street-level car cameras superimposed onto a CGI model of a ball earth the same could just as easily be molded onto a square earth or any other shape and therefore cannot be used as proof of Earth's rotundity 179 if the earth were constantly spinning eastward a thousand miles per hour then airplane flight durations going eastward versus westwards should be significantly different if the average commercial airliner travels 500 miles per hour it follows that westbound equatorial flights should reach their destination at approximately thrice the speed as their eastbound return flights in reality however the differences in east and westbound flight durations usually amount to a matter of minutes and nothing near what would occur on a thousand mile per hour spinning ball earth 180 the spinning ball model dictates that the earth and atmosphere would be moving together at approximate 500 miles per hour at the mid-latitudes were LA to New York City flights take place the average commercial airliner traveling 500 miles per hour takes five and a half hours traveling East with the alleged rotation of the earth so that return flight West should take only 2.75 hours but in fact we find the average New York to LA flight take six hours a flight time totally inconsistent with the spinning ball model 181 flights eastwards with the alleged spin of the ball earth from Tokyo to LA take an average of ten and a half hours therefore the return flights westwards against the alleged spin should take an average of five and a quarter hours but an actual fact take an average of eleven and a half hours another flight time totally inconsistent with the spinning ball model 182 flights eastward with the alleged spin of the ball earth from New York to London take an average of seven hours therefore the return flights westwards against the alleged spin should take an average of three and a half hours but in actual fact take an average of seven and a half hours a flight time totally inconsistent with the spinning ball model 183 flights eastward from Chicago to Boston with the alleged spin of the ball earth take an average of two and a quarter hours therefore the return flights westwards against the alleged spin should take an average of just over an hour but an actual fact take an average of two and three-quarters hours once again completely inconsistent with the spinning ball model 184 flights eastward from Paris to Rome with the alleged spin of the ball earth take an average of two hours therefore the return flights westward against the alleged spin should take an average of one hour but an actual fact have an average flight duration of two hours and 10 minutes a flight time totally inconsistent with the spinning ball model 185 we are told that the earth and atmosphere spin together as such a perfect uniform velocity that no one in history has ever seen heard felt or measured the suppose at 1,000 mile per hour movement this is then often compared to traveling in a car at uniform velocity where we only feel the movement during acceleration or deceleration in reality however even with eyes closed nose up over smooth tar and a luxury car at a mere uniform 50 miles per hour the movement absolutely can be felt at 20 times the speed Earth's imaginary thousand mile per hour spin would most certainly be noticeable felt seen and heard by all 186 people sensitive to motion sickness feel distinct unease and physical discomfort from motion nestle as an elevator or train ride this means that the thousand mile per hour alleged uniform spin of the earth has no effect on such people but at an extra 50 miles per hour uniform velocity of a car and their stomach starts turning knots the idea that motion sickness is nowhere apparent in anyone at a thousand miles per hour but suddenly comes about a thousand fifty miles per hour is ridiculous and proves the earth is not in motion whatsoever 187 the second law of thermodynamics otherwise known as the law of entropy along with the fundamental principles of friction and resistance determined the impossibility of earth being a uniformly spinning ball over time the spinning ball earth would experience measurable amounts of drag constantly slowing the spin and lengthening the amount of hours per day as not the slightest such change has ever been observed in all of recorded history it is absurd to assume the earth has ever moved an inch 188 over the years nASA has twice changed their story regarding the shape of the earth at first they maintain earth was a perfect sphere which later changed to an oblate spheroid flattened at the poles and then changed again to being pear-shaped as the southern hemisphere allegedly bulges out as well unfortunately for NASA however none of their official pictures show an oblate spheroid or pear shaped earth all their pictures contrary to their words show a spherical and clearly CGI fake earth 189 the Bible Koran srimad-bhagavatam and many other holy books describe and purport the existence of a geocentric stationary Flat Earth for example first Chronicles 1630 and Psalm 96 10 both reading he has fixed the earth firm immovable and Psalm 93 one says the world also established that it cannot be moved the Bible also repeatedly affirms that the earth is outstretched as a plane with the outstretched heavens every we're above not all around giving a scriptural proof the earth is not a spinning ball 190 cultures the world over throughout history have all described and reported the existence of a geocentric stationary Flat Earth Egyptians Indians Mahon's Chinese Native Americans and literally every ancient civilization on earth at a geocentric Flat Earth cosmology before Pythagoras the idea of a spinning ball earth was non-existent and even after Pythagoras it remained an obscure minority view until 2,000 years later when competi gas began reviving the heliocentric theory 191 from Pythagoras to Copernicus Galileo and Newton to modern astronauts like Aldrin Armstrong and Collins - director of NASA and grand commander of the 33rd degree C Fred Clank necked the founding fathers of the spinning ball mythos have all been Freemasons the fact that so many members of this the largest and oldest secret society in existence have all been co-conspirators bringing about this literal planetary revolution is beyond the possibility of coincidence and provides proof of organized collusion in creating and maintaining this multi-generational deception 192 quoting terra firma by David Ward la Scott the system of the universe as taught by modern astronomers being founded entirely on theory for the truth of which they are unable to advance one single real proof they have entrenched themselves in a conspiracy of silence and declined to answer any objections which may be made to their hypothesis Copernicus himself who revived a theory of the heap and philosopher Pythagoras and his great exponent Sir Isaac Newton confessed that their system of our evolving earth was only a possibility and could not be proved by facts it is only their followers who have decorated it with the name of an exact science yay according to them the most exact of all the sciences yet one astronomer royal for England once said speaking of the motion of the whole solar system the matter is left in a most delightful state of uncertainty and I shall be very glad if anyone can help me out of it but a very sad position for an exact science to be in is this 193 no child or unand oxygenated man in their right mind would ever conclude or even conceive given to their own devices based on their own personal observations that the earth was a spinning ball revolving around the Sun such imaginative theories nowhere present in anyone's daily experience require and have required massive amounts of constant propaganda to uphold the illusion 194 from David Ward LA Scott I remember being taught when a boy that the earth was a great ball revolving at a very rapid rate around the Sun and when I expressed to my teacher my fears that the waters of the oceans would tumble off I was told that they were prevented from doing so by Newton's great law of gravitation which kept everything in its proper place I presumed that my continents must have shown some signs of incredulity from my teacher immediately added I can show you a direct proof of this a man can whirl around his head a pail filled with water without it being spilt and so in like manner can the oceans be carried around the Sun without losing a drop as this illustration was evidently intended to settle the matter I didn't said no more upon the subject had such been proposed to me afterwards as a man I would have answered somewhat as follows so I beg to say that the illustration you have given of a man whirling a pail of water around his head and the oceans revolving around the Sun does not in any degree confirm your argument because the water in the two cases is placed under entirely different circumstances but to be of any value the conditions in each case must be the same which here they are not the pail is a hollow vessel which holds the water inside it whereas according to your teaching the earth is a ball with a continuous curvature outside which in agreement with the laws of nature could not retain any water 195 astronomers say the magical magnetism of gravity is what keeps the oceans of the world stuck to the ball earth they claim that because the earth is so massive by virtue of this mass it creates a magic force able to hold people oceans and atmosphere tightly clung to the underside of the spinning ball unfortunately however they cannot provide any practical example of this on a scale smaller than the planetary a spinning wet tennis ball for instance has the exact opposite effect of the supposin ball earth any water poured over it simply falls off the sides and in a spin results in water flying off 360 degrees like a dog shaking off after a bath astronomers concede the wet tennis ball example displays the opposite effect of their supposable earth but claimed that at some unknown mass the magic adhesive properties of gravity suddenly kick in allowing the spinning wet tennis ball earth to keep every drop of gravities dwarfs duck to the surface when such an unproven theory goes against all experiments experience and common sense it is high time to drop the theory 196 quoting Marshall Hall in short the Sun Moon and stars actually doing precisely what everyone throughout all of history has seen them do we do not believe what our eyes tell us because we've been taught a counterfeit system which demands that we believe what has never been confirmed by observation or experiment that counterfeit system demands that the earth rotate on an axis every 24 hours at a speed of over a thousand miles per hour at the equator no one has ever ever ever seen or felt such movement nor seen or felt the 67,000 mile per hour speed of Earth's alleged orbit around the Sun or it's 500,000 mile per hour alleged speed around a galaxy or its retreat from an alleged Big Bang at over 67 million miles per hour remember no experiment has ever shown the earth to be moving and to that the fact that the alleged rotational speed we've all been taught as scientific fact must decrease every inch or mile one goes north or south of the equator and it becomes readily apparent that such things as accurate aerial bombing in World War two down a chimney from 25,000 feet with a plane going any direction at high speed would have been impossible if calculated on an earth moving below at several hundred miles per hour and constantly changing with the latitude 197 some people claim there is no motive for such a grand scale deception and that flat or ball makes no difference by removing earth from the motionless center of the universe these Mason's have moved us physically and metaphysically from place of supreme importance to one of complete nihilistic indifference if the earth is the center of the universe than the ideas of God creation and a purpose for human existence are resplendent but if the earth is just one of billions of planets revolving around billions of stars and billions of Alexei's than the ideas of God creation and a specific purpose for earth and human existence become highly implausible by surreptitiously indoctrinating us into their scientific materialists Sun worship not only do we lose faith in anything beyond the material we gain absolute faith and materiality superficiality status selfishness hedonism and consumerism if there is no God and everyone's just an accident then all that really matters is me me me they've turned Madonna the mother of God into a Material Girl living in a material world they're rich powerful corporations with the slick Sun cult logos Seles idols to worship slowly taking over the world while we tacitly believe their science vote for their politicians buy their products listen to their music and watch their movies sacrificing our souls at the altars of materialism to quote Morris climb the heliocentric theory by putting the Sun at the center of the universe made manifest Wanderers drifting through a cold sky it seemed less likely that he was born to live gloriously and to attain paradise upon his death less likely - was it that he was the object of gods administration's 198 some say that the idea of an intergenerational worldwide conspiracy to delude the masses sounds implausible or unrealistic but these people need only familiarize themselves with the works and writings of Freemasons themselves for example John Robison who exposed this in his 1798 book proofs of a conspiracy against all the religions and governments of Europe carried out in the secret meetings of the Freemasons Illuminati and reading societies supreme commander of the 33rd degree Albert Pike was quite forthcoming in several letters regarding the Masons ultimate goal of world domination and the Zionist protocols of the learned Elders of Zion the exact plan by which this would be and has been carried out is completely disclosed 199 from foundations of many generations by es Cheney the only thing the fable of the revolving earth has done it has shown the terrible power of a lie a lie has the power to make a man a mental slave so that he dares not back the evidence of his own to deny the plain and obvious movement of the Sun he sees before him when he feels himself standing on an earth utterly devoid of motion at the suggestion of someone else he's prepared to accept that he's spinning furiously around when he sees a bird flying and gaining over the ground he's prepared to believe that the ground is really travelling a great number of times faster than the bird finally in order to uphold the imagination of a madman he is prepared to accuse his maker of forming for him a sense of her a sly and 200 finally from dr. Rowbotham thus we see that this Newtonian philosophy is devoid of consistency its details are the result of an entire violation of the laws of legitimate reasoning and all its premises are assumed it is in fact nothing more than an assumption upon assumption and the conclusions derived therefrom willfully considered as things proved and to be employed as truths to substantiate the first and fundamental assumptions such a juggle and jumble of fancies and falsehoods extended and intensified as in theoretical astronomy is calculated to make the unprejudiced Inquirer revolt with horror from the terrible conjuration which has been practiced upon him to sternly resolve to resist it's further progress to endeavor to overthrow the entire edifice and to bury in its ruins the false honours which have been associated with its fabricators and which still attached to its devotees for the learning the patience the perseverance and devotion for which they have ever been examples honor and applause need not be withheld but their false reasoning the advantages they have taken of the general ignorant of mankind in respect to astronomical subjects and the unfounded theories they have advanced and defended cannot be otherwise than regretted

Contents

Competitors and betting

Three competitors faced the starter and were quoted as follows.

The race

The race was relatively incident free. Scamp refused when leading on the first circuit and The Duke looked set to record a third consecutive victory, entering the race course proper with a good lead over Sir William. The dual winner tired rapidly and was first passed by Sir William and then also by Scamp to finish last of the three with Sir William winning by a distance of forty yards in a time of fifteen minutes, a minute slower than the previous year.

Aftermath

For many years after this event the race was regarded as the third running of the Grand National by racegoers and pressmen alike, however this stance began to change during the 1860s when national newspapers began listing the former winners of the National back only as far as 1839. When the official honours board at Aintree was erected in 1894 it stated that the race of 1838 was run at a nearby course in Maghull and that the winner was a horse named Sir Henry, ridden by Mr Olliver against nine rivals.

Racing returns from this period show that racing at Maghull ceased in 1835 and that there was no horse in training in 1838 named Sir Henry. The only jockey named Olliver in racing at the time was Tom Olliver and on the date of the race he was riding at St Albans.

For over a century the detail recorded on the honours board was accepted as fact until evidence was presented to show the real events of the 1838 Great Liverpool chase. While it is now accepted among the majority of racing writers that the 1838 race was indeed run at Aintree and not Maghull it is still the official view that the lack of prestige in the race prior to 1839 warrants its continued omission from being declared an official Grand National.

Finishing order

Position Name Rider Age Weight Starting Price Distance or Fate
Winner Sir William Allen McDonogh 12-07 2/1
Second Scamp Mr Clarendon 5 10-12 3/1
Third The Duke Captain Martin Becher 9 12-07 1/2

Sources

https://web.archive.org/web/20091026061555/http://www.grandnational.hyak.co.uk/past/grand_national_past_1838.html

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