To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

1830 and 1831 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1830 and 1831 U.S. House of Representatives elections

← 1828 & 1829 July 5, 1830 – October 3, 1831[a] 1832 & 1833 →

All 213 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
107 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
AndrewStevenson.jpg
JohnWTaylor.jpg
Leader Andrew Stevenson John W. Taylor
Party Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian
Leader's seat Virginia 9th New York 17th
Last election 136 seats 72 seats
Seats won 126 66
Seat change Decrease 10 Decrease 6

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Last election 5 seats 0 seats
Seats won 17 4
Seat change Increase 12 Increase 4

House022ElectionsMap.png

Speaker before election

Andrew Stevenson
Jacksonian

Elected Speaker

Andrew Stevenson
Jacksonian

In the United States House of Representatives elections of 1830 the supporters of President Andrew Jackson lost ten seats during his first term, but managed to maintain control of the chamber amidst the growth of two new opposition movements.

The brash style of Congress during the administration of Andrew Jackson caused a number of Americans to become dissatisfied with the government and both of the major parties. Anger over the Tariff of 1828 also provided a major issue, particularly in the agricultural South. The Jacksonians remained firmly in control of the House, but lost several seats, as did the minority Anti-Jacksonians. The Anti-Masonic Party, an aspiring third party which was based on a single issue (distrust of Freemasonry), was actually able to gain a dozen seats, and four South Carolina Congressman who called themselves Nullifiers (based on the principle of states' rights) were also elected. Thus, this was the first election in the House where both major parties lost seats at the same time; this would not occur again until the 1854 elections.

Election summaries

Not including special elections.

66 17 126 4
Anti-Jacksonian AM Jacksonian N
State Type Date Total
seats
Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Jacksonian Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Louisiana Districts July 5–7, 1830 3 2 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large August 2–3, 1830 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont Districts September 6, 1830[b] 5 3 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 13, 1830 7 1 Decrease2 0 Steady 6 Increase2 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 4, 1830 7 0 Steady 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 12, 1830 14 8 Increase2 0 Steady 6 Decrease2 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 12, 1830 26 2 Increase1 7 Increase6 17 Decrease7 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 11–12, 1830 9 0 Steady 0 Steady 5 Decrease4 4 Increase4
Massachusetts Districts November 1, 1830 13 13 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts November 1–3, 1830 34 3 Decrease8 8 Increase5 23 Increase3 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large November 6, 1830 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 13, 1830 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1831 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire At-large March 8, 1831 6 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut At-large April 14, 1831 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April 1831 22 5 Decrease1 0 Steady 17 Increase1 0 Steady
Alabama Districts August 1, 1831 3 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois At-large August 1, 1831 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 1, 1831 12 4 Increase2 0 Steady 8 Decrease2 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 2, 1831 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana Districts August 5, 1831 3 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 3 Increase2 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 4–5, 1831 9 1 Steady 0 Steady 8 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 11, 1831 13 2 Decrease1 0 Steady 11 Increase1 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 23, 1831 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 3, 1831 9 5 Increase2 0 Steady 4 Decrease2 0 Steady
Total 213 66
31.0%
Decrease6 17
8.0%
Increase12 126
59.2%
Decrease10 4
1.9%
Increase4
House seats
Anti-Jacksonian
30.1%
Anti-Masonic
8.0%
Jacksonian
59.2%
Nullifier
1.9%

Special elections

21st Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 5 James W. Ripley Jacksonian 1826 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 12, 1830.
New member elected September 13, 1830.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 6, 1830.
Ohio 11 John M. Goodenow Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent resigned April 9, 1830, after being appointed judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio.
New member elected October 11, 1830.
Winner was elected the next day to the next term, see below.
Successor seated December 6, 1830.
Virginia 22 Alexander Smyth Jacksonian 1817
1828 (Retired)
1827
Incumbent died April 17, 1830.
New member elected November 1830.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 6, 1830.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
New York 6 Hector Craig Jacksonian 1822
1824 (Lost)
1828
Incumbent resigned July 12, 1830.
New member elected November 3, 1830.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated December 6, 1830.
Virginia 11 Philip P. Barbour Jacksonian 1815
1824 (Retired)
1827
Incumbent resigned October 15, 1830, after being appointed judge of US Circuit Court of the Eastern District of Virginia.
New member elected November 25, 1830.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 6, 1830.

22nd Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 2 Vacant Vacancy in term.
New member elected in 1831
Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated May 12, 1831.
Missouri at-large Spencer D. Pettis Anti-Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent died August 28, 1831.
New member elected October 31, 1831.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated October 31, 1831.
Vermont 2 Rollin C. Mallary Anti-Jacksonian 1820 (Contested) Incumbent died April 15, 1831.
New member elected November 1, 1831 on the third ballot.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Successor seated December 5, 1831.
First ballot (July 5, 1831):

Second ballot (September 6, 1831):

Third ballot (November 1, 1831):
  • Green tickY William Slade (Anti-Masonic) 57.53%
  • Robert Temple (Anti-Jacksonian) 28.13%
  • William White (Jacksonian) 14.34%[9]
Pennsylvania 11 William Ramsey Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent died September 29, 1831 before the new Congress convened.
New member elected November 22, 1831.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated December 5, 1831.[10]
Georgia at-large Wilson Lumpkin Jacksonian 1814
1816 (Lost)
1826
Incumbent resgined in 1831 before the convening of Congress.
New member elected December 12, 1831.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated January 21, 1832.
New York 20 George Fisher Anti-Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost contested election February 5, 1830 to Silas Wright, who in turn failed to qualify.
New member elected November 3, 1830.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner was not a candidate the same day to the next term, see below.
Successor seated December 6, 1830.
North Carolina 6 Robert Potter Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent resigned November ????, 1831.
New member elected December 15, 1831.
Jacksonian hold.
Successor seated January 6, 1832.

Alabama

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1
"Northern District"
Clement C. Clay Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Alabama 2
"Middle District"
Robert E. B. Baylor Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Alabama 3
"Southern District"
Dixon Hall Lewis Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.

Connecticut

Connecticut elected its six at-large members on a general ticket on April 14, 1831, after the term began but before the Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Ralph I. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent re-elected.
Noyes Barber Anti-Jacksonian 1821 Incumbent re-elected.
Ebenezer Young Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Jabez W. Huntington Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
William L. Storrs Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
William W. Ellsworth Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.

Delaware

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large Kensey Johns Anti-Jacksonian 1827 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.

Georgia

Georgia elected its 7 at-large members on October 4, 1830.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Richard Henry Wilde Jacksonian 1814
1816 (Lost)
1824 (Special)
1826 (Lost)
1827 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Wilson Lumpkin Jacksonian 1814
1816 (Lost)
1826
Incumbent re-elected.
Charles E. Haynes Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Henry G. Lamar Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas F. Foster Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
James M. Wayne Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Wiley Thompson Jacksonian 1820 Incumbent re-elected.

Illinois

Indiana

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Maryland elected its nine members on October 3, 1831. In the fifth district, two members were elected on a general ticket. There was a net gain of 2 Anti-Jacksonians thereby increasing their ratio from 3-to-6 to 5-to-4.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 1 Clement Dorsey Anti-Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Maryland 2 Benedict Joseph Semmes Anti-Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 3 George Corbin Washington Anti-Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 4 Michael Sprigg Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Maryland 5
(Plural district)
Two members elected on a general ticket
Benjamin C. Howard Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Elias Brown Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Maryland 6 George E. Mitchell Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 7 Richard Spencer Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Maryland 8 Ephraim King Wilson Jacksonian 1829 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.

Massachusetts

Former U.S. President John Quincy Adams was elected in Massachusetts's 11th district, becoming the first former president to re-enter public life after leaving the presidency.

Elections were held November 1, 1830, but at least one district went to so many ballots it failed to achieve a majority election until 1832, just before the next cycle began.

(District numbers differ between sources. District numbers below reflect Martis's references.[20] Where noted, Congressional Quarterly's "Guide to U.S. Elections"[21] and OurCampaigns.com have different district numbers.)

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1 Benjamin Gorham Anti-Jacksonian 1820 (Special)
1822 (Retired)
1827 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Massachusetts 2 Benjamin W. Crowninshield Anti-Jacksonian 1822 Incumbent lost re-election from a different party.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Massachusetts 3 John Varnum Anti-Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent retired.
New member elected late on the thirteenth ballot.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
First ballot (November 1, 1830):

Second ballot (January 3, 1831):

Third ballot (April 4, 1831):

Fourth ballot (June 27, 1831):

Fifth ballot (September 5, 1831):

Sixth ballot (November 14, 1831):

Seventh ballot (January 16, 1832):

Eighth ballot (February 13, 1832):

Ninth ballot (March 12, 1832):

Tenth ballot (April 9, 1832):
  • Joseph Kitteridge (Unknown) 47.18%
  • Caleb Cushing (Anti-Jacksonian) 41.19%
  • Scattering 11.63%[33]

Eleventh ballot (May 14, 1832):

Twelfth ballot (September 3, 1832):

Thirteenth ballot (November 12, 1832):
Massachusetts 4 Edward Everett Anti-Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 5
CQGuide: 13th[21]
OurCampaigns: 8th[38]
John Davis Anti-Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 6
CQGuide: 5th[21]
OurCampaigns: 9th[39]
Joseph G. Kendall Anti-Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 7
CQGuide: 6th[21]
OurCampaigns: 6th[40]
George Grennell Jr. Anti-Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 8
OurCampaigns: 5th[41]
Isaac C. Bates Anti-Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 9
CQGuide: 7th[21]
OurCampaigns: 7th[42]
Henry W. Dwight Anti-Jacksonian 1820 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Massachusetts 10
CQGuide: 9th[21]
John Bailey Anti-Jacksonian 1823 (Special)
1824 (Disqualified)
1824 (Special)
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Massachusetts 11
CQGuide: 12th[21]
OurCampaigns: 11th[44]
Joseph Richardson Anti-Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Massachusetts 12
CQGuide: 10th[21]
James L. Hodges Anti-Jacksonian 1827 Incumbent re-elected late on the seventh ballot First ballot (November 1, 1830):

Second ballot (January 3, 1831):
  • Micah B. Ruggles (Anti-Masonic) 48.08%
  • James L. Hodges (Anti-Jacksonian) 44.01%
  • John A. Parker (Unknown) 7.91%[46]

Third ballot (April 4, 1831):

Fourth ballot (June 27, 1831):

Fifth ballot (September 5, 1831):

Sixth ballot (November 14, 1831):

Seventh ballot (January 16, 1832):
Massachusetts 13
CQGuide: 11th[21]
John Reed Jr. Anti-Jacksonian 1812
1816 (Lost)
1820
Incumbent re-elected.

Mississippi

Missouri

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

North Carolina elected its members August 11, 1831, after the term began but before the new Congress convened.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1
North Carolina 2
North Carolina 3
North Carolina 4
North Carolina 5
North Carolina 6
North Carolina 7
North Carolina 8
North Carolina 9
North Carolina 10
North Carolina 11 Henry W. Connor Jacksonian 1821 Incumbent re-elected.

Ohio

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[54][d]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 2 Joseph Hemphill Jacksonian 1800
1802 (Lost)
1818
1826 (Resigned)
1828
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
  • Green tickY Henry Horn (Jacksonian) 55.6%
  • Daniel W. Coxe (Anti-Jacksonian) 44.4%
Pennsylvania 3 Daniel H. Miller Jacksonian 1822 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
James Buchanan Jacksonian 1820 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Joshua Evans Jr. Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
George G. Leiper Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 5 John B. Sterigere Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 6 Innis Green Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 7
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph Fry Jr. Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 8
Plural district with 2 seats
Peter Ihrie Jr. Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel A. Smith Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 9
Plural district with 3 seats
Philander Stephens Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
James Ford Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Alem Marr Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Pennsylvania 10 Adam King Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Adam King (Jacksonian) 58.6%
  • William McIlvine (Anti-Jacksonian) 41.4%
Pennsylvania 11
Plural district with 2 seats
Thomas H. Crawford Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
William Ramsey Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Incumbent died September 29, 1831, before the new Congress convened, leading to a November 22, 1831 special election[55]
Pennsylvania 12 John Scott Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 13 Chauncey Forward Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
  • Green tickY George Burd (Anti-Jacksonian) 50.2%
  • David Mann (Anti-Masonic) 48.5%
  • Reynolds[f] 1.3%
Pennsylvania 14 Thomas Irwin Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 15 William McCreery Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
Pennsylvania 16
Plural district with 2 seats
Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
John Gilmore Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 17 Richard Coulter Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 18 Thomas H. Sill Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Masonic gain.
  • Green tickY John Banks (Anti-Masonic) 57.1%
  • Thomas S. Cunningham (Jacksonian) 42.9%

Rhode Island

South Carolina

Tennessee

Vermont

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1
Vermont 2
Vermont 3
Vermont 4 Benjamin Swift Anti-Jacksonian 1827 New member elected late on the eleventh ballot.[56]
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Eleventh ballot (June 6, 1832):
  • Green tickY Heman Allen (Anti-Jacksonian) 52.99%
  • Asa Aldis (Anti-Masonic) 22.38%
  • Stephen S. Brown (Jacksonian) 17.98%
  • Truman Chittenden (Anti-Jacksonian) 6.64%[56]
Vermont 5

Virginia

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Not including special elections and some regular elections that went to multiple ballots.
  2. ^ In 4th district, the election wasn't completed until 1832.
  3. ^ Full name unknown in source
  4. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats.
  5. ^ Ran on joint Jacksonian/Anti-Jacksonian ticket.
  6. ^ Source did not give full name

References

  1. ^ "Our Campaigns - ME District 5 - Special Election Race - Sep 13, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  2. ^ "Our Campaigns - OH District 11 - Special Election Race - Oct 11, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA District 22 Special Election Race - Nov 00, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  4. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 6 - Special Election Race - Nov 01, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - VA District 11 Special Election Race - Nov 25, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO At-Large - Special Election Race - Oct 31, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 02 - Special Election - First Trial Race - Jul 05, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 02 - Special Election - Second Trial Race - Sep 06, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - VT - District 02 - Special Election - Third Trial Race - Nov 01, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Twenty-second Congress March 4, 1831, to March 3, 1833". Historian of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved September 25, 2019.
  11. ^ Cox, Harold (January 31, 2007). "Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682-2006" (PDF). The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University. (erroneously dating Ramsey's death and the election)
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA At-Large - Special Election Race - Dec 12, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY District 20 - Special Election Race - Nov 01, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC - District 06 - Special Election Race - Dec 15, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  15. ^ "Our Campaigns - CT At-Large Race - Apr 14, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  16. ^ "Our Campaigns - GA At Large Race - Oct 04, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  17. ^ a b c d e f CQGuide, p. 556.
  18. ^ "Our Campaigns - MD District 5 Race - Oct 03, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  19. ^ "Our Campaigns - MD District 8 Race - Oct 03, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  20. ^ Martis.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j CQGuide, p. 554.
  22. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 1 (Suffolk) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com.
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 2 (Essex South) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com.
  24. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 1st Trial Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com.
  25. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 2nd Trial Race - Jan 03, 1831". OurCampaigns.com.
  26. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 3rd Trial Race - Apr 04, 1831". OurCampaigns.com.
  27. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 4th Trial Race - Jun 27, 1831". OurCampaigns.com.
  28. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 5th Trial Race - Sep 05, 1831". OurCampaigns.com.
  29. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 6th Trial Race - Nov 14, 1831". OurCampaigns.com.
  30. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 7th Trial Race - Jan 16, 1832". OurCampaigns.com.
  31. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 8th Trial Race - Feb 13, 1832". OurCampaigns.com.
  32. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 9th Trial Race - Mar 12, 1832". OurCampaigns.com.
  33. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 10th Trial Race - Apr 09, 1832". OurCampaigns.com.
  34. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 11th Trial Race - May 14, 1832". OurCampaigns.com.
  35. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 12th Trial Race - Sep 03, 1832". OurCampaigns.com.
  36. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 3 (Essex North) - 13th Trial Race - Nov 12, 1832". OurCampaigns.com.
  37. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 4 (Middlesex) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  38. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA District 8 (Worcester South) Race - Nov 01, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  39. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA District 9 (Worcester North) Race - Nov 01, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  40. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA District 6 (Franklin) Race - Nov 01, 1830". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  41. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA District 5 (Hampden) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020. (places this race in the 5th district)
  42. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA District 7 (Berkshire) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com. (places this race in the 7th district)
  43. ^ "Our Campaigns - MA District 10 (Norfolk) Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  44. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MA District 11 Race - Nov 01, 1830". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  45. ^ "MA District 12 (Bristol) - 1st Trial". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  46. ^ "MA District 12 (Bristol) - 2nd Trial". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  47. ^ "MA District 12 (Bristol) - 3rd Trial". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  48. ^ "MA District 12 (Bristol) - 4th Trial". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  49. ^ "MA District 12 (Bristol) - 5th Trial". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  50. ^ "MA District 12 (Bristol) - 6th Trial". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  51. ^ "MA District 12 (Bristol) - 7th Trial". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  52. ^ "MA District 13 (Barnstable)". OurCampaigns.com. Retrieved October 21, 2020.
  53. ^ "Our Campaigns - NC District 11 Race - Aug 11, 1831". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  54. ^ "Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project" (PDF).
  55. ^ "Twenty-second Congress (membership roster) – see footnotes 28 and 29" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 12, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2013.
  56. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - VT - District 04 - Eleventh Trial Race - Jun 04, 1832". www.ourcampaigns.com.

Bibliography

External links

This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 21:48
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.