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1836 and 1837 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1836 and 1837 United States Senate elections

← 1834/35 Dates vary by state 1838/39 →

17 of the 52 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
27 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party Third party
 
Party Democratic Whig Nullifier
Last election 22 seats
(as Jacksonian)
24 seats
(as Anti-Jacksonian)
2 seats
Seats before 31
(as Jacksonian)
19
(as Anti-Jacksonian)
2
Seats won 12 5 0
Seats after 34 17 1
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 2 Decrease 1
Seats up 9 7 1

Majority Party before election


Jacksonian

Elected Majority Party


Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1836 and 1837 were elections that had the Jacksonian coalition emerge as the  Democratic Party, and the Adams, or Anti-Jackson, coalition emerge as the Whig Party

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 25th Congress (1837–1839)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (35)
  • Minority Party: Whig (17–16)
  • Other Parties: (0–1)
  • Total Seats: 52

Change in composition

Before the special elections

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
AJ16 AJ15 AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
AJ17
Del.
Resigned
AJ18
Del.
Resigned
AJ19
Md.
Died
AJ20
N.C.
Resigned
AJ21
La.
Resigned
AJ22
Va.
Resigned
AJ23
Va.
Resigned
Ark.
New
Ark.
New
N2
  N1
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22
Mich.[a]
J23
Mich.[a]
J24
N.H.
Resigned
V1
La.
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

As a result of the special elections

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
AJ16 AJ15 AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
AJ17
Del.
Hold
AJ18
Del.
Hold
AJ19
Md.
Hold
N2 N1 J31
Va.
Gain
J30
Va.
Gain
J29
Ark.
Gain
J28
Ark.
Gain
J27
N.C.
Gain
Majority →
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 J23 J24
N.H.
Hold
J25
La.
Gain
J26
La.
Gain
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

Before the regular elections

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
AJ16
Ohio
Ran
AJ15
Ky.
Ran
AJ14
Ind.
Ran
AJ13
Ala.
Ran
AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
AJ17
La.
Ran
AJ18
Vt.
Ran
AJ19
Conn.
Unknown
N2
S.C.
Ran
N1 J31
Pa.
Ran
J30
N.C.
Ran
J29
N.Y.
Ran
J28
N.H.
Ran
J27
Mo.
Ran
Majority →
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 J23
Ark.
Ran
J24
Ga.
Ran
J25
Ill.
Ran
J26
La.
Ran
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

As a result of the regular elections

"Hold" means the incumbent lost and the winner was from an affiliated new party, either Anti-Jacksonian to Whig or Jacksonian to Democratic.

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
W16
Vt.
Re-elected
(was AJ)
W15
Ind.
Hold
(was AJ)
W14
La.
Re-elected
(was AJ)
W13
Ky.
Re-elected
(was AJ)
AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
W17
S.C.
Re-elected
(was N)
N1 D34
Ohio
Gain
(was AJ)
D33
Conn.
Gain
(was AJ)
D32
Ala.
Gain
(was AJ)
D31
N.H.
Hold
(was J)
D30
Ill.
Hold
(was J)
D29
Pa.
Re-elected
(was J)
D28
N.C.
Re-elected
(was J)
D27
N.Y.
Re-elected
(was J)
Majority →
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 D23
Ark.
Re-elected
(was J)
D24
Ga.
Re-elected
(was J)
D25
La.
Re-elected
(was J)
D26
Mo.
Re-elected
(was J)
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

Beginning of the next Congress

W1
New party
W2
New party
W3
New party
W4
New party
W5
New party
W6
New party
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12
New party
W11
New party
W10
New party
W9
New party
W8
New party
W7
New party
W17 D35
New party
D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27
Majority →
D17
New party
D18
New party
D19
New party
D20
New party
D21
New party
D22
New party
D23 D24 D25 D26
D16
New party
D15
New party
D14
New party
D13
New party
D12
New party
D11
New party
D10
New party
D9
New party
D8
New party
D7
New party
D1
New party
D2
New party
D3
New party
D4
New party
D5
New party
D6
New party
Key:
AJ# Anti-Jacksonian
J# Jacksonian
N# Nullfier
D# Democratic
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Elections seated during the 24th Congress

In these elections, senators were elected to finish terms already in progress either as special elections or as elections to a new state. senators were seated during 1836 or before March 4, 1837; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Vacant Charles Gayarré had been elected but resigned due to ill health without having taken his seat.
New senator elected January 13, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
Virginia
(Class 1)
John Tyler Anti-Jacksonian 1827
1833
Incumbent resigned February 29, 1836.
New senator elected March 4, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Isaac Hill Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent resigned May 30, 1836 to become Governor of New Hampshire.
New senator elected June 8, 1836.
Jacksonian hold.
Winner also lost re-election to the next term, see below.
Delaware
(Class 1)
Arnold Naudain Anti-Jacksonian 1830 (Special)
1832
Incumbent resigned June 16, 1836.
New senator elected June 17, 1836.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Whig.
Arkansas
(Class 2)
New seats New state.
New senator elected September 18, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
Arkansas
(Class 3)
New state.
New senator elected September 18, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner was also re-elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Willie P. Mangum Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent resigned November 26, 1836.
New senator elected December 5, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner was also elected to the next term, see below.
Virginia
(Class 2)
Benjamin W. Leigh Anti-Jacksonian 1834 (Special)
1835
Incumbent resigned July 4, 1836.
New senator elected December 12, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would resign at the end of this Congress, see below.
Maryland
(Class 3)
Robert H. Goldsborough Anti-Jacksonian 1813
1819 (Retired or lost)
1835 (Special)
Incumbent died October 5, 1836.
New senator elected December 31, 1836.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Winner was also re-elected to the next term, see below.
Delaware
(Class 2)
John M. Clayton Anti-Jacksonian 1829
1835
Incumbent resigned December 29, 1836.
New senator elected January 9, 1837.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Whig.
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Alexander Porter Anti-Jacksonian 1833 (Special) Incumbent resigned January 5, 1837 due to ill health.
New senator elected January 12, 1837.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner was also re-elected to the next term, see below.

Races leading to the 25th Congress

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1837; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Gabriel Moore Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1831 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1837.
Democratic gain.
Arkansas Ambrose Sevier Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1836 (New seat) Incumbent re-elected in 1837.
Connecticut Gideon Tomlinson Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1831 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
New senator elected in 1836 or 1837.
Democratic gain.
Georgia Alfred Cuthbert Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1835 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837.
Illinois William Lee D. Ewing Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1835 (Appointed) Interim appointee lost election.
New senator elected in 1837.
Democratic hold.
Indiana William Hendricks Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1824
1830
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1836.
Whig hold.
Kentucky Henry Clay Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1831 (Late) Incumbent re-elected in 1836.
Louisiana Alexandre Mouton Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1837 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837.
Maryland John S. Spence Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1836 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837.
Missouri Lewis F. Linn Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1833 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1836.
New Hampshire John Page Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1836 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1837.
Democratic hold.
New York Silas Wright Jr. Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1826 (Late) Incumbent re-elected February 7, 1837.
North Carolina Willie P. Mangum Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1830 Incumbent resigned November 26, 1836.
New senator elected in 1836.
Democratic gain.
Successor also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Ohio Thomas Ewing Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in January 1837.
Democratic gain.
Pennsylvania James Buchanan Democratic
(Jacksonian)
1834 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 14, 1836.
South Carolina William C. Preston Nullifier 1833 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837 as a Whig.
Whig gain.
Vermont Samuel Prentiss Whig
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1831 Incumbent re-elected in 1837.

Elections during the 25th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1837 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
Richard E. Parker Democratic 1836 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 4, 1837 to become judge of the Supreme Court of Virginia.
New senator elected March 14, 1837.
Democratic hold.
Alabama
(Class 3)
John McKinley Democratic 1833 (Special) Incumbent resigned April 22, 1837 to become Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
New senator elected June 19, 1837.
Democratic hold.
Georgia
(Class 2)
John Pendleton King Democratic 1833 (Special) Incumbent resigned November 1, 1837.
New senator elected November 22, 1837.
Democratic hold.

Alabama

There were two elections in Alabama in this cycle, both for the same seat.

Alabama (Regular)

First-term senator Anti-Jacksonian Gabriel Moore lost re-election in 1837 to Jacksonian John McKinley in 1837.

Alabama (Special)

Shortly after the new term started, Jacksonian-now-Democrat John McKinley resigned to become Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. He was replaced by fellow Democrat Clement C. Clay in a June 19, 1837 special election.

Clay would serve only until November 15, 1841, when he, too, resigned.

Arkansas

Arkansas became a new state and elected its two senators September 18, 1836.

Jacksonian former Governor of Arkansas Territory William Fulton was elected to the Class 2 seat, with the term ending March 3, 1841.

Jacksonian former delegate Ambrose Sevier was elected to the Class 3 seat, with the term ending March 3, 1837.

Sevier was also re-elected in 1837 to the next term that would end in 1843.

Connecticut

Delaware

Georgia

There were two elections in Georgia in this cycle.

Georgia (Regular)

Georgia (Special)

Illinois

Indiana

Kentucky

Louisiana

There were two elections in Louisiana in this cycle, both for the same seat.

Anti-Jacksonian Alexander Porter resigned January 5, 1837 due to ill health.

Louisiana (Special)

Jacksonian Alexandre Mouton was elected January 12, 1837 to finish Porter's term, ending March 3, 1837.

Louisiana (Regular)

Jacksonian Alexandre Mouton was also elected as a Democrat in 1837 (possibly re-elected) to the next term, beginning March 4, 1837.

Maryland

There were two elections in Maryland in this cycle, both for the same seat.

Anti-Jacksonian Robert H. Goldsborough died October 5, 1836.

Maryland (Special)

Anti-Jacksonian John S. Spence was elected in late 1836 to finish Goldsborough's term, ending March 3, 1837.

Maryland (Regular)

Anti-Jacksonian John S. Spence was re-elected as a Democrat in 1837 to the next term, beginning March 4, 1837.

Missouri

New Hampshire

New York

Silas Wright Jr., had been elected in 1833 to this seat after the resignation of William L. Marcy who had been elected Governor of New York. Wright's term would expire on March 3, 1837.

At the State election in November 1836, 94 Democrats and 34 Whigs were elected to the Assembly, and seven of the eight State senators elected were Democrats. The 60th New York State Legislature met from January 3 to May 16, 1837, at Albany. The party strength in the Assembly as shown by the election for Speaker was: 80 for Democrat Edward Livingston and 27 for Whig Luther Bradish.

Wright was re-nominated in a Democratic caucus by a large majority. Silas Wright Jr., was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

House Democratic Whig
State Senate (32 members) Silas Wright Jr. 26 Ambrose L. Jordan 3
State Assembly (128 members) Silas Wright Jr. 85 Ambrose L. Jordan 27

North Carolina

There were two elections in North Carolina in this cycle, both for the same seat.

Anti-Jacksonian Willie P. Mangum resigned November 26, 1836.

North Carolina (Special)

Jacksonian Robert Strange was elected in late 1836 to finish Mangum's term, ending March 3, 1837.

North Carolina (Regular)

Jacksonian Robert Strange was also elected as a Democrat in 1836, to the next term, beginning March 4, 1837.

Ohio

Pennsylvania

The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on December 14, 1836, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1837. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

Pennsylvania General Assembly Results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James Buchanan (Incumbent) 85 63.91
Whig Thomas M. T. McKennan 24 18.05
Whig Charles B. Penrose 21 15.79
Democratic Thomas Cunningham 1 0.75
Democratic Isaac Leet 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 1 0.75
Totals 133 100.00%

South Carolina

Vermont

Virginia (Special)

There were three special elections in Virginia in this cycle.

Virginia (Special, class 1)

Two-term Anti-Jacksonian (and future President) John Tyler resigned February 29, 1836 due to policial differences and conflict with the Virginia House of Delegates, which had come under control of the rival Jacksonians.

Former Jacksonian senator William C. Rives (who had served in the class 2 seat from December 10, 1832 to February 22, 1834) was elected March 4, 1836 to finish Tyler's term that would end March 3, 1839.

Virginia (Special, class 2 1836)

Anti-Jacksonian Benjamin W. Leigh, who had served in the seat since an 1834 special election and re-elected in 1835, resigned July 4, 1836 to return to his private legal practice.

Jacksonian Richard E. Parker was elected December 12, 1836, but he would only remain in the seat for four months.

Virginia (Special, class 2 1837)

Parker, now a Democrat, was elected to the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals and so he resigned from the Senate March 13, 1837.

Fellow Democrat William H. Roane was elected March 14, 1837 to finish the term that would end March 3, 1841.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Michigan's senators were elected in 1835, but not seated until early 1837

References

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 14 December 1836" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  2. ^ https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=354297
This page was last edited on 11 August 2020, at 19:17
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