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1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1836 and 1837 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1834 & 1835 July 4, 1836 – November 7, 1837[a] 1838 & 1839 →

All 242 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg
JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Tennessee 9th Tennessee 7th
Last election 148 seats 80 seats
Seats won 132 100
Seat change Decrease 12 Increase 20
Popular vote 801,767 731,627
Percentage 50.95% 46.50%
Swing Increase 1.26% Increase 2.89%

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Last election 5 seats 8 seats
Seats won 7 2[b]
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 6
Popular vote 48,329 1,261
Percentage 3.07% 0.08%
Swing Decrease 0.05% Decrease 1.11%

  Fifth party
 
Party Independent
Last election 1 seat
Seats won 1[c]
Seat change Steady
Popular vote 15,606
Percentage 0.99%
Swing Decrease 2.23%

Speaker before election

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 25th Congress were held at various dates in different states from July 1836 to November 1837.

Though Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President in November 1836, Democrats lost seats. The newly organizing Whigs benefited from regional candidacies and issues and voter fatigue with outgoing two-term President Andrew Jackson. Jackson, a flamboyant public personality with a record of high-profile leadership and historic military success, often clashed with Congress and the Supreme Court. By comparison, Van Buren, a brilliant partisan organizer and political operative, was less charismatic in looks and demeanor. Voter support for the minor Anti-Masonic and Nullifier parties ebbed, but remained significant. One Independent, John Pope, was elected from Kentucky.[1][2][3]

Election summaries

State Type ↑ Date Total
seats
Anti-Masonic Democratic
[d]
Independent Nullifier Whig
[e]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Louisiana Districts August 1, 1836 3 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Illinois Districts August 1, 1836 3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 1, 1836 2 0 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease1
Vermont Districts September 6, 1836 5 0 Decrease2 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Increase1
Maine Districts September 12, 1836 8 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady
Georgia At-large October 3, 1836 9 0 Steady 8 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Increase1
South Carolina Districts October 10–11, 1836 9 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 6 Decrease1 1 Increase1
Ohio Districts October 11, 1836 19 0 Decrease1 8 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 11 Increase2
Pennsylvania Districts October 11, 1836 28 7 Decrease1 18 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1836 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New York Districts November 7–9, 1836 40 0 Steady 30 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Increase1
Massachusetts Districts November 14, 1836 12 0 Decrease3 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Increase2
New Jersey At-large November 16, 1836 6 0 Steady 0 Decrease6 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase6
Late elections (after the March 4, 1837 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire At-large March 14, 1837 5 0 Steady 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut Districts April 3, 1837 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April 27, 1837 21 0 Steady 15 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase1
Maryland Districts July 26, 1837 8 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 3, 1837 13 0 Steady 3 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Increase1
Indiana Districts August 7, 1837 7 0 Steady 1 Decrease5 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase5
Kentucky Districts August 7, 1837 13 0 Steady 1 Decrease3 1[f] Increase1 0 Steady 11 Increase2
Alabama Districts August 8, 1837 5 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 2 Increase1
North Carolina Districts August 10, 1837 13 0 Steady 5 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady 8 Increase2
Michigan At-large August 22, 1837 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 29, 1837 2 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase2
Later elections (after the September 4, 1837 beginning of special session)
Arkansas At-large October 2, 1837 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 6–7, 1837[g] 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase2
Total[h] 242 7
2.9%
Decrease9 128
52.9%
Decrease15 1
0.4%
Increase1 6
2.5%
Decrease2 100
41.3%
Increase25
House seats
Anti-Masonic
2.89%
Democratic
52.89%
Independent
0.41%
Nullifier
2.48%
Whig
41.32%

Special elections

There were special elections in 1836 and 1837 to the 24th United States Congress and 25th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

24th Congress

Note: In some sources, parties are listed as "Democrats" and "Whigs." However, they are listed here as "Jacksonian" and "Anti-Jacksonian" (respectively) to conform to the party names as they were regarded during the 24th United States Congress.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large Zalmon Wildman Jacksonian 1835 Incumbent died December 10, 1835.
New member elected in early 1836.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated April 29, 1836.[5]
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.
Connecticut at-large Andrew T. Judson Jacksonian 1835 Incumbent resigned July 4, 1836 to become judge of the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut.
New member elected in mid-to-late 1836.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 12 James Graham Jacksonian 1833 Seat declared vacant March 29, 1836.
Incumbent re-elected August 4, 1836.[7]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Incumbent seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Incumbent also later elected to the next term, see below.
South Carolina 4 James H. Hammond Nullifier 1834 Incumbent resigned February 26, 1836 because of ill-health.
New member elected October 10, 1836.[8]
Nullifier hold.
Successor seated December 19, 1836.[5]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent resigned March 31, 1836.
New member elected October 11, 1836.[9]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
South Carolina 8 Richard I. Manning Jacksonian 1834 (Special) Incumbent died May 1, 1836.
New member elected October 11, 1836.[11]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 19, 1836.[5]
Successor elected the same day for the next term, see below.
Georgia at-large John E. Coffee Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent died September 25, 1836.
New member elected October 30, 1836.[12]
Nullifier gain.
Successor seated December 26, 1836.[5]
Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned October 30, 1836.
New member elected November 4, 1836.[13]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor had not been a candidate for the next term, see below.
Mississippi at-large David Dickson Jacksonian 1835 Incumbent died July 31, 1836.
New member elected November 7, 1836.[14]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated January 7, 1837.[5]
Successor was not later elected to the next term, see below.
New York 17 Samuel Beardsley Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent resigned March 29, 1836.
New member elected November 7–9, 1836.[15]
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
New York 30 Philo C. Fuller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned September 2, 1836.
New member elected November 9, 1836.[16]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 6, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
New Jersey at-large Philemon Dickerson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent resigned November 3, 1836 to become Governor of New Jersey.
New member elected November 15–16, 1836.[17]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 5, 1836.[5]
Successor was not a candidate the same day for the next term, see below.
Georgia at-large George W. Towns Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent resigned September 1, 1836.
New member elected January 2, 1837.[18]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated January 31, 1837.[5]
Successor had already lost election to the next term, see below.
Indiana 6 George L. Kinnard Jacksonian 1833 Incumbent died November 26, 1836.
New member elected January 2, 1837.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.[19]
Successor seated January 25, 1837.[5]
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.

25th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Pennsylvania 3 Francis J. Harper Democratic 1836 Incumbent died March 18, 1837, having just been seated as a new member.
New member elected June 29, 1837.
Whig gain.
Successor seated September 4, 1837.[20]
Mississippi at-large John F. H. Claiborne Democratic 1835 Mississippi elected its members in November of odd numbered years (after the beginning of the congressional term). As Congress had been called to meet in September, the governor issued writs for a special election to fill vacancies until the regular election.
Incumbents re-elected July 18, 1837.
Democratic hold.
Incumbent successors presented their credentials and were seated September 4, 1837.[20]
At their request the question of the validity of their election was referred to the Committee on Elections. The House decided October 3, 1837 they had been elected for the full term.[i]
Samuel J. Gholson Democratic 1836 (Special)
Tennessee 4 James I. Standifer Whig 1823
1825 (Lost)
1827 (Lost)
1829
Incumbent died August 20, 1837.
New member elected September 14, 1837.[22]
Whig hold.
Successor seated October 6, 1837.[20]
  • Green tickY William Stone (Whig) 27.01%
  • Thomas Brown (Unknown) 20.60%
  • Miles Vernon (Unknown) 17.84%
  • T. Nixon Vandyke (Unknown) 13.51%
  • John Rice (Democratic) 9.85%
  • John Miller (Democratic) 7.28%
  • Archibald R. Turk (Unknown) 3.92%[22]
Ohio 17 Andrew W. Loomis Whig 1836 Incumbent resigned October 20, 1837.
New member elected November 30, 1837.[23]
Whig hold.
Successor seated December 20, 1837.[20]

Alabama

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
Alabama 2
Alabama 3
Alabama 4
Alabama 5

Arkansas

24th Congress

The new state of Arkansas was admitted to the Union on June 15, 1836 and elected its sole at-large member August 1, 1836. He was seated December 5, 1836,[5] to finish the term that would end the following March.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas at-large New seat New member elected.[24]
Jacksonian gain.
Same member also later elected to the next term, see below.

25th Congress

Arkansas elected its member October 2, 1837, this time for a full term.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Arkansas at-large Archibald Yell 1836 Jacksonian Incumbent re-elected.

Connecticut

Connecticut went from six at-large seats to six districts for the first time. Elections were held April 3, 1837, after the new term began but before the Congress convened. All incumbents from the at-large district were re-elected in districts.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut 1
Connecticut 2
Connecticut 3
Connecticut 4
Connecticut 5
Connecticut 6

Delaware

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large

Georgia

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
At-large with 9 seats

Illinois

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Illinois 1
Illinois 2
Illinois 3

Indiana

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana 1
Indiana 2
Indiana 3
Indiana 4
Indiana 5
Indiana 6
Indiana 7

Kentucky

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
Kentucky 2
Kentucky 3
Kentucky 4
Kentucky 5
Kentucky 6
Kentucky 7
Kentucky 8
Kentucky 9
Kentucky 10
Kentucky 11
Kentucky 12
Kentucky 13

Louisiana

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana 1
Louisiana 2
Louisiana 3

Maine

Maine elected its members September 12, 1836, except one district went to multiple ballots later in the year.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1
Maine 2
Maine 3
Maine 4
Maine 5
Maine 6
Maine 7
Maine 8 Gorham Parks Democratic 1833 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost renomination.
New member elected after two ballots.
Democratic hold.
First ballot (September 12, 1836):

Second ballot (November 8, 1836):

Maryland

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1
Maryland 2
Maryland 3
Maryland 4
Plural district with 2 seats
Maryland 5
Maryland 6
Maryland 7
Maryland 8

Massachusetts

Elections were held November 14, 1836.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Abbott Lawrence Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 2 Stephen C. Phillips Anti-Jacksonian 1834 (Special) Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 3 Caleb Cushing Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 4 Samuel Hoar Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent lost re-election from a different party.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Massachusetts 5 Levi Lincoln Jr. Anti-Jacksonian 1834 (Special) Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 6 George Grennell Jr. Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 7 George N. Briggs Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 8 William B. Calhoun Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 9 William S. Hastings Anti-Jacksonian 1836 Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 10 Nathaniel B. Borden Jacksonian 1835 Incumbent re-elected from a new party.
Democratic gain.
Massachusetts 11 John Reed Jr. Anti-Masonic 1812
1816 (Lost)
1818
Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.
Massachusetts 12 John Quincy Adams Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected from a different party.
Whig gain.

Michigan

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Michigan at-large

Mississippi

A special election was held in Mississippi on July 17–18, 1837. Its winners were Democrats John F. H. Claiborne and Samuel J. Gholson. The first session of the 25th Congress was a special session beginning on September 4, 1837, extending to October 16. In November, Mississippi held the regular election. Seargent Smith Prentiss, a Vicksburg lawyer and Whig, unexpectedly launched a vigorous, partisan campaign. He and fellow Whig Thomas J. Word won in an upset. Claiborne and Gholson then argued that the July result entitled them to serve full terms. With the Whig Party newly organizing, the closely divided House, in which Anti-Masons, Nullifiers, and the Independent tended to align more with Whigs and to oppose Democrats, agreed to hear Prentiss. He spoke for nine hours over three days, packing the gallery, drawing Senators, and earning a national reputation for oratory and public admiration from leading Whigs including Senators Clay and Webster. The Elections Committee then required a third election. Scheduled for April 1838, it confirmed the November result. Both Whigs were seated in May late in the second session, also serving for the third session.

Missouri

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri at-large
At-large with 2 seats

New Hampshire

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
At-large with 5 seats

New Jersey

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey at-large
At-large with 6 seats

New York

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1
New York 2
New York 3
New York 4
New York 5
New York 6
New York 7
New York 8
New York 9
New York 10
New York 11
New York 12
New York 13
New York 14
New York 15
New York 16
New York 17
New York 18
New York 19
New York 20
New York 21
New York 22
New York 23
New York 24
New York 25
New York 26
New York 27
New York 28
New York 29
New York 30
New York 31
New York 32
New York 33
New York 34
New York 35
New York 36
New York 37
New York 38
New York 39
New York 40

North Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9
North Carolina 10
North Carolina 11
North Carolina 12
North Carolina 13

Ohio

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio 1
Ohio 2
Ohio 3
Ohio 4
Ohio 5
Ohio 6
Ohio 7
Ohio 8
Ohio 9
Ohio 10
Ohio 11
Ohio 12
Ohio 13
Ohio 14
Ohio 15
Ohio 16
Ohio 17
Ohio 18

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[j][31]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph R. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Whig gain.
Pennsylvania 3 Michael W. Ash Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Harper died March 18, 1837, leading to a special election, which was won by Naylor.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
David Potts Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 Jacob Fry Jr. Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 6 Mathias Morris Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Whig.
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 8 Edward B. Hubley Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 11 Henry Logan Jacksonian 1834 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY William W. Potter (Democratic) 59.6%
  • John Williamson (Anti-Masonic) 38.2%
  • John Ashman (Anti-Masonic) 2.2%
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 18 Job Mann Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 19 John Klingensmith Jr. Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Buchanan Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected as a Democrat.
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent resigned April 2, 1836.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic hold.
  • Green tickY Thomas Henry (Anti-Masonic) 56.1%
  • John R. Shannon (Democratic) 43.9%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Rhode Island

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
At-large with 2 seats

South Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
South Carolina 2
South Carolina 3
South Carolina 4 James H. Hammond Nullifier 1834 Incumbent resigned February 26, 1836 because of ill-health.
New member elected October 10, 1836.
Nullifier hold.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the current term.
South Carolina 5
South Carolina 6
South Carolina 7
South Carolina 8
South Carolina 9

Tennessee

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1
Tennessee 2
Tennessee 3
Tennessee 4
Tennessee 5
Tennessee 6
Tennessee 7
Tennessee 8
Tennessee 9
Tennessee 10
Tennessee 11
Tennessee 12
Tennessee 13

Vermont

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4
Vermont 5

Virginia

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1
Virginia 2
Virginia 3
Virginia 4
Virginia 5
Virginia 6
Virginia 7
Virginia 8
Virginia 9
Virginia 10
Virginia 11
Virginia 12
Virginia 13
Virginia 14
Virginia 15
Virginia 16
Virginia 17
Virginia 18
Virginia 19
Virginia 20
Virginia 21

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Not including special elections
  2. ^ Ran under the Southern Rights label.
  3. ^ Elected as an Independent: John Pope, member from Kentucky.
  4. ^ Previously Jacksonian
  5. ^ Previously Anti-Jacksonian
  6. ^ John Pope won as an Independent and would run later as a Whig.
  7. ^ After a disputed result, an April 23–24, 1838 second election confirmed the result of regular election.
  8. ^ Does not include state results listed above due to special election and Independent Representative.[4]
  9. ^ The decision was later recinded, leading to a new special election.
  10. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats.
  11. ^ Changed parties
  12. ^ a b c Joint Whig/Anti-Masonic ticket

References

  1. ^ Dubin, p. 117.
  2. ^ Martis, p. 94.
  3. ^ CQGuide, p. 966.
  4. ^ "Error Document". history.house.gov.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Twenty-Fourth Congress March 4, 1835, to March 3, 1837". Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved August 12, 2019.
  6. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections, p. 566
  7. ^ a b "NC District 12 - Special Election". December 15, 2006. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  8. ^ a b "SC - District 04 Special Election". November 17, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  9. ^ a b "PA District 24 - Special Election". June 2, 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  10. ^ a b Dubin, p. 113.
  11. ^ a b "SC - District 09 Special Election". November 19, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  12. ^ a b "GA At-Large - Special Election". February 15, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  13. ^ a b "PA District 13 - Special Election". January 10, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  14. ^ a b "MS - At Large Special Election". February 5, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  15. ^ a b "NY District 17 - Special Election". April 22, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  16. ^ "Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress - Retro Member details". bioguideretro.congress.gov.
  17. ^ a b "NJ At-Large - Special Election". February 13, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  18. ^ a b "GA At-Large - Special Election". February 15, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  19. ^ a b "IN - District 06 Special Election". January 23, 2013. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  20. ^ a b c d "Twenty-fifth Congress March 4, 1837, to March 3, 1839". Historian of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved April 9, 2019.
  21. ^ http://staffweb.wilkes.edu/harold.cox/rep/Congress%201836.pdf
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  23. ^ a b "OH District 17 - Special Election". May 8, 2006. Retrieved August 14, 2019 – via OurCampaigns.com.
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  25. ^ "AR At-Large". Retrieved May 18, 2020 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  26. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=722912
  27. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=722913
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  29. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA District 10 Race - Nov 14, 1836". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  30. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 12 Race - Nov 14, 1836". www.ourcampaigns.com.
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Bibliography

External links

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