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1816 and 1817 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1816 and 1817 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1814 / 1815 April 30, 1816 – August 14, 1817 1818 / 1819 →

All 184 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
93 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Henry Clay.jpg
TimothyPitkin.jpg
Leader Henry Clay Timothy Pitkin
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Kentucky 2nd Connecticut at-large
Last election 119 seats 64 seats
Seats won 144[a] 40[a]
Seat change Increase 25 Decrease 24

Speaker before election

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 15th Congress were held at various dates in different states between April 1816 and August 1817.

The Democratic-Republican Party entered the election with a large majority, yet made sizable gains, helping trigger the virtually nonpartisan Era of Good Feelings under new President James Monroe, elected in 1816.

Two major events combined to help eliminate the declining Federalist Party from meaningful contention. First, the War of 1812 had concluded in 1815 with a feeling of national pride and relief, with the small American military fighting the much more powerful British forces to a draw punctuated by General Andrew Jackson's dramatic victory at the Battle of New Orleans. Federalists had opposed the risky but ultimately successful war, with some New England Federalists advocating radical measures at the Hartford Convention. Second, the 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora in present-day Indonesia, itself the most powerful in recorded history and following other major eruptions, temporarily disrupted global climate. The effects severely damaged the agricultural economy of New England, where Federalist support was strongest, causing privation, popular discontent, and mass emigration westward.

Election summaries

Mississippi was admitted as a state in 1817 during the 15th Congress, adding one seat.[1]

144 40
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type
Date
Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican
Federalist
Seats Change Seats Change
New York Districts April 30 – May 2, 1816 27 22 Increase1 5 Decrease1
Louisiana At-large July 1–3, 1816 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 5, 1816 10 10 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large August 26, 1816 6 6 Increase6 0 Decrease6
Rhode Island At-large August 27, 1816 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
Vermont At-large September 3, 1816 6 6 Increase6 0 Decrease6
Connecticut At-large September 16, 1816 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Maryland Districts October 6, 1816 9 5 Increase1 4 Decrease1
Delaware At-large October 7, 1816 2 1 Increase1 1 Decrease1
Georgia At-large 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 8, 1816 6 5 Decrease1 1 Increase1
Pennsylvania Districts 23 19 Increase1 4 Decrease1
South Carolina Districts October 14–15, 1816 9 9 Increase1 0 Decrease1
Massachusetts Districts November 4, 1816[b] 20 9 Increase7 11 Decrease7
New Jersey At-large November 4–5, 1816 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1817 beginning of the term)
Virginia Districts April 1817 23 20 Increase1 3 Decrease1
Indiana At-large August 4, 1817 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large August 4–5, 1817 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 7–8, 1817 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 14, 1817 13 11 Steady 2 Steady
Total 184 144[a]
78.3%
Increase25 40[a]
21.7%
Decrease24
House seats
Democratic-Republican
78.3%
Federalist
21.7%

Special elections

There were special elections in 1816 and 1817 to the 14th United States Congress and 15th United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

14th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
North Carolina 6 Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent resigned December 15, 1815 when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected January 22, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated February 7, 1816.[2]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Maryland 5
(Seat A)
Nicholas R. Moore Democratic-Republican 1803
1810 (Lost)
1812
Incumbent resigned in 1815.
New member elected January 27, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated February 4, 1816.[2]
Successor was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
New York 21 Peter B. Porter Democratic-Republican 1808
1812 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent resigned January 23, 1816
New member elected April 30 – May 2, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
North Carolina 5 William R. King Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent resigned, effective November 4, 1816.
New member elected before August 16, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Winner later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
  • Green tickY Charles Hooks (Democratic-Republican)
  • "Rev. S. Stanford"
  • "by a majority of 343 votes"[6]
North Carolina 8 Richard Stanford Democratic-Republican 1796 Incumbent died April 16, 1816.
New member elected before August 22, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Winner later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
New York 20 Enos T. Throop Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent resigned June 4, 1816 after losing re-election.
New member elected August 27–29, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1816.[2]
Winner was not elected to the next term, see below.
Maryland 5
(Seat B)
William Pinkney Democratic-Republican 1790
1791 (Resigned)
1814
Incumbent resigned April 18, 1816 to become Minister to Russia.
New member elected September 3, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Successor was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
  • Green tickY Peter Little (Democratic-Republican) 54.4%
  • Tobias Stansbury (Democratic-Republican) 45.6%[9]
Maryland 3 Alexander C. Hanson Federalist 1812 Incumbent resigned after being elected to the Senate.
New member elected October 6, 1816.
Federalist-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
  • Green tickY George Peter (Federalist) 45.5%
  • Charles Kilgour (Federalist) 30.9%
  • Nicholas Snethen (Democratic-Republican) 23.5%[10]
Ohio 1 John McLean Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent resigned in April 1816 after being appointed to the Supreme Court of Ohio.
New member elected October 8, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Winner also elected, the same day, to the next term, see below.
Pennsylvania 9 Thomas Burnside Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent resigned in April 1816 to accept judicial appointment.
New member elected October 8, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1816.[2]
Successor also elected, the same day, to the next term, see below.
Virginia 18 Thomas Gholson Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 (Special) Incumbent died July 4, 1816.
New member elected October 10–28, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 4, 1816.[2]
South Carolina 9
"Sumter or Camden district"
William Mayrant Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent resigned October 21, 1816, having just lost re-election.
New member elected November 25 & 26, 1816, who had also won the general election, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 2, 1817.[2]
Georgia at-large Alfred Cuthbert Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special)
1814
Incumbent resigned November 9, 1816.
New member elected December 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 23, 1817.[2]
  • Green tickY Zadock Cook (Democratic-Republican) 39.5%
  • Thomas U.P. Charlton 38.3%
  • Moore 12.6%
  • Walker 9.6%[13]
Indiana at-large None (District created) Indiana was admitted as a state of the Union on December 11, 1816.[2]
New member elected in 1816.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New member seated December 11, 1816.[2]
Kentucky 1 James Clark Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent resigned April 8, 1816 when appointed circuit court judge.
New member elected in 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Successor was not elected to the next term, see below.
Massachusetts 11 Elijah Brigham Federalist 1810 Incumbent died February 22, 1816.
New member elected in 1816.
Federalist-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 2, 1816.[2]
Virginia 23 John Clopton Democratic-Republican 1795
1799 (Lost)
1801
Incumbent died September 11, 1816
New member elected in 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 17, 1816.[2]

15th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
Pennsylvania 10 David Scott Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent resigned to become president and judge of the court of common pleas.
New member elected October 14, 1817.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated with the rest of the House December 1, 1817.[16]
  • Green tickY John Murray (Democratic-Republican) 71.0%
  • Abram Light (Federalist) 29.0%
Connecticut at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Sylvanus Backus Federalist 1816 Member-elect died February 15, 1817.
New member elected in 1817.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated with the rest of the House December 1, 1817.[16]
Charles Dennison Federalist 1816 Member-elect declined the seat.
New member elected in 1817.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated with the rest of the House December 1, 1817.[16]
New York 4 Henry B. Lee Democratic-Republican 1816 Member-elect died February 18, 1817.
New member elected in 1817.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated with the rest of the House December 1, 1817.[16]
  • Green tickY James Tallmadge Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 47.7%
  • Lemuel Clift (Federalist) 38.5%
  • Abraham Adriance (Democratic-Republican) 13.8%
Missouri Territory at-large John Scott Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent's re-election declared illegal and seat vacated since March 4, 1817.
Incumbent re-elected in 1817.
Successor seated August 4, 1817.[16]

Connecticut

Connecticut elected its members September 16, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Benjamin Tallmadge Federalist 1801 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Successor (Backus) died February 15, 1817, leading to a special election.
Epaphroditus Champion Federalist 1806 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Lewis B. Sturges Federalist 1805 (Special) Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Successor (Dennison) declined to serve, leading to a special election.
Timothy Pitkin Federalist 1805 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
John Davenport Federalist 1798 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Jonathan O. Moseley Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected.
Lyman Law Federalist 1810 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.

Delaware

Delaware elected its members October 7, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
Delaware at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Thomas Clayton Federalist 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Thomas Cooper Federalist 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Georgia

Georgia elected its members October 7, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Wilson Lumpkin Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Richard Henry Wilde Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Bolling Hall Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Zadock Cook Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas Telfair Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Forsyth Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent re-elected.

Indiana

Indiana elected its member August 4, 1817, having just elected him just the year before to the new seat.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Indiana at-large William Hendricks Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent re-elected.

Kentucky

Kentucky elected its members August 5, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1 James Clark Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent resigned April 8, 1816 when appointed circuit court judge.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor was not elected to finish the current term.
Kentucky 2 Henry Clay Democratic-Republican 1810
1814 (Resigned)
1814
1815 (Seat declared vacant)
1815 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 3 Richard M. Johnson Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 4 Joseph Desha Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Kentucky 5 Alney McLean Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Anthony New (Democratic-Republican) 64.4%
  • Benjamin W. Patton 35.6%
Kentucky 6 Solomon P. Sharp Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 7 Samuel McKee Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 8 Stephen Ormsby Democratic-Republican 1810
1812 (Lost)
1813 (Special)
Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 9 Micah Taul Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Kentucky 10 Benjamin Hardin Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Thomas Speed (Democratic-Republican) 42.3%
  • James Crutcher 31.2%
  • John Lancaster 26.5%

Louisiana

Louisiana elected its members July 1–3, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Louisiana at-large Thomas B. Robertson Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent re-elected.

Maryland

Maryland elected its members October 6, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
Maryland 1 Philip Stuart Federalist 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 2 John C. Herbert Federalist 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 3 Alexander C. Hanson Federalist 1812 Incumbent resigned in 1816 when elected U.S. Senator.
Winner was also elected to finish the term, see above.
Federalist hold.
  • Green tickY George Peter (Federalist) 46.0%
  • Charles Kilgour (Federalist) 30.4%
  • Nicholas Snethen (Democratic-Republican) 23.6%
Maryland 4 George Baer Jr. Federalist 1796
1801 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Samuel Ringgold (Democratic-Republican) 53.6%
  • Matthew Van Lear (Federalist) 46.3%
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1792
1802 (Retired)
1816 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected.
Peter Little Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 6 Stevenson Archer Democratic-Republican 1811 (Special) Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland 7 Robert Wright Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland 8 Charles Goldsborough Federalist 1804 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.

Massachusetts

Massachusetts's electoral law required a majority for election. In five districts this was not met on the first election, requiring additional trials to be held.

Massachusetts elected its members November 4, 1816.

District[f] Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Massachusetts 1
"Suffolk district"
Artemas Ward Jr. Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Winner declined to serve and was replaced in a special election.
  • Green tickY James Lloyd (Federalist) 98.0%
  • Benjamin Austin (Democratic-Republican) 2.0%
Massachusetts 2
"Essex South district"
Timothy Pickering Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Massachusetts 3
"Essex North district"
Jeremiah Nelson Federalist 1804
1806 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (November 4, 1816):
  • William B. Banister (Federalist) 44.0%
  • Thomas Kitteridge (Democratic-Republican) 39.4%
  • Samuel L. Knapp (Federalist) 9.7%
  • Ebenezer Moseley (Federalist) 5.7%
  • Jeremiah Nelson (Federalist) 1.2%

Second ballot (January 27, 1817):
  • William B. Banister (Federalist) 46.0%
  • Thomas Kitteridge (Democratic-Republican) 39.0%
  • Jeremiah Nelson (Federalist) 11.8%
  • Others 3.2%

Third ballot (May 1, 1817):
  • Green tickY Jeremiah Nelson (Federalist) 57.7%
  • Thomas Kitteridge (Democratic-Republican) 33.9%
  • Others 8.4%
Massachusetts 4
"Middlesex district"
Asahel Stearns Federalist 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Massachusetts 5
"Hampshire South district"
Elijah H. Mills Federalist 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Elijah H. Mills (Federalist) 81.0%
  • Enos Foot (Democratic-Republican) 9.9%
  • Lewis Strong (Federalist) 6.7%
  • Others 2.5%
Massachusetts 6
"Hampshire North district"
Samuel Taggart Federalist 1803 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts 7
"Berkshire district"
John W. Hulbert Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Henry Shaw (Democratic-Republican) 52.2%
  • Daniel Noble (Federalist) 46.0%
  • Others 1.8%
Massachusetts 8
"Plymouth district"
William Baylies Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (November 4, 1816):
  • Zabdiel Sampson (Democratic-Republican) 49.2%
  • Wilkes Wood (Federalist) 46.2%
  • Others 4.6%

Second ballot (January 27, 1817):
  • Green tickY Zabdiel Sampson (Democratic-Republican) 51.8%
  • Wilkes Wood (Federalist) 47.0%
  • Others 1.2%
Massachusetts 9
"Barnstable district"
John Reed Jr. Federalist 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (November 4, 1816):

Second ballot (January 27, 1817):

Third ballot (May 1, 1817):
Massachusetts 10
"Bristol district"
Laban Wheaton Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Marcus Morton (Democratic-Republican) 50.6%
  • Samuel Crocker (Federalist) 46.3%
  • Others 3.1%
Massachusetts 11
"Worcester South district"
Elijah Brigham Federalist 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts 12
"Worcester North district"
Solomon Strong Federalist 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Solomon Strong (Federalist) 69.4%
  • Edmund Cushing (Democratic-Republican) 30.6%
Massachusetts 13
"Norfolk district"
Nathaniel Ruggles Federalist 1812 Incumbent re-elected.
Massachusetts 14
"1st Eastern district, District of Maine"
Cyrus King Federalist 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Massachusetts 15
"2nd Eastern district, District of Maine"
George Bradbury Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts 16
"3rd Eastern district, District of Maine"
Benjamin Brown Federalist 1812 Ran for re-election in the 18th district
Federalist hold.
  • Green tickY Benjamin Orr (Federalist) 63.3%
  • Erastus Foote (Democratic-Republican) 36.7%
Massachusetts 17
"4th Eastern district, District of Maine"
James Carr Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Massachusetts 18
"5th Eastern district, District of Maine"
Thomas Rice Federalist 1814 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (November 4, 1816):

Second ballot (January 27, 1817):

Third ballot (May 1, 1817):

Fourth ballot (July 21, 1817):

Fifth ballot (September 29, 1817):

Sixth ballot (December 1, 1817):
Samuel S. Conner
Formerly served in the 19th district.
Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Massachusetts 19
"6th Eastern district, District of Maine"
Vacant Incumbent ran in the 18th district.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (November 4, 1816):

Second ballot (January 27, 1817):

Third ballot (May 1, 1817):

Fourth ballot (July 21, 1817):

Fifth ballot (September 29, 1817):
  • Green tickY Joshua Gage (Democratic-Republican) 60.4%
  • Peter Grant (Federalist) 39.6%
Massachusetts 20
"7th Eastern district, District of Maine"
Albion K. Parris Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.

Mississippi

Mississippi was admitted as a state on December 10, 1817[16] from the western half of the former Mississippi Territory (the eastern half became Alabama Territory) It elected its first representative to Congress August 4–5, 1817.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Mississippi at-large None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire elected its members August 26, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
New Hampshire at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Bradbury Cilley Federalist 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Charles Humphrey Atherton Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Hale Federalist 1808
1810 (Lost)
1812
Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Roger Vose Federalist 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Daniel Webster Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Jeduthun Wilcox Federalist 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

New Jersey

In 1816, the Democratic-Republican candidates ran unopposed.

New Jersey elected its members November 4–5, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
New Jersey at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Lewis Condict Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas Ward Democratic-Republican 1813 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Henry Southard Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
Ephraim Bateman Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
Ezra Baker Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Benjamin Bennet Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.

New York

New York elected its members April 23 to 25, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
New York 1
Plural district with 2 seats
George Townsend Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
Henry Crocheron Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 2
Plural district with 2 seats
William Irving Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Peter H. Wendover Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 3 Jonathan Ward Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Caleb Tompkins (Democratic-Republican) 56.8%
  • Abraham Odell (Federalist) 42.8%
New York 4 Abraham H. Schenck Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner died February 18, 1817, leading to a special election.
  • Green tickY Henry B. Lee (Democratic-Republican) 52.6%
  • Henry A. Livingston (Federalist) 47.2%
New York 5 Thomas P. Grosvenor Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
New York 6 James W. Wilkin Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
New York 7 Samuel R. Betts Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 8 Erastus Root Democratic-Republican 1802
1804 (Lost)
1808
1810 (Retired)
1815 (Won contest)
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 9 John Lovett Federalist 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
New York 10 Hosea Moffitt Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
New York 11 John W. Taylor Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 12
Plural district with 2 seats
John Savage Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
Asa Adgate Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 13 John B. Yates Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Thomas Lawyer (Democratic-Republican) 54.9%
  • William Beekman (Federalist) 45.1%
New York 14 Daniel Cady Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John Herkimer (Democratic-Republican) 50.8%
  • Richard Van Horn (Federalist) 49.2%
New York 15
Plural district with 2 seats
Jabez D. Hammond Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
James Birdsall Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 16 Thomas R. Gold Federalist 1808
1814
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
New York 17 Westel Willoughby Jr. Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New York 18 Moss Kent Federalist 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
New York 19 Victory Birdseye Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 20
Plural district with 2 seats
Enos T. Throop Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Incumbent then resigned June 4, 1816, leading to a special election.
Oliver C. Comstock Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 21
Plural district with 2 seats
Micah Brooks Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Peter B. Porter Democratic-Republican 1808
1812 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent resigned January 23, 1816 to become Commissioner under the Treaty of Ghent.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner was not elected to finish the term, see above.

North Carolina

North Carolina elected its members August 14, 1817.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1 William H. Murfree Democratic-Republican 1813 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Lemuel Sawyer (Democratic-Republican) 38.0%
  • Joseph Ferebee (Democratic-Republican) 33.1%
  • Henry Skinner (Federalist) 28.9%
North Carolina 2 Joseph H. Bryan Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 3 James W. Clark Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 4 William Gaston Federalist 1813 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
  • Green tickY Jesse Slocumb (Federalist) 54.0%
  • Henry J. G. Ruffin (Democratic-Republican) 46.0%
North Carolina 5 Charles Hooks Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 6 Weldon N. Edwards Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 7 John Culpepper Federalist 1806
1808 (Contested election)
1808 (Special)
1813
Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Successor died before being seated, leading to a special election.
North Carolina 8 Samuel Dickens Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 9 Bartlett Yancey Democratic-Republican 1813 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
North Carolina 10 William C. Love Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY George Mumford (Democratic-Republican) 53.9%
  • John L. Henderson (Federalist) 46.1%
North Carolina 11 Daniel M. Forney Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.
North Carolina 12 Israel Pickens Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Felix Walker (Democratic-Republican) 42.8%
  • John Paxton (Democratic-Republican) 38.5%
  • William Porter (Democratic-Republican) 18.7%
North Carolina 13 Lewis Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.

Ohio

Ohio elected its members October 8, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
Ohio 1 John McLean Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent resigned in April 1816 become Associate Judge of Ohio Supreme Court.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Winner also elected, the same day, to finish the current next term.
Ohio 2 John Alexander Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ohio 3 William Creighton Jr. Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Levi Barber (Democratic-Republican) 40.7%
  • Henry Brush (Democratic-Republican) 31.5%
  • Joseph Kerr (Democratic-Republican) 12.8%
  • Samuel Monett (Democratic-Republican) 10.8%
  • John A. Fulton (Democratic-Republican) 4.1%
Ohio 4 James Caldwell Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Election was later unsuccessfully contested.[2]
Ohio 5 James Kilbourne Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
  • Green tickY Philemon Beecher (Federalist) 19.6%
  • Joseph Vance (Democratic-Republican) 18.6%
  • Joseph Foos (Democratic-Republican) 13.9%
  • Daniel C. Cooper (Federalist) 13.6%
  • William Ludlow (Democratic-Republican) 9.1%
  • Daniel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 8.7%
  • Fielding Lowry (Democratic-Republican) 8.2%
  • Robert F. Slaughter (Democratic-Republican) 4.7%
  • Chester Griswold (Democratic-Republican) 3.6%
Ohio 6 David Clendenin Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Peter Hitchcock (Democratic-Republican) 57.5%
  • Joseph Richardson (Democratic-Republican) 28.0%
  • John G. Young (Democratic-Republican) 8.5%
  • David Clendenin (Democratic-Republican) 5.9%

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania elected its members October 8, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[c][18]
Pennsylvania 1
Plural district with 4 seats
John Sergeant Federalist 1815 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Joseph Hopkinson Federalist 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
William Milnor Federalist 1806
1810 (Lost)
1814
Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Smith Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
William Darlington Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
John Hahn Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Pennsylvania 3
Plural district with 2 seats
John Whiteside Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
James M. Wallace Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 4 Hugh Glasgow Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 5
Plural district with 2 seats
William Maclay Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
William Crawford Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 6
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel D. Ingham Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent re-elected.
John Ross Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 7 Joseph Hiester Democratic-Republican 1798
1804 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 8 William Piper Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 9 Thomas Burnside Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent resigned in April 1816 to accept judicial appointment.
New member elected October 8, 1816.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected, the same day, to finish the term.
Pennsylvania 10
Plural district with 2 seats
William Wilson Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY William Wilson (Democratic-Republican) 32.5%
  • Green tickY David Scott (Democratic-Republican) 31.5%
  • William Buyers (Federalist) 14.8
  • George Kremer (Democratic-Republican) 8.8%
  • Roswell Wells (Federalist) 8.8%
  • Charles Maus 3.5%
Jared Irwin Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor resigned before Congress started, leading to a special election.
Pennsylvania 11 William Findley Democratic-Republican 1802 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY David Marchand (Democratic-Republican) 52.8%
  • George Armstrong (Federalist) 47.2%
Pennsylvania 12 Aaron Lyle Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 13 Isaac Griffin Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Christian Tarr (Democratic-Republican) 50.8%
  • Presley C. Lane (Democratic-Republican) 19.7%
  • Henry Heaton (Democratic-Republican) 14.2%
  • Thomas McKibben (Democratic-Republican) 11.7%
  • Thomas Hersey (Democratic-Republican) 3.6%
Pennsylvania 14 John Woods Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY Henry Baldwin (Democratic-Republican) 61.6%
  • Walter Lowrie (Democratic-Republican) 38.4%
Pennsylvania 15 Thomas Wilson Democratic-Republican 1813 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island elected its members August 27, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John L. Boss Jr. Federalist 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
James B. Mason Federalist 1814 Incumbent re-elected.

South Carolina

South Carolina elected its members October 14–15, 1816.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
"Charleston district"
Henry Middleton Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Henry Middleton (Democratic-Republican) 56.4%
  • William Crafts Jr. (Federalist) 43.6%
South Carolina 2
"Beaufort district"
William Lowndes Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 3
"Georgetown district"
Benjamin Huger Federalist 1798
1804 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain
South Carolina 4
"Orangeburgh district"
John J. Chappell Democratic-Republican 1812 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 5
"Newberry district"
William Woodward Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
South Carolina 6
"Abbeville district"
John C. Calhoun Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY John C. Calhoun (Democratic-Republican) 43.2%
  • Edmund Bacon (Federalist) 31.5%
  • William Butler (Democratic-Republican) 25.3%
South Carolina 7
"Pendleton district"
John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Elias Earle (Democratic-Republican) 50.7%
  • Andrew Pickens (Democratic-Republican) 26.7%
  • John Taylor (Democratic-Republican) 22.6%
South Carolina 8
"Chester district"
Thomas Moore Democratic-Republican 1800
1812 (Retired)
1814
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Wilson Nesbitt (Democratic-Republican) 41.4%
  • James MacKibben (Democratic-Republican) 32.3%
  • William Smith (Democratic-Republican) 20.3%
  • William Rice (Democratic-Republican) 5.9%
South Carolina 9
"Sumter district"
William Mayrant Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Incumbent then resigned October 21, 1816, leading to a special election, won by the winner of the general election.

Tennessee

Tennessee elected its members August 7–8, 1817.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
Tennessee 1 Samuel Powell Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY John Rhea (Democratic-Republican) 63.9%
  • Alexander Sevier (Democratic-Republican) 36.1%
Tennessee 2 William G. Blount Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Tennessee 3 Isaac Thomas Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Francis Jones (Democratic-Republican) 35.2%
  • James Rogers 24.7%
  • Joseph Pickens 24.1%
  • Queen Morton 16.0%
Tennessee 4 Bennett H. Henderson Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY Samuel Hogg (Democratic-Republican) 63.5%
  • Archibald Overton (Democratic-Republican) 36.5%
Tennessee 5 Newton Cannon Democratic-Republican 1814 (Special) Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Tennessee 6 James B. Reynolds Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Vermont

Vermont elected its members September 3, 1816, replacing its six Federalists with six Democratic-Republicans.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Daniel Chipman Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Luther Jewett Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Chauncey Langdon Federalist 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Asa Lyon Federalist 1814 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Charles Marsh Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Noyes Federalist 1814 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.

Virginia

Virginia elected its members in April 1817.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Virginia 1 John G. Jackson Democratic-Republican 1803
1810 (Resigned)
1813
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Virginia 2 Magnus Tate Federalist 1815 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
  • Green tickY Edward Colston (Federalist) 61.2%
  • Daniel Morgan (Democratic-Republican) 30.9%
  • Robert Bailey (Democratic-Republican) 7.9%
Virginia 3 Henry S. Tucker Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Henry S. Tucker (Democratic-Republican) 67.8%
  • William Carson (Democratic-Republican) 32.2%
Virginia 4 William McCoy Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 5 James Breckinridge Federalist 1809 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
  • Green tickY John Floyd (Democratic-Republican) 57.6
  • Elijah MacClannahan (Federalist) 42.4%
Virginia 6 Daniel Sheffey Federalist 1809 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain
Virginia 7 Ballard Smith Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Ballard Smith (Democratic-Republican) 94.7%
  • John Gray (Federalist) 5.3%
Virginia 8 Joseph Lewis Jr. Federalist 1803 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Virginia 9 John P. Hungerford Democratic-Republican 1813 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia 10 Aylett Hawes Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
  • Green tickY George Strother (Democratic-Republican) 51.3%
  • John Shackleford (Federalist) 48.7%
Virginia 11 Philip P. Barbour Democratic-Republican 1814 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 12 William H. Roane Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia 13 Burwell Bassett Democratic-Republican 1815 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Burwell Bassett (Democratic-Republican) 73.3%
  • John Eyre (Federalist) 24.8%
  • M. S. Pitts[e] (Federalist) 1.9%
Virginia 14 William A. Burwell Democratic-Republican 1813 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 15 John Kerr Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia 16 John Randolph Democratic-Republican 1799
1813 (Lost)
1815
Incumbent lost-relection.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia 17 James Pleasants Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 18 Thomas M. Nelson Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 19 Peterson Goodwyn Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 20 James Johnson Democratic-Republican 1813 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 21 Thomas Newton Jr. Democratic-Republican 1797 Incumbent re-elected.
Virginia 22 Hugh Nelson Democratic-Republican 1811 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Green tickY Hugh Nelson (Democratic-Republican) 72.7%
  • Thomas W. Maury (Democratic-Republican) 27.3%
Virginia 23 John Tyler Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.

Non-voting delegates

There were four territories with the right to send delegates during at least part of the 15th Congress.

Alabama Territory was formed from the eastern half of Mississippi Territory, and its first (and only) delegate was seated on March 9, 1818.[2]

Illinois Territory also only existed during the 1st Session, as it was admitted to the Union as the State of Illinois on December 3, 1818.

Mississippi Territory only existed during the first few months of the 15th Congress, but did not elect a delegate, since it was admitted to the Union as a state a few days into the 1st Session of the 15th Congress.

There were two elections held for the delegate from Missouri Territory. The first was contested by Rufus Easton on the grounds of electoral fraud. This election was declared void, and a second election was held on August 4, 1817.[2] It was won without controversy by John Scott, who took his seat on December 8, 1817.

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[c]
Alabama Territory at-large None (District created)
Illinois Territory at-large Benjamin Stephenson Democratic-Republican 1814 Incumbent retired.
New delegate elected September 5, 1816.[19]
Missouri Territory at-large Rufus Easton None 1814 Incumbent lost re-election.
New delegate elected September 10, 1816 but challenged the result.
Election was declared void January 13, 1817.[20]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Figures are at variance with both Dubin (p. 62, which includes "140 Republicans, 1 Independent Republican, and 2 vacancies", in addition to "41 Federalists"), and Martis (p. 84) and "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. (which both report 146 Democrat-Republicans, and 39 Federalists). But Dubin appears to incorrectly list Lewis Williams of NC-13 as a "Federalist" (see pg. 60 and 55, etc.) instead of a "Democrat-Republican", while Martis lists Philemon Beecher of OH-05 as a "Democrat-Republican" instead of a "Federalist", which if accounted for would revise both Dubin's and Martis's totals to 40 Federalists (and therefore 144 Democrat-Republicans).
  2. ^ A majority was required for election, which was not met in the initial election for 5 districts requiring additional trials to be held on January 27, May 1, July 21, September 29, and December 1, 1817.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source
  5. ^ a b Full name unknown.
  6. ^ District numbers differed between source used and elsewhere on Wikipedia; district numbers used elsewhere on Wikipedia used here.
  7. ^ Exactly 50%.

References

  1. ^ Stat. 349
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Fourteenth Congress March 4, 1815, to March 3, 1817". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  3. ^ "North Carolina 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 6, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  4. ^ "Maryland 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 5, Special, January". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  5. ^ "New York 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 21, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  6. ^ "North Carolina 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 5, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  7. ^ "North Carolina 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 8, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  8. ^ "New York 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 20, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  9. ^ "Maryland 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 5, Special, September". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  10. ^ "Maryland 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 3, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  11. ^ "Ohio 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 1, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  12. ^ "South Carolina 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 9, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  13. ^ "Georgia 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  14. ^ "Indiana 1816 U.S. House of Representatives". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  15. ^ "Virginia 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 23, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  16. ^ a b c d e f "Fifteenth Congress March 4, 1817, to March 3, 1819". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved November 2, 2018 – via History.house.gov.
  17. ^ "Maryland 1816 U.S. House of Representatives, District 5". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved December 17, 2018.
  18. ^ Cox, Harold (January 31, 2007). "Pennsylvania Election Statistics: 1682–2006". The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project. Wilkes University.
  19. ^ https://bioguideretro.congress.gov/Home/MemberDetails?memIndex=P000432
  20. ^ a b https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=296672

Bibliography

External links

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