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182nd Armored Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

182nd Armored Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi"
182° Reggimento fanteria corazzato "Garibaldi"
160px
Regimental coat of arms with the three temporarily assigned Silver Medals of Military Valour of the 11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera"
Active25 April 1945 - 15 July 1976[1]
Country Italy
BranchItalian Army
Part ofInfantry Division "Folgore"
Garrison/HQSacile
Motto(s)"Obbedisco"
Anniversaries12 October 1953 - Awarding of the Gold Medal of Military Valour[1]
Decorations
Valor militare gold medal BAR.svg
Valor militare silver medal BAR.svg
Valor militare silver medal BAR.svg
Valor militare silver medal BAR.svg

1x Gold Medal of Military Valour
3x Silver Medals of Military Valour*
temporarily assigned
Insignia
Tank and Bersaglieri units gorget patches

The 182nd Armored Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi" (Italian: 182° Reggimento fanteria corazzato "Garibaldi") was a unit of the Italian Army based in Sacile in Friuli Venezia Giulia. The regiment was part of the Italian army's infantry and was last operationally assigned to the Infantry Division "Folgore". The regiment was an atypical unit of the Italian Army: formed without a sister regiment from partisan formations it was the only infantry regiment to be formed by the army after World War II and was the only unit, whose members wore a red tie with their formal uniform.[2]

History

On 25 April 1945 the Regiment "Garibaldi" was formed in Viterbo with repatriated survivors of the Italian Partisan Division "Garibaldi", which had been formed on 2 December 1943 in Montenegro from the remnants of two Italian divisions, which had refused to surrender to German forces after Italy had switched sides with the Armistice of Cassibile on 8 September 1943.

Partisan Division "Garibaldi"

2nd Yugoslav Partisan Corps Commander Peko Dapčević addressing the men of the Mountain Artillery Group "Aosta" in September 1943
2nd Yugoslav Partisan Corps Commander Peko Dapčević addressing the men of the Mountain Artillery Group "Aosta" in September 1943
Alpini of the "Taurinense" in Pljevlja October 1943
Alpini of the "Taurinense" in Pljevlja October 1943

The news of the armistice between Italy and the Allies reached the Italian XIV Army Corps in the evening of 8 September 1943 and due to the lack of any orders from Rome the four divisions of the corps reacted differently and individually to German demands to surrender: the 23rd Infantry Division "Ferrara" surrendered immediately. The 155th Infantry Division "Emilia" based around Kotor resisted the Germans until 16 September, but under heavy Luftwaffe air attacks chose evacuation by the Italian Regia Marina to Bari. The 19th Infantry Division "Venezia" based around Podgorica refused to surrender and allied with Yugoslav partisans. On 10 October the division entered the 2nd Corps of Tito's National Liberation Army and on 13 October 1943 the division began an offensive against Wehrmacht forces in Brodarevo, Murina, Berane e Kolašin. The 1st Alpine Division "Taurinense" based around Nikšić and Danilovgrad immediately attacked German positions and by sunrise of 9 September was fully engaged in combat with German forces. The division tried to reach Kotor to be evacuated, but in heavy combat lost about half its strength of 14,000 men. The division's Mountain Artillery Group "Aosta" of the 1st Mountain Artillery Regiment and Alpini Battalion "Ivrea" had ignored orders to move to Kotor and sided with Tito's forces right away. By early October the remnants of the Italian divisions, more than 20,000 men, retreated towards Pljevlja.[3]

On 2 December 1943 in Pljevlja the remaining Italian soldiers, approximately 16,000 men, were grouped together in the Partisan Division "Garibaldi", which as unit insignia chose a red neckerchief in referral to Giuseppe Garibaldi's redshirt volunteers. The division consisted of three brigades of 5,000 men each, with the remaining Italians, mostly artillery, signals, engineer, and medical specialists, becoming instructors. Integrated into the Partisan 2nd Corps the division fought in Yugoslavia until February 1945, when the remaining 3,800 troops were repatriated via the liberated Dubrovnik.[3]

The units, which entered the Partisan Division "Garibaldi" as coherent units, were awarded with Italy's highest military honor after their return:

Regiment "Garibaldi"

On 25 April 1945 the Regiment "Garibaldi" was formed in Viterbo with the survivors of the Division "Garibaldi". The regiment consisted of three battalions:

  • Regiment "Garibaldi"
    • I Battalion "Aosta" (Alpini)
    • II Battalion "Venezia" (Infantry)
    • III Battalion "Torino" (Alpini)

The Garibaldi regiment's troops wore the distinct Cappello Alpino of the Alpini infantry specialty. On 5 September 1945 the regiment joined the Combat Group "Folgore", which had participated on the allied side in the Italian Campaign. The Folgore had been formed on 25 September 1944 with troops from the 184th Paratroopers Division "Nembo", which had served with the Polish II Corps at the battles of Filottrano, Castelfidardo, and Ancona. The Combat Group "Folgore" consisted of two regiments with three battalions each: the Paratroopers Regiment "Nembo" and the navy's Regiment "San Marco". The 183rd had been formed with the remnants of the six paratrooper battalions of the 184th Paratroopers Division "Nembo". The combat group also fielded the Paratroopers Artillery Regiment "Folgore".[9][10] The same day the Garibaldi regiment entered the division the San Marco regiment left it and reverted to the navy. 15 October 1945 the Combat Group "Folgore" was elevated to Infantry Division "Folgore".[9]

182nd Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi"

On 1 December 1948 the Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi" was renamed 182nd Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi", the Paratroopers Infantry Regiment "Nembo" was renamed 183rd Infantry Regiment "Nembo",[11] and the Paratroopers Artillery Regiment "Folgore" was renamed 184th Artillery Regiment.[12] With the renaming the 182nd Garibaldi ceded its Alpini troops to the Alpini regiments that were forming and received infantry fusiliers instead. At the same time the regiment ceased to wear the Cappello Alpino and began to wear a red tie with the formal uniform. The regiment's new structure was:[2]

  • 182nd Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi"
    • Command Company
    • I Infantry Battalion
    • II Infantry Battalion
    • III Infantry Battalion
    • Mortar Company
    • Anti-tank Company

In 1949 the regiment moved to Sacile and on 12 October 1953 the regiment was awarded Italy's highest military honor the Gold Medal of Military Valour for its service during World War II in Yugoslavia.[13]

182nd Armored Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi"

During 1958 the regiment disbanded its infantry battalions and received the I Bersaglieri Battalion and III Tank Battalion from the 1st Bersaglieri Regiment. On 1 November 1958 the regiment was officially renamed 182nd Armored Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi" and the III Tank Battalion was renamed II Tank Battalion. The II Tank Battalion was renamed XXI Tank Battalion in 1959, and in 1961 XIII Tank Battalion. The same year the I Bersaglieri Battalion was renamed XXIII Bersaglieri Battalion, and in 1964 XI Bersaglieri Battalion. From 1969 onward regiment's structure was:[2]

With the arrival of the XI Bersaglieri Battalion the three Silver Medals of Military Valour awarded during World War I to the battalion's predecessor unit, the XI Cyclists Battalion of the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment, were temporarily affixed to the flag of the 182nd regiment and added to the regiment's coat of arms.[2]

11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera"

Coat of arms of the 11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera" with the temporarily assigned Gold Medal of Military Valour of the 182nd Regiment "Garibaldi"
Coat of arms of the 11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera" with the temporarily assigned Gold Medal of Military Valour of the 182nd Regiment "Garibaldi"

With the 1975 army reform the regimental level was abolished and battalions became independent units. The 182nd Armored Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi" was the last infantry regiment to disband on 15 July 1976 and the next day its XI Bersaglieri Battalion became the 11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera", while its XIII Tank Battalion became the 13th Tank Battalion "M.O. Pascucci". The war flag and traditions of the 182nd Regiment "Garibaldi" were assigned to the 11th Caprera, while the name of the regiment was transferred to the 8th Mechanized Brigade "Garibaldi". The 11th Bersaglieri Battalion was named for the island of Caprera, where Giuseppe Garibaldi had spent the last years of his life. The battalion inherited the right to wear a red tie, moved from Sacile to Orcenico Superiore and joined the 8th Mechanized Brigade "Garibaldi", while the 13th Pascucci moved to Cordenons and joined the Mechanized Brigade "Brescia".[2][14]

The Gold Medal of Military Valour awarded to the 182nd Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi" remained on the flag the 11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera" inherited, and therefore the medal was temporarily assigned to the 11th Caprera, which added it to its coat of arms.[2]

For its conduct and work after the 1976 Friuli earthquake the battalion was awarded a Bronze Medal of Army Valour, which was affixed to the battalion's war flag and added to the battalion's coat of arms.[15]

On 30 September 1992 the 27th Bersaglieri Battalion "Jamiano" in Aviano was reformed as 11th Bersaglieri Regiment. On 21 October of the same year the 27th Bersaglieri Battalion "Jamiano" in Aviano disbanded and 11th Bersaglieri Regiment headquarters moved to Orcenico Superiore, where it took command of the troops of the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment "Caprera", which was renamed on that day 27th Bersaglieri Battalion "Jamiano". In parallel the headquarters of the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment "Caprera" moved to Bari and joined the Mechanized Brigade "Pinerolo" as core of the to-be-formed 7th Bersaglieri Regiment. As the 10th Bersaglieri Battalion "Bezzecca", who had been assigned the flag of the 7th Bersaglieri Regiment in 1975, had entered the 6th Bersaglieri Regiment, the 7th Bersaglieri Regiment received its original flag and therefore the flag of the 182nd Armored Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi", which had been the flag of the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment "Caprera", was transferred to the Shrine of the Flags in the Vittoriano in Rome.

On 18 April 1997 the 27th Bersaglieri Battalion "Jamiano" of the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment was renamed 11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera" and with this all the traditions of and all the awards bestowed on the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment and its battalions were reunited in one unit. Consequently, the three Silver Medals of Military Valour awarded to the XI Cyclists Battalion, which were affixed on the flag of the 182nd Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi" were transferred from the 182nd's flag to the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment's flag. With the entry of the 11th Bersaglieri Battalion "Caprera" the 11th Bersaglieri Regiment gained the right to wear a red tie.[2]

Regimental particularities

11th Bersaglieri Regiment war flag at the 66th National Rally of the Bersaglieri
11th Bersaglieri Regiment war flag at the 66th National Rally of the Bersaglieri

The 182nd regiment was a unique unit with many particularities shared with no other unit of the Italian Army. Italian infantry regiments have always been raised in pairs with consecutive numbers and the same name, however as there has never been a 181st Infantry Regiment "Garibaldi", making the 182nd is the only solitary infantry regiment of the Italian Army. The 182nd Regiment was also the only regiment of the army named after a person. All Italian infantry regiments received unique gorget patches they shared with their sister regiment, with the 182nd being the only infantry regiment, which never received them: from its founding until 1 December 1948 the regiment wore the gorget patches of the Alpini corps, and after 1 December 1948 the gorget patches of the 183rd Infantry Regiment "Nembo" and 184th Infantry Regiment "Nembo". After it was reformed as armored infantry regiment the members of the regiment wore the gorget patches of the Bersaglieri and tank specialities.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Le Feste dei Reparti - Ottobre". Italian Army. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h F. dell'Uomo, R. di Rosa (2001). L'Esercito Italiano verso il 2000 - Vol. Secondo - Tomo I. Rome: SME - Ufficio Storico. p. 353.
  3. ^ a b "Le divisioni Emilia, Taurinense e Venezia in Montenegro: la divisione Garibaldi". Associazione Nazionale Partigiani d'Italia. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  4. ^ "Gruppo Artiglieria Alpina "Aosta"". Quirinale - Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  5. ^ "Bandiera del 83° Reggimento Fanteria "Venezia"". Quirinale - Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  6. ^ "Bandiera del 182° Reggimento Fanteria "Garibaldi"". Quirinale - Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Stendardo del 19° Reggimento Artiglieria "Venezia "". Quirinale - Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  8. ^ "4° Reggimento Alpini Paracadutisti - Il Medagliere". Italian Army. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Gruppo di Combattimento "Folgore"". Italian Army. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  10. ^ ""Folgore"". Italian Army. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  11. ^ "183° Reggimento Paracadutisti "Nembo"". Italian Army. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  12. ^ "184° Reggimento Artiglieria Paracadutisti "Nembo"". Italian Army. Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  13. ^ "Bandiera del 182° Reggimento Fanteria "Garibaldi"". Quirinale - Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  14. ^ "Brigata Bersaglieri "Garibaldi" - La Storia". Italian Army. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  15. ^ "11° Battaglione Bersaglieri "Caprera"". Quirinale - Presidenza della Repubblica. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
This page was last edited on 1 January 2020, at 14:20
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