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1824 and 1825 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1824 and 1825 U.S. Senate elections

← 1822 / 1823 Dates vary by state 1826 / 1827 →

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian
Seats won 8 10
Seats after 25 20
Seat change Increase 25 Increase 20
Seats up 0 0

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 44 seats 3 seats
Seats before 43 5
Seat change Decrease 43 Decrease 5
Seats up 15 1

Majority party before election

Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority party

Jacksonian

The United States Senate elections of 1824 and 1825 were elections for the United States Senate that saw the Jacksonians gain a majority over the Anti-Jacksonian National Republican Party.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

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Transcription

Andrew Jackson’s performance during the Election of 1824 foretold of a new era in American politics. In the first presidential election in which the popular vote truly mattered, Andrew Jackson received far more votes than any other candidate. Was it enough to make the enormously popular general president? The Election of 1824 marked the first time in US history that no candidate ran as a Federalist, and a total of five Democratic-Republicans sought the office of the president. As President James Monroe’s secretary of state, John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts seemed a natural choice, but party officials nominated the temperamental William H. Crawford of Georgia, Monroe’s secretary of the treasury. Crawford was selected by a congressional caucus, alienating many who sought a more open process for selecting candidates. Aside from Adams and Crawford, the three other candidates each had substantial regional backing. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina had served as Monroe’s secretary of war and was a staunch defender of slave owners in the South, but lacked support outside of the region. House Speaker Henry Clay was well known throughout the country. A gifted speaker and political compromiser, he had a powerbase in Kentucky, but his American System of protective tariffs and nationalism alienated southerners who favored states’ rights candidates such as Calhoun. Such regional divisions, along with a new wave of election changes, opened the door for a popular national figure such as Andrew Jackson. The general and US Senator from Tennessee had become a household name thanks to his defeat of the British at the Battle of New Orleans and his campaigns against Creek and Seminole warriors in the South. Jackson dubbed himself a defender of the Republic as a way of appealing to a widening electorate. The election in 1824 marked the first time that property ownership did not play a role as a criterion for white males to vote. Although John Q. Adams attempted to present himself as a Jeffersonian-Federalist, many only saw him as the son of Federalist leader John Adams. Southerners objected to Adams as an opponent of slavery for criticizing the Missouri Compromise of 1820. The number of candidates involved in the election was a result of the previous election system breaking down. In the summer of 1824, an unofficial caucus of less than a third of eligible congressmen nominated William Crawford to oppose Andrew Jackson who had been nominated by the Tennessee legislature. Adams’ supporters denounced the action, and the Massachusetts legislature nominated Adams. The Kentucky legislature did the same for Clay. In the midst of the chaos, John C. Calhoun dropped out of the race and announced a bid for the vice presidency. Because there were no Federalists candidates involved, the Election of 1824 would be determined without reference to party affiliation on the ballots. As the campaign intensified, Andrew Jackson became the clear favorite. From Pennsylvania to Illinois, the size of his rallies far outperformed those of his opponents. Of the 24 US states, 18 would choose presidential electors by popular vote, while six would have their state legislature decide. Jackson emerged as the only candidate to receive significant nationwide support. In the 18 states where voting took place, he received 151,271 popular votes. Adams came in second with 113,122, while Clay gained 47,531, and Crawford 40,856. In Electoral College returns, however, Jackson only received 99 votes, falling 32 shy of the votes needed to secure a majority of the votes cast. Adams received 84 electoral votes, Crawford 41, and Clay 37. Without a majority winner, it fell upon the House of Representatives to select the victor. As Henry Clay received the fewest electoral votes, he was eliminated as a choice. However, as Speaker of the House, he became the most influential person in determining the outcome. The House election occurred in February of 1825, with each state receiving one vote (determined by each state’s congressmen). Most of Clay's supporters, along with some Federalists, cast votes for Adams, resulting in a 13-7-4 win for Adams. Shortly after his inauguration, Adams announced that Henry Clay would be his secretary of state. Many people accused Adams and Clay of colluding for personal gains against the will of the people. Jackson insisted that Clay had offered him support in exchange for the secretary of state position, but he refused. Jackson argued that Clay offered the same deal to Adams as part of a "corrupt bargain" and that Adams accepted. Clay denied the charges but occupied the cabinet position. In anger, Jackson resigned from the US Senate and returned home to prepare for the 1828 election. Despite coming up short in 1824, he garnered the votes and admiration of many poor and working class Americans, further democratizing American politics.

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 19th Congress (1825–1827)

  • Majority Party: Jacksonian (26)
  • Minority Party: Anti-Jacksonian (22)
  • Total seats: 48

Change in composition

Before the elections

  DR1 DR1 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority →
DR34
Ohio
Ran
new party
DR33
N.C.
Ran
new party
DR32
Mo.
Ran
new party
DR31
Md.
Ran
new party
DR30
La.
Ran
new party
DR29
Conn.
Ran
new party
DR28 DR27 DR26 DR25
DR35
S.C.
Ran
new party
DR36
Ala.
Unknown
DR37
Ga.
Unknown
DR38
Ill.
Unknown
DR39
Ky.
Unknown
DR40
N.H.
Unknown
DR41
Ind.
Retired
DR42
Pa.
Retired
DR43
Vt.
Retired
Fa5
N.Y.
Retired
  Fa1 Fa2 Fa3 Fa4

Election results

  DR1 DR1 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority →
AJ6
Pa.
Gain
AJ5
Ohio
Gain
AJ4
Ind.
Gain
AJ3
Vt.
Re-elected
new party
AJ2
Mo.
Re-elected
new party
AJ1
La.
Re-elected
new party
DR28 DR27 DR26 DR25
V1
Conn.
DR Loss
V2
N.Y.
F Loss
J8
N.H.
Gain
J7
Ky.
Gain
J6
Ill.
Gain
J5
Ga.
Gain
J4
Ala.
Gain
J3
S.C.
Re-elected
new party
J2
N.C.
Re-elected
new party
J1
Md.
Re-elected
new party
  Fa1 Fa2 Fa3 Fa4

Beginning of the next Congress

  AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19 AJ20 V1 V2 V3 J25
Majority → J24
J15 J16 J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 J23
J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
  J1 J2 J3 J4
Key:
18th Congress 19th Congress
DR# Democratic-Republican AJ# Anti-Jacksonian
F# Federalist J# Jacksonian
  V# Vacant

Race summaries

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 18th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1824 or before March 4, 1825; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Incumbent re-elected late January 9, 1824.
Federalist gain.
Delaware
(Class 1)
Vacant Caesar A. Rodney (DR) had resigned January 29, 1823 in the previous Congress.
Successor elected January 13, 1824.
Federalist gain.
Louisiana
(Class 3)
James Brown Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent resigned December 10, 1823 to become U.S. Minister to France.
Successor elected January 15, 1824.[3]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor later re-elected, see below.
Connecticut
(Class 2)
Henry W. Edwards Democratic-Republican 1823 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected May 5, 1824.
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Henry Johnson Democratic-Republican 1818 (Appointed)
1823 (Special)
Incumbent resigned May 27, 1824 to become Governor of Louisiana.
Successor elected November 19, 1824.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Illinois
(Class 3)
Ninian Edwards Democratic-Republican 1818
1819
Incumbent resigned March 3, 1824.
Successor elected November 24, 1824 on the third ballot, but not to next term.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Georgia
(Class 2)
Nicholas Ware Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special)
1823
Incumbent died September 7, 1824.
Successor elected December 6, 1824.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia
(Class 2)
John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1792 (Special)
1793
Died August 21, 1824.
Successor elected December 7, 1824.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Races leading to the 19th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1825 (except where noted due to late election); ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama William Kelly Democratic-Republican (Jackson faction) 1822 (Special) Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Successor elected in 1824.[7]
Jacksonian gain.
Connecticut James Lanman Democratic-Republican (Crawford faction) 1818 Incumbent re-elected in 1824[8] but disqualified.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Georgia John Elliott Democratic-Republican (Crawford faction) 1819 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Successor elected in 1824.[9]
Jacksonian gain.
Illinois Ninian Edwards Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1818
1819
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Successor elected in 1824 on the tenth ballot.[10]
Jacksonian gain.
Indiana Waller Taylor Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1816
1818
Incumbent retired.
Successor elected in 1825 on the fourth ballot.[11]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Kentucky Isham Talbot Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1815 (Special)
1819 (Lost or retired)
1820 (Special)
Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Successor elected in 1824.[12]
Jacksonian gain.
Louisiana Josiah S. Johnston Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1824 Incumbent re-elected in 1825 on the second ballot as an Anti-Jacksonian.[13]
Maryland Edward Lloyd Democratic-Republican (Crawford faction) 1819 Incumbent re-elected in 1825 as a Jacksonian.
Missouri David Barton Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1821 Incumbent re-elected in 1824 as an Anti-Jacksonian.[15]
New Hampshire John F. Parrott Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1818 Unknown if incumbent retired or lost re-election.
Successor elected in 1825 on the forty-first ballot.[a][16]
Jacksonian gain.
Successor seated late March 16, 1825.
New York Rufus King Federalist (Adams-Clay faction) 1789
1795
1796 (Resigned)
1813
1819/1820
Incumbent retired.
Vacant due to a deadlock in the New York State Legislature.[17][18]
Federalist loss.
North Carolina Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican (Crawford faction) 1815 (Special)
1818
Incumbent re-elected in 1824 as a Jacksonian.[19]
Ohio Ethan Allen Brown Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1822 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Successor elected in 1825 on the fourth ballot.[20]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Pennsylvania Walter Lowrie Democratic-Republican (Crawford faction) 1818 Incumbent retired.
Successor elected in February 1825 on the thirty-second ballot.[21]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
South Carolina John Gaillard Democratic-Republican (Crawford faction) 1804 (Special)
1806
1812
1818
Incumbent re-elected in 1824 on the second ballot as a Jacksonian.[22]
Vermont William A. Palmer Democratic-Republican (Adams-Clay faction) 1818 (Special)
1818
Incumbent retired.
Successor elected in 1824 on the fourth ballot.[23]
Anti-Jacksonian gain.

Special elections during the 19th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1825 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Vacant Vacant due to credentials challenge.
Successor elected May 4, 1825.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
James DeWolf Anti-Jacksonian 1820 or 1821 Incumbent resigned October 31, 1825.
Successor elected October 31, 1825.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.

Alabama

Connecticut

Connecticut (1824 Special)

Connecticut (1825 Special)

Delaware (Specials)

Georgia

Georgia (Special)

Illinois

Illinois (Special)

Indiana

Kentucky

Louisiana

Louisiana (Specials)

Maryland

Missouri

New Hampshire

New York

North Carolina

Ohio

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island (Special)

South Carolina

Vermont

Virginia (Special)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ There were 36 ballots in 1824 in which the New Hampshire House of Representatives and New Hampshire Senate would not agree on a U.S. Senator. Balloting continued into 1825, and Woodbury was finally elected on the 5th ballot.

References

  1. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  2. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  3. ^ a b "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  4. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  5. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  6. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  7. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  8. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  9. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  10. ^ a b "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  11. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  12. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  13. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  14. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  15. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  16. ^ a b "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  17. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  18. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  19. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  20. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  21. ^ a b "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  22. ^ a b "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  23. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
  24. ^ "A New Nation Votes". elections.lib.tufts.edu.
This page was last edited on 20 December 2019, at 23:45
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