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1810 and 1811 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1810 and 1811 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1808 / 1809 April 24, 1810 – August 2, 1811[a] 1812 / 1813 →

All 143[b] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
72 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Henry Clay.jpg
TimothyPitkin.jpg
Leader Henry Clay Timothy Pitkin
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Leader's seat Kentucky 3rd Connecticut at-large
Last election 94 seats 48 seats
Seats won 107[b] 36
Seat change Increase 13 Decrease 12

Speaker before election

Joseph Bradley Varnum
Democratic-Republican

Elected Speaker

Henry Clay
Democratic-Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 12th Congress were held in the various states between April 1810 (in New York) and August 1811 (in Tennessee) during James Madison's first term in office. Louisiana elected its first representative in September 1812. Congress assembled on November 4, 1811. The first session witnessed the unprecedented occurrence of a new member, Henry Clay, being elected Speaker of the House.[c] This has happened only once since, in 1860 when William Pennington was elected to the post.[1]

With the repeal of the Embargo Act of 1807, the Democratic-Republicans enjoyed a renewed popularity. As the economy improved following the reopening of the export market, many of the seats that had entered Federalist hands over economic concerns reverted to the Democratic-Republicans, who were able to re-claim the two-thirds majority they had lost in the previous election.

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Transcription

Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course World History and today things are going to get a little bit confusing, because we’re going to talk about revolution and independence in Latin America. It’s a bit confusing because 1. Latin America is big, 2. It’s very diverse, 3. Napoleon makes everything complicated and 4. As we’ve seen in the past, sometimes revolutions turn out not to be not that revolutionary. [why a solid marketing dept. is key] Witness, for instance, the New England Revolution, who instead of, like, trying to form new and better governments are always just kicking balls around like all the other soccer [futbol] teams. [Intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] [intro music] Right, so before independence, Latin American society was characterized by three institutions that exercised control over the population. The first was the Spanish Crown, or if you are Brazilian, the Portuguese crown. So, as far as Spain was concerned, the job of the colonies was to produce revenue in the form of a 20% tax on everything that was called “the royal fifth.” So government administration was pervasive and relatively efficient— because it had to be in order to collect its royal fifth. I mean, the church even controlled time – the church bells tolled out the hours and they mandated a seven day work week so that people could go to church on Sunday. [so HobbyLobby store hours aren't super inconvenient, they're just old skool?] And finally, there was patriarchy. [yeuup, there's a shocker] In Latin America, like much of the world, husbands had complete control over their wives and any extra-or-pre-marital skoodilypooping was severely punished. I mean, when it was the women doing the illicit skoodilypooping. Men could basically get up to whatever. [RIP Helen Gurley Brown. much love] This was mainly about property rights because illegitimate children could inherit their father’s property, but it was constructed to be about, you know, purity. To get a sense of how patriarchy shaped Latin American lives, take a gander at Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, whose name I’m actually abbreviating. A child prodigy who spoke five languages by the age of 16, de la Cruz wanted to disguise herself as a boy so she could attend University, [plot of 80's flick Just One of the Guys] but she was forbidden to do so. Still, she wrote plays and poetry, she studied math and natural science, [Girls do Get Curves, Danica McKellar!] and for being one of the leading minds of the 17th century, she was widely attacked, and eventually forced to abandon her work and sell all 4,000 of her books. That’s a shame because she had a great mind, once writing that “Aristotle would have written more if he had done any cooking.” [oooh, snap!] Couple other things: First, Latin America led the world in transculturation or Cultural Blending. A new and distinct Latin American culture emerged mixing 1. Whites from Spain called Peninsulares, 2. Whites born in the Americas called creoles, 3. Native Americans, and 4. African slaves. This blending of cultures may be most obvious when looking at Native American and African influences upon Christianity. The Virgin of Guadalupe, for instance, was still called Tonantzin, the indigenous earth goddess, by Indians, and the profusion of blood in Mexican iconography recalls the Aztec use of blood in ritual. But transculturation pervaded Latin American life, from food to secular music to fashion. Somewhat related: Latin America had a great deal of racial diversity and a rigid social hierarchy to match. There were four basic racial categories: white, black, mestizo –a mix of white and American Indian- and mulatto, a mix of white and black. We try not to use that word anymore because it’s offensive, but that’s the word they used. And from the 16th century on, Latin America had a huge diversity of mixed race people, and there were constant attempts to classify them and divide them into castes. You can see some of these in so called casta paintings, which attempted to establish in a very weird and Enlightenment-y way all the possible racial combinations. But of course that’s not how race works, as evidenced by the fact that successful people of lower racial castes could become “legally white” by being granted gracias al sacar. [pretty jacked up, white? right, I mean..] So by 1800, on the eve of Latin America’s independence movements, roughly a quarter of the population were mixed race. So Brazil… he said as thousands of Argentinians booed him— is obviously different because it was ruled, not by Spain, but by Portugal. But like a lot of revolutions in Latin America, it was fairly conservative. The creoles wanted to maintain their privilege while also achieving independence from the Peninsulares. And also like a lot of Latin American revolutions, it featured Napoleon. [forever makes me think of Bill &Ted] Freaking Napoleon. You’re everywhere. [except in line for certain roller coasters] He’s behind me, isn’t he? Gah. So when Napoleon took over Portugal in 1807, the entire Portuguese royal family and their royal court decamped to Brazil. And it turned out, they loved Brazil. King Joao loved Brazil so much. Off topic, but do you think that J-Woww named herself after King Joao? I mean, does she have that kind of historical sensibility? I think she does. [that whole bit really just happened, btw] So King Joao’s life in Rio was so good that even after Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he just kind of stayed in Brazil. And then, by 1820, the Portuguese in Portugal were like, “Hey, maybe you should come back and, like, you know, govern us, King of Portugal.” So in 1821, he reluctantly returned to Lisbon, leaving his son Prince Pedro behind. Meanwhile, Brazilian creoles were organizing themselves around the idea that they were culturally different from Portugal, and they eventually f ormed a Brazilian Party— no, Stan not that kind of party, come on— yes. That kind. A Brazilian party to lobby for independence. Then in 1822, they convinced Prince Pedro of boring, old Portugal that he should just become King Pedro of sexy, big Brazil. So Pedro declared Brazil an independent constitutional monarchy with himself as king. [as one does, naturally] As a result, Brazil achieved independence without much bloodshed and managed to hold on to that social hierarchy with the plantation owners on top. And that explains why Brazil was the last new world country to abolish slavery, not fully abandoning it until 1888. Right, so even when Napoleon wasn’t forcing Portuguese royals into an awesome exile, he was still messing with Latin America. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. So Latin America’s independence movements began not with Brazil, but in Mexico when Napoleon put his brother on the Spanish throne in 1808. [nepotism; always a classy move] Napoleon wanted to institute the liberal principles of the French Revolution, which angered the ruling elite of the Peninsulares in what was then called New Spain. They were aristocrats and they just wanted to go back to some good old-fashioned divine right monarchy with a strong church. So the Mexican Creoles, seeking to expand their own power at the expense of the Peninsular elite saw an opportunity here. They affirmed their loyalty to the new king, who was French even though he was the king of Spain. I told you this was complicated. Then, a massive peasant uprising began, led by a renegade priest Padre Hidalgo, and supported by the Creoles because it was aimed at the Peninsulares, even though they weren’t actually the ones who supported Spain. This was further complicated by the fact that to the mestizo peasants led by Hidalgo, Creoles and Peninsulares looked and acted basically identical— they were both white and imperious— [preferable to avada kedavrious?] so the peasants often attacked the Creoles, who were, technically on their side in trying to overthrow the ruling peninsulares. Even though it had tens of thousands of supporters, this first peasant uprising petered out. But, a second peasant revolt, led by another priest, Father Morelos, was much more revolutionary. In 1813, he declared independence and the revolt lasted until his death in 1815. But since he was a mestizo, he didn’t gain much Creole support, so revolutionary fervor in Mexico began to fade until … 1820, when Spain, which was now under the rule of a Spanish, rather than a French king, had a REAL liberal revolution with a new constitution that limited the power of the church. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, in the wake of Spain’s liberalizing movements, the Mexican elites, who had previously supported Spain, switched sides and made common cause with the creoles in the hopes that they could somehow hold onto their privileges. And pushing for independence together, things went very well. [stay together to stay alive, just like L4D!] The Creole general Iturbide and the rebel mestizo commander Guerrero joined forces and won independence with most of the Peninsulares returning to Spain. Iturbide –the whiter of the two generals – became king of Mexico in 1822 (remember, this was a revolution essentially AGAINST representative government). But that didn’t work out and within a year he was overthrown by the military and a republic was declared. Popular sovereignty was sort of victorious, but without much benefit to the peasants who actually made independence possible. This alliance between conservative landowning elites and the army - especially in the face of calls for land reform or economic justice— would happen over and over again in Latin America for the next century and a half. But before we come to any conclusions, let’s discuss one last revolution. But, the interior of Venezuela was home to mixed-race cowboys called llaneros who supported the king. They kept the Caracas revolutionaries from extending their power inland. And that, is where Simon Bolivar, “el Libertador,” [young portrait w foppish 'stache is fave] enters the picture. Bolivar realized that the only way to overcome the various class divisions (like the one between the Caracas creoles and llaneros) was to appeal to a common sense of South American-ness. I mean, after all, the one thing that almost all South Americans had in common: they were born in South America, NOT SPAIN. So then, partly through shows of toughness that included, like, crossing flooded plains and going without sleep, Bolivar convinced the llaneros to give up fighting for Spain and start fighting against them. He quickly captured the viceregal capital at Bogota and by 1822 his forces had taken Caracas and Quito. Hold on, hold on. Lest I be attacked by Argentinians [to get back the plutonium you stole?] who are already upset about what I said about their really good soccer team, I want to make one thing clear. Argentina’s general Jose de San Martin was also vital to the defeat of the Spanish. He led an expeditions against the Spanish in Chile and also a really important one in Lima. [helping McKinley advance to Nationals over dreaded rivals, Vocal Adrenaline] And then, in December of 1824, at the battle of Ayacucho, the last Spanish viceroy was finally captured and all of Latin America was free from Spain. Oh, it’s time for the open letter? That’s A chair, Stan, but it’s not THE chair. [damp spirit kicks internal pebble] [rolls with broken heart to unimpressive leather-not-puce-velvet club chair sub] An Open Letter to Simon Bolivar. [part-time purple pieman impersonator] But first, let’s see what’s in the secret compartment today. Oh, llanero. I wonder if his hips swivel when I wind him up. [sorry, Meatwad, night-vision goggles & action bills not included.] Context is everything. They do! Hey there, cowboy. Dear Simon Bolivar, First, you had fantastic [legit] muttonchops. It’s as if you’re some kind of handsome Martin Van Buren. [surely an original sentence there] You were a man of immense accomplishments, but those accomplishments have been richly rewarded. I mean, you have a country named after you. Not to mention, two different currencies. [Canadian loonie pwns, regardless] But for my purposes, the most important thing you ever did was die. You may not know this, Simon Bolivar, but when I'm not a world history teacher sitting next to a fake fireplace, I am a novelist. [young adult + Dawson's Creek FanFic] [tell you his pen names for a price] And your last words, “Damn it, how will I ever get out of this labyrinth,” feature prominently in my first novel, Looking for Alaska. [ sup, Nerdfighteria? xoxo, dj ] Except it turns out, those weren’t your last words. [d'oh?] Your last words were probably, “Jose, bring the luggage.” [alt: "Hey, watch this!"] But I decided to use your fancy, romantic, inaccurate last words. It’s called artistic license. Put that in your luggage. [my, Johnny Bookwriter is saucy today] Anyway, fantastic life. I just wish you’d nailed it a little bit better with your last words. Best wishes, John Green So by 1825, almost the entire western hemisphere – with a few exceptions in the Caribbean —was free from European rule. Oh, right. And Canada. [Oh, Canada!] I’m just kidding, Canadians. It’s so easy to make fun of you because you’re so nice. So I tease you and then you’re like, “Aw, thanks for noticing that we exist.” My pleasure. Anyway, this is pretty remarkable, especially when you consider that most of this territory had been under Spanish or Portuguese control for almost 300 years. The most revolutionary thing about these independence movements were that they enshrined the idea of so called popular sovereignty in the New World. Never again would Latin America be under the permanent control of a European power, and the relatively quick division of Latin America into individual states, despite Bolivar’s pan South American dream, showed how quickly the people in these regions developed a sense of themselves as nations distinct from Europe, and from each other. This division into nation states prefigures what would happen to Europe in the mid-19th century, and in that sense, Latin America is the leader of 19th century world history. And Latin American history presages another key theme in modern life— multiculturalism. And all of that makes Latin America sound very modern, but in a number of ways, Latin American independence wasn’t terribly revolutionary. First, while the Peninsulares were gone, the rigid social hierarchy, with the wealthy creoles at the top, remained. Second, whereas revolutions in both France and America weakened the power of the established church, in Latin America, the Catholic Church remained very powerful in people’s everyday lives. And then, there is the patriarchy. Although there were many women who took up arms in the struggle for independence, including Juana Azurduy who led a cavalry charge against Spanish forces in Bolivia, patriarchy remained strong in Latin America. Feminist ideas like those of Mary Wollstonecraft would have to wait. Women weren’t allowed to vote in national elections in Mexico until 1953. And Peru didn’t extend voting rights to women until 1955. Also, Latin America’s revolutionary wars were long and bloody: 425,000 people died in Mexico’s war for independence. And they didn’t always lead to stability: Venezuela, for instance, experienced war for much of the 19th century, leading to as many as a million deaths. And it’s important to note that fighting for freedom doesn’t always lead to freedom, the past two centuries in Latin America have seen many military dictatorships that protect private property at the expense of egalitarian governance. “Freedom,” “independence,” and “autonomy” are complicated terms that mean different things to different people at different times. So too with the word “revolutionary.” Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Location change because I forgot to record the credits, and my shirt matches the wall. Probably should have thought about that one a little bit harder. [DFT record the credits, next time then?] Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Danica Johnson, [!] the show is ably interned by Agent Meredith Danko, TVCS and it’s written by my high school history teacher Raoul Meyer and myself. Our graphics team is Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase of the week was "giant squid of anger." If you want to suggest a future phrase of the week or guess at this week’s, you can do so in comments, where you can also ask questions that will be answered by our team of historians. Look at the beautiful Crash Course poster! [nice job, ThoughtBubblers!] Available now at DFTBA.com link in the video description. Thanks for watching, and as we say in my home town, Don’t Forget they can’t get your goat if they don’t know where you keep it.

Contents

Election summaries

107 36
Democratic-Republican Federalist
State Type
Date
Total
seats
Democratic-
Republican
Federalist
Seats Change Seats Change
Kentucky Districts August 6, 1810 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts April 24–26, 1810 17 12 Increase3 5 Decrease3
North Carolina Districts August 9, 1810 12 10 Increase1 2 Decrease1
Rhode Island At-large August 28, 1810 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
Connecticut At-large September 17, 1810 7 0 Steady 7 Steady
Georgia At-large October 1, 1810 4 4 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts 9 6 Steady 3 Steady
Delaware At-large October 2, 1810 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Jersey At-large October 8–9, 1810 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts 8 8 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio At-large October 9, 1810 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts 18 17 Increase1 1 Decrease1
Vermont Districts November 4, 1810 4 3 Increase2 1 Decrease2
Massachusetts Districts November 5, 1810[d] 17 9 Increase2 8 Decrease2
Late elections (After the March 4, 1811 beginning of the next Congress)
Virginia Districts April 1811 22 17 Steady 5 Steady
New Hampshire At-large April 1, 1811[e] 5 4 Increase4 1 Decrease4
Tennessee Districts August 1–2, 1811 3 3 Steady 0 Steady
Total[b] 143 106
74.6%
Increase13 36
25.4%
Decrease13
House seats
Democratic-Republican
74.6%
Federalist
25.4%

Special elections

There were special elections in 1810 and 1811 to the 11th United States Congress and 12th United States Congress.

Elections are sorted by date then district.

11th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 2 William Denning Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent resigned in 1810.
New member elected April 24–26, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 4, 1810.[2]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Samuel L. Mitchill (Democratic-Republican) 52.4%
John B. Coles (Federalist) 47.8%[3]
Kentucky 5 Benjamin Howard Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent resigned April 10, 1810 to become Governor of Louisiana Territory.
New member elected August 6, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 13, 1810.[2]
Successor did not run to the next term, see below.
William T. Barry (Democratic-Republican)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut at-large Samuel W. Dana Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned in May 1810 after election as U.S. Senator.
New member elected September 17, 1810.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1810.[2]
Successor lost election to the next term, see below.
Ebenezer Huntington (Federalist) 42.5%
Lyman Law (Federalist) 38.4%
Samuel B. Sherwood (Federalist) 12.5%
Nathaniel Terry (Federalist) 2.8%
Others (all Federalist) 3.8%[4]
Maryland 4 Roger Nelson Democratic-Republican 1804 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 14, 1810 to become associate judge of the fifth judicial circuit of Maryland.
New member elected October 1, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 7, 1810.[2]
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Samuel Ringgold (Democratic-Republican) 98.1%
Benjamin Galloway (Federalist) 1.6%[5]
Massachusetts 10
"Worcester South district"
Jabez Upham Federalist 1806 Incumbent resigned in 1810.
New member elected October 8, 1810.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated December 13, 1810.[2]
Successor did not run to the next term, see below.
Joseph Allen (Federalist) 55.2%
John Spurr (Democratic-Republican) 44.8%[6]
Massachusetts 11
"Worcester North district"
William Stedman Federalist 1803 Incumbent resigned July 16, 1810 to become Clerk of Courts for Worcester County.
New member elected October 8, 1810.
Federalist hold.
Successor seated December 14, 1810.[2]
Successor later elected to the next term, see below.
Abijah Bigelow (Federalist) 72.3%
Timothy Whiting (Democratic-Republican) 26.9%
Moses White (Democratic-Republican) 0.8%[7]
New Jersey at-large James Cox Democratic-Republican 1810 Incumbent died September 12, 1810.
New member elected October 30–31, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1810.[2]
Successor did not run to the next term, see below.
John A. Scudder (Democratic-Republican) 76.7%
John Linn (Democratic-Republican) 10.8%
Jacob S. Thompson (Democratic-Republican) 10.2%
Isaac Mickle (Democratic-Republican) 2.3%[8]
Virginia 1 John G. Jackson Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent resigned September 28, 1810 after being wounded in a duel.
New member elected November 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 21, 1810.[2]
Successor late lost election to the next term, see below.
William McKinley (Democratic-Republican)
Thomas Wilson (Federalist)
Benjamin Reeder[f]
Maryland 7 John Brown Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent resigned in 1810[g] to become clerk of the county court of Queen Anne's County.
New member elected November 15, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated December 3, 1810.[2]
New member was also elected by the same ballot to the next term, see below.[h]
Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican) 51.7%
Daniel C. Hopper 45.0%
James Brown 3.1%
Scattering 0.2%[9]
South Carolina 1 Robert Marion Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent resigned December 4, 1810, having already retired.
New member elected December 31, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 24, 1811.[2]Successor had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Langdon Cheves (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed[10]

12th Congress

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Maryland 7 John Brown Democratic-Republican 1808 Representative-elect declined to serve to become clerk of the county court of Queen Anne's County.
New member elected November 15, 1810.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated at the beginning of the Congress.[11]
New member was also elected by the same ballot to finish the current term, see above.[h]
Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican) 51.7%
Daniel C. Hopper 45.0%
James Brown 3.1%
Scattering 0.2%[9]
Maryland 6 John Montgomery Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent resigned April 29, 1811 to become Attorney General of Maryland.
New member elected October 2, 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated November 4, 1811.[11]
Stevenson Archer (Democratic-Republican) 76.1%
William Hollingsworth (Federalist) 23.9%[12][i]
Massachusetts 4
"Middlesex district"
Joseph B. Varnum Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent resigned June 29, 1811 when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected November 4, 1811.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor seated January 22, 1812.[11]
First ballot (September 23, 1811):
John Tuttle (Democratic-Republican) 44.5%
Loammi Baldwin (Federalist) 37.4%
Edmund Foster (Democratic-Republican) 12.5%
Marshall Spring (Democratic-Republican) 5.7%[13]

Second ballot (November 4, 1811):
William M. Richardson (Democratic-Republican) 52.1%
Loammi Baldwin (Federalist) 34.7%
Edmund Foster (Democratic-Republican) 8.2%
Marshall Spring (Democratic-Republican) 5.0%[14]

Connecticut

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Lewis B. Sturges Federalist 1805 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Lewis B. Sturges (Federalist) 14.8%
Jonathan O. Moseley (Federalist) 13.9%
Benjamin Tallmadge (Federalist) 13.8%
Epaphroditus Champion (Federalist) 13.6%
Timothy Pitkin (Federalist) 12.2%
Lyman Law (Federalist) 11.0%
John Davenport (Federalist) 8.4%
Ebenezer Huntington (Federalist) 3.9%
Samuel B. Sherwood (Federalist) 3.2%
Nathan Smith (Federalist) 2.0%
Nathaniel Terry (Federalist) 1.2%
Sylvanus Backus (Federalist) 1.0%
Sylvester Gilbert (Federalist) 0.3%
John Caldwell (Federalist) 0.3%
Uriel Holmes (Federalist) 0.2%
Asa Bacon Jr. (Federalist) 0.2%
Jonathan O. Moseley Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected.
Benjamin Tallmadge Federalist 1801 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Epaphroditus Champion Federalist 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Timothy Pitkin Federalist 1805 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel W. Dana Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned in May 1810 after election as U.S. Senator.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Successor (Law) was not elected to finish the current term, see above.
John Davenport Federalist 1798 Incumbent re-elected.

Delaware

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Delaware at-large Nicholas Van Dyke Federalist 1807 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Henry M. Ridgely (Federalist) 50.1%
Richard Dale (Democratic-Republican) 49.9%

Georgia

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Georgia at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
William W. Bibb Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected. William W. Bibb (Democratic-Republican) 24.4%
George Troup (Democratic-Republican) 22.7%
Howell Cobb (Democratic-Republican) 16.9%
Bolling Hall (Democratic-Republican) 12.6%
Elijah Clarke (Democratic-Republican) 10.7%
John Forsyth (Democratic-Republican) 9.1%
James Elliot (Federalist) 3.6%
George Troup Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Howell Cobb Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
Dennis Smelt Democratic-Republican 1806 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Kentucky

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1 Matthew Lyon Democratic-Republican 1797 (Vermont)
1803
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Anthony New (Democratic-Republican) 60.3%
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 39.7%
Kentucky 2 Samuel McKee Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel McKee (Democratic-Republican) 100%
Kentucky 3 Henry Crist Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Stephen Ormsby (Democratic-Republican)
Philip Quinton[f]
Kentucky 4 Richard M. Johnson Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected. Richard M. Johnson (Democratic-Republican)[f]
John S. Hunter
Kentucky 5 Benjamin Howard Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent resigned April 10, 1810 to become Governor of Louisiana Territory.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor was not a candidate to finish the current term, see above.
Henry Clay (Democratic-Republican) 100%
Kentucky 6 Joseph Desha Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Desha (Democratic-Republican) 100%

Maryland

Maryland held its elections October 1, 1810.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[j]
Maryland 1 John Campbell Federalist 1801 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Philip Stuart (Federalist) 98.3%
John Parnham (Democratic-Republican) 1.1%
Maryland 2 Archibald Van Horne Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph Kent (Democratic-Republican) 56.4%
John F. Mercer (Federalist) 43.6%
Maryland 3 Philip Barton Key Federalist 1806 Incumbent re-elected. Philip Barton Key (Federalist) 100%
Maryland 4 Roger Nelson Democratic-Republican 1804 (Special) Incumbent resigned May 14, 1810 to become associate judge of the fifth judicial circuit of Maryland.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Samuel Ringgold (Democratic-Republican) 95.7%
Benjamin Galloway (Federalist) 2.0%
Maryland 5
Plural district with 2 seats
Nicholas R. Moore Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Alexander McKim (Democratic-Republican) 27.7%
Peter Little (Democratic-Republican) 25.7%
Nicholas R. Moore (Democratic-Republican) 24.4%
Joshua Barney (Democratic-Republican) 22.2%
Alexander McKim Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
Maryland 6 John Montgomery Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected. John Montgomery (Democratic-Republican) 98.1%
Thomas G. Moffit 1.7%
Maryland 7 John Brown Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected but declined the seat and resigned, leading to a special election. John Brown (Democratic-Republican) 99.7%
Maryland 8 Charles Goldsborough Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected. Charles Goldsborough (Federalist) 72.3%
Thomas Williams (Democratic-Republican) 27.5%

Massachusetts

Massachusetts held its elections November 5, 1810. Massachusetts law required a majority for election. This was not met in the 15th district necessitating a second election on April 1, 1811.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[j]
Massachusetts 1
"Suffolk district"
Josiah Quincy Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected. Josiah Quincy (Federalist) 68.9%
David Tilden (Democratic-Republican) 31.1%
Massachusetts 2
"Essex South district"
Benjamin Pickman Jr. Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
William Reed (Federalist) 53.6%
Daniel Kilham (Democratic-Republican) 46.4%
Massachusetts 3
"Essex North district"
Edward St. Loe Livermore Federalist 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Leonard White (Federalist) 62.6%
Thomas Kitteridge (Democratic-Republican) 33.5%
Nehemiah Cleveland (Federalist) 3.9%
Massachusetts 4
"Middlesex district"
Joseph Bradley Varnum Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Bradley Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 69.2%
Loammi Baldwin Jr. (Federalist) 30.8%
Massachusetts 5
"Hampshire South district"
William Ely Federalist 1804 Incumbent re-elected. William Ely (Federalist) 70.4%
Samuel Fowler (Democratic-Republican) 29.0%
Massachusetts 6
"Hampshire North district"
Samuel Taggart Federalist 1803 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel Taggart (Federalist) 72.1%
Solomon Snead (Democratic-Republican) 27.9%
Massachusetts 7
"Plymouth district"
Charles Turner Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Charles Turner Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 53.5%
William Baylies (Federalist) 46.5%
Massachusetts 8
"Barnstable district"
Gideon Gardner Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Isaiah L. Green (Democratic-Republican) 57.1%
Francis Rotch (Federalist) 42.7%
Massachusetts 9
"Bristol district"
Laban Wheaton Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Laban Wheaton (Federalist) 51.8%
Nathaniel Morton (Democratic-Republican) 48.0%
Massachusetts 10
"Worcester South district"
Joseph Allen Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Elijah Brigham (Federalist) 53.5%
John Spurr (Democratic-Republican) 46.4%
Massachusetts 11
"Worcester North district"
Abijah Bigelow Federalist 1810 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Abijah Bigelow (Federalist) 70.6%
Timothy Whiting (Democratic-Republican) 28.5%
Massachusetts 12
"Berkshire district"
Ezekiel Bacon Democratic-Republican 1807 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Ezekiel Bacon (Democratic-Republican) 56.1%
Thomas Ives (Democratic-Republican) 43.9%
Massachusetts 13
"Norfolk district"
Ebenezer Seaver Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent re-elected. Ebenezer Seaver (Democratic-Republican) 63.2%
Timothy Jackson (Federalist) 21.2%
James Richardson 10.2%
James Mann 4.2%
Others 1.2%
Massachusetts 14
"York district," District of Maine
Richard Cutts Democratic-Republicans 1801 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Cutts (Democratic-Republican) 62.7%
Cyrus King (Federalist) 37.3%
Massachusetts 15
"Cumberland district," District of Maine
Ezekiel Whitman Federalist 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot
November 5, 1810
:
Ezekiel Whitman (Federalist) 47.8%[k]
William Widgery (Democratic-Republican) 47.8%[k]
Others 4.4%

Second ballot
April 1, 1811
:
William Widgery (Democratic-Republican) 53.2%
Ezekiel Whitman (Federalist) 46.8%
Massachusetts 16
"Lincoln district," District of Maine
Orchard Cook Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Peleg Tallman (Democratic-Republican) 61.1%
Alden Bradford (Federalist) 38.9%
Massachusetts 17
"Kennebec district," District of Maine
Barzillai Gannett Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Barzillai Gannett (Democratic-Republican) 60.5%
Thomas Rice (Federalist) 39.5%

New Hampshire

New Hampshire law required a candidate to receive votes from a majority of voters (10%). In the initial election, only two candidates won a majority, so a second election was held in April 1811 for the remaining three seats, after the congressional term began but before the Congress formally convened. The data from the source used give majorities to all the top five candidates, suggesting that the data are incomplete.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Daniel Blaisdell Federalist 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
First ballot (August 27, 1810):
Josiah Bartlett Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 10.2%
Samuel Dinsmoor (Democratic-Republican) 10.1%
George Sullivan (Federalist) 10.1%
William Hale (Federalist) 10.1%
Roger Vose (Federalist) 10.0%
Daniel Blaisdell (Federalist) 10.0%
Obed Hall (Democratic-Republican) 10.0%
John Adams Harper (Democratic-Republican) 9.9%
James Wilson (Federalist) 9.8%
David Morrill (Democratic-Republican) 9.8%[15]

Second ballot (April 1, 1811):
John Adams Harper (Democratic-Republican) 21.2%
Obed Hall (Democratic-Republican) 21.2%
George Sullivan (Federalist) 19.2%
William Hale (Federalist) 19.1%
Daniel Blaisdell (Federalist) 18.9%
Roger Vose (Federalist) 0.3%[16]
John Curtis Chamberlain Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Hale Federalist 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Nathaniel Appleton Haven Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Wilson Federalist 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.

New Jersey

The Federalists ran no official ticket in 1810, but votes were received for various Federalists in some counties.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[j]
New Jersey at-large
6 seats on a general ticket
Adam Boyd Democratic-Republican 1803
1804 (Retired)
1808 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected. Adam Boyd (Democratic-Republican) 16.4%
Lewis Condict (Democratic-Republican) 16.4%
George C. Maxwell (Democratic-Republican) 16.4%
Jacob Hufty (Democratic-Republican) 16.3%
Thomas Newbold (Democratic-Republican) 16.3%
James Morgan (Democratic-Republican) 16.1%
Aaron Ogden (Federalist) 0.6%
William Coxe Jr. (Federalist) 0.4%
John Neilson (Federalist) 0.4%
Richard Stockton (Federalist) 0.3%
Thomas Sinnickson (Federalist) 0.2%
John Beatty (Federalist) 0.2%
Thomas Newbold Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected.
William Helms Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
John A. Scudder Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Henry Southard Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Jacob Hufty Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.

New York

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
New York 1 Samuel Riker Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Ebenezer Sage (Democratic-Republican) 93.5%
David Gardiner (Federalist) 6.5%
New York 2
Plural district with 2 seats
William Denning Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent resigned in 1810.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Successor also elected the same day to finish the current term, see above.
Samuel L. Mitchill (Democratic-Republican) 26.4%
William Paulding Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 26.1%
John B. Coles (Federalist) 23.8%
Peter A. Jay (Federalist) 23.7%
Gurdon S. Mumford Democratic-Republican 1804 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New York 3 Jonathan Fisk Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pierre Van Cortlandt Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 63.9%
John Bradner (Federalist) 36.1%
New York 4 James Emott Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected. James Emott (Federalist) 51.1%
Daniel C. Verplanck (Democratic-Republican) 48.9%
New York 5 Barent Gardenier Federalist 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas B. Cooke (Democratic-Republican) 52.1%
Gerrit Abeel (Federalist) 47.9%
New York 6
Plural district with 2 seats
Herman Knickerbocker Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Asa Fitch (Federalist) 25.6%
Robert Le Roy Livingston (Federalist) 25.6%
Roger Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 24.4%
James L. Hogeboom (Democratic-Republican) 24.4%
Robert Le Roy Livingston Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
New York 7 Killian Van Rensselaer Federalist 1800 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Harmanus Bleecker (Federalist) 57.6%
John V. Veeder (Democratic-Republican) 42.4%
New York 8 John Thompson Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Benjamin Pond (Democratic-Republican) 57.6%
James McCrea (Federalist) 42.4%
New York 9 Thomas Sammons Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected in a different party.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Thomas Sammons (Democratic-Republican) 52.6%
Richard Van Horne (Federalist) 47.4%
New York 10 John Nicholson Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Silas Stow (Democratic-Republican) 51.3%
Simeon Ford (Federalist) 48.7%
New York 11 Thomas R. Gold Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas R. Gold (Federalist) 52.6%
Thomas Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 47.4%
New York 12 Erastus Root Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Arunah Metcalf (Democratic-Republican) 56.2%
John M. Bowers (Federalist) 43.8%
New York 13 Uri Tracy Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Uri Tracy (Democratic-Republican) 60.2%
Nathaniel Waldron (Federalist) 39.8%
New York 14 Vincent Mathews Federalist 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Daniel Avery (Democratic-Republican) 69.8%
John Harris (Federalist) 30.2%
New York 15 Peter B. Porter Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Peter B. Porter (Democratic-Republican) 59.1%
Ebenezer F. Norton (Federalist) 40.9%

North Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
North Carolina 1 Lemuel Sawyer Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected. Lemuel Sawyer (Democratic-Republican) 61.4%
William Hinton (Democratic-Republican) 37.1%
Joseph Riddick (Democratic-Republican) 1.5%
North Carolina 2 Willis Alston Democratic-Republican 1798 Incumbent re-elected. Willis Alston (Democratic-Republican) 65.9%
Joseph H. Bryon (Federalist) 34.1%
North Carolina 3 William Kennedy Democratic-Republican 1803
1804 (Lost re-election)
1808
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas Blount (Democratic-Republican)[f]
North Carolina 4 John Stanly Federalist 1800
1803 (Lost re-election)
1808
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Blackledge (Democratic-Republican) 54.8%
William Gaston (Federalist) 45.2%
North Carolina 5 Thomas Kenan Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William R. King (Democratic-Republican) 67.8%
Christopher Dudley (Federalist) 32.2%
North Carolina 6 Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Nathaniel Macon (Democratic-Republican) 100%
North Carolina 7 Archibald McBryde Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Archibald McBryde (Federalist) 57.4%
John Culpepper (Federalist) 42.6%
North Carolina 8 Richard Stanford Democratic-Republican 1796 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Stanford (Democratic-Republican) 100%
North Carolina 9 James Cochran Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. James Cochran (Democratic-Republican) 57.0%
Theophilus Lacy (Democratic-Republican) 43.0%
North Carolina 10 Joseph Pearson Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Pearson (Federalist) 63.8%
James Wallis (Democratic-Republican) 36.4%
North Carolina 11 James Holland Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Israel Pickens (Democratic-Republican) 50.5%
Felix Walker (Democratic-Republican) 39.8%
John Stevelie (Democratic-Republican) 9.7%
North Carolina 12 Meshack Franklin Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent re-elected. Meshack Franklin (Democratic-Republican)[f]

Ohio

This was the last election in which Ohio had a single at-large district. Due to rapid population growth in the state, the at-large district had become disproportionately populous by this point.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Ohio at-large Jeremiah Morrow Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent re-elected. Jeremiah Morrow (Democratic-Republican) 99.4%
Others 0.6%

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[17]
Pennsylvania 1
Plural district with 3 seats
Adam Seybert Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Adam Seybert (Democratic-Republican) 19.8%
William Anderson (Democratic-Republican) 19.6%
James Milnor (Federalist) 13.7%
Thomas Truxton (Federalist) 13.7%
Thomas Dick (Federalist) 13.4%
John Porter (Democratic-Republican) 9.9%
Robert McMullin (Democratic-Republican) 9.9%
William Anderson Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected.
John Porter Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 3 seats
Robert Brown Democratic-Republican 1798 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Robert Brown (Democratic-Republican) 19.1%
Jonathan Roberts (Democratic-Republican) 19.0%
William Rodman (Democratic-Republican) 18.9%
William Milnor (Federalist) 14.5%
Levi Paulding (Federalist) 14.2%
William Latimere (Federalist) 13.9%
Charles Miner (Federalist) 0.4%
William Milnor Federalist 1806 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John Ross Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 3
Plural district with 3 seats
Robert Jenkins Federalist 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Joseph Lefever (Democratic-Republican) 18.4%
Roger Davis (Democratic-Republican) 18.3%
John M. Hyneman (Democratic-Republican) 17.2%
Daniel Hiester (Federalist)[l] 16.0%
Samuel Bethel (Federalist) 15.1%
Mark J. Biddle (Federalist) 15.0%
Matthias Richards Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Daniel Hiester Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 2 seats
Robert Whitehill Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. David Bard (Democratic-Republican) 50.0%
Robert Whitehill (Democratic-Republican) 50.0%
David Bard Democratic-Republican 1802 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 George Smith Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. George Smith (Democratic-Republican) 100%
Pennsylvania 6 William Crawford Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. William Crawford (Democratic-Republican) 56.6%
David Cassat (Federalist) 43.4%
Pennsylvania 7 John Rea Democratic-Republican 1802 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Piper (Democratic-Republican) 58.5%
John Rea (Democratic-Republican) 41.5%
Pennsylvania 8 William Findley Democratic-Republican 1802 Incumbent re-elected. William Findley (Democratic-Republican) 60.9%
John Kirkpatrick (Democratic-Republican) 39.1%
Pennsylvania 9 John Smilie Democratic-Republican 1792
1794 (Retired)
1798
Incumbent re-elected. John Smilie (Democratic-Republican) 100%
Pennsylvania 10 Aaron Lyle Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Aaron Lyle (Democratic-Republican) 70.4%
Thomas L. Birch (Federalist) 29.6%
Pennsylvania 11 Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1805 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Abner Lacock (Democratic-Republican) 51.0%
Alexander Tannehill (Democratic-Republican) 43.2%
Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 5.7%

Rhode Island

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Richard Jackson Jr. Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Elisha R. Potter (Federalist) 25.7%
Richard Jackson Jr. (Federalist) 25.6%
Nathaniel Hazard (Democratic-Republican) 24.5%
Nathan Brown (Democratic-Republican) 24.2%
Elisah R. Potter Federalist 1808 Incumbent re-elected.

South Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1
"Charleston district"
Robert Marion Democratic-Republican 1804 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Incumbent then resigned December 4, 1810 and successor was also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Langdon Cheves (Democratic-Republican) 89.2%[i]
Others 10.8%
South Carolina 2
"Beaufort district"
William Butler Sr. Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent re-elected. William Butler Sr. (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Edmund Bacon (Democratic-Republican)
Francisco Annone (Federalist)
South Carolina 3
"Georgetown district"
Robert Witherspoon Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David R. Williams (Democratic-Republican) 94.4%[i]
Moses Glover (Federalist) 5.6%
South Carolina 4
"Orangeburgh district"
John Taylor Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Lowndes (Democratic-Republican) 52.2%[i]
John Taylor (Democratic-Republican) 47.8%
South Carolina 5
"Sumter district"
Richard Winn Democratic-Republican 1802 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Richard Winn (Democratic-Republican) 100%
South Carolina 6
"Abbeville district"
Joseph Calhoun Democratic-Republican 1807 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John C. Calhoun (Democratic-Republican) 72.2%[i]
John A. Elmore (Democratic-Republican) 27.8%
Eastland[m](Federalist)
South Carolina 7
"Chester district"
Thomas Moore Democratic-Republican 1800 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Moore (Democratic-Republican) 100%
South Carolina 8
"Pendleton district"
Lemuel J. Alston Democratic-Republican 1806 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Elias Earle (Democratic-Republican) 58.0%
William Hunter (Federalist) 42.0%

Tennessee

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Tennessee 1 John Rhea Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent re-elected. John Rhea (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Tennessee 2 Robert Weakley Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Sevier (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Tennessee 3 Pleasant M. Miller Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Felix Grundy (Democratic-Republican) 60.4%
Isaac Roberts 21.7%
James Winchester 17.9%

Vermont

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[j]
Vermont 1 Samuel Shaw Democratic-Republican 1808 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel Shaw (Democratic-Republican) 64.4%
Chauncey Langdon (Federalist) 33.5%
Vermont 2 Jonathan H. Hubbard Federalist 1808 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William Strong (Democratic-Republican) 53.4%
Jonathan H. Hubbard (Federalist) 42.1%
Aaron Leland (Democratic-Republican) 1.7%
Vermont 3 William Chamberlain Federalist 1802
1805 (Lost)
1808
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Fisk (Democratic-Republican) 56.7%
William Chamberlain (Federalist) 41.3%
Vermont 4 Martin Chittenden Federalist 1802 Incumbent re-elected. Martin Chittenden (Federalist) 50.0%
Ezra Butler (Democratic-Republican) 47.5%

Virginia

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[j]
Virginia 1 William McKinley Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Thomas Wilson (Federalist) 52.3%
William McKinley (Democratic-Republican) 47.7%[18]
Virginia 2 James Stephenson Federalist 1809 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
John Baker (Federalist) 56.5%
Daniel Morgan (Democratic-Republican) 43.5%
Virginia 3 John Smith Democratic-Republican 1801 Incumbent re-elected. John Smith (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Virginia 4 Jacob Swoope Federalist 1809 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
William McCoy (Democratic-Republican) 52.6%
Samuel Blackburn (Federalist) 47.4%
Virginia 5 James Breckinridge Federalist 1809 Incumbent re-elected. James Breckinridge (Federalist) 58.4%
Thomas L. Preston (Democratic-Republican) 41.6%
Virginia 6 Daniel Sheffey Federalist 1809 Incumbent re-elected. Daniel Sheffey (Federalist)
Unopposed
Virginia 7 Joseph Lewis Jr. Federalist 1803 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Lewis Jr. (Federalist) 80.0%
John Love (Democratic-Republican) 19.9%
John Love
Moved from the 9th district
Democratic-Republican 1807 Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Virginia 8 Walter Jones Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Taliaferro (Democratic-Republican), was seated on December 2, 1811 after successfully challenging the election in the House Committee on Elections.[11]
John Hungerford (Democratic-Republican) 50.2%[19]
John Taliaferro (Democratic-Republican) 49.8%
Virginia 9 Open seat Open seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Aylett Hawes (Democratic-Republican) 72.7%
George F. Strother (Democratic-Republican) 26.3%
Virginia 10 John Dawson Democratic-Republican 1797 Incumbent re-elected. John Dawson (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Virginia 11 John Roane Democratic-Republican 1809 Incumbent re-elected. John Roane[f] (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia 12 Burwell Bassett Democratic-Republican 1805 Incumbent re-elected. Burwell Bassett (Democratic-Republican) 59.5%[i]
John Eyre (Federalist) 40.5%
Virginia 13 William A. Burwell Democratic-Republican 1806 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. William A. Burwell (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Virginia 14 Matthew Clay Democratic-Republican 1797 Incumbent re-elected. Matthew Clay (Democratic-Republican)[n]
John Kerr (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia 15 John Randolph
Moved from the 16th district
Democratic-Republican 1799 Incumbent re-elected. John Randolph (Democratic-Republican) 67.8%
John W. Eppes (Democratic-Republican) 32.2%
John W. Eppes
Moved from the 16th district
Democratic-Republican 1807 Incumbent lost re-election.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Virginia 16 Open seat Open seat.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
James Pleasants (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Virginia 17 Thomas Gholson Jr. Democratic-Republican 1808 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Gholson Jr. (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Virginia 18 Peterson Goodwyn Democratic-Republican 1803 Incumbent re-elected. Peterson Goodwyn (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Virginia 19 Edwin Gray Democratic-Republican 1799 Incumbent re-elected. Edwin Gray (Democratic-Republican) 62.2%
Samuel Butler (Democratic-Republican) 37.8%
Virginia 20 Thomas Newton Jr. Democratic-Republican 1799 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Newton Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 97.7%
Robert B. Taylor (Federalist) 2.3%
Virginia 21 David S. Garland Democratic-Republican 1809 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Hugh Nelson (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed
Virginia 22 John Clopton Democratic-Republican 1801 Incumbent re-elected. John Clopton (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed

Non-voting delegates

There were five territories with the right to send non-voting delegates to the 12th Congress. Two of them, Illinois Territory and Missouri Territory elected their first representative near the end of the 12th Congress in 1812, while Orleans Territory's seat remained vacant until the territory was admitted as the State of Louisiana.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates[j]
Indiana Territory at-large Jonathan Jennings 1809 [Data unknown/missing.] Incumbent re-elected. Jonathan Jennings 65.1%
Thomas Randolph 34.9%
Mississippi Territory at-large George Poindexter 1806 [Data unknown/missing.] Incumbent re-elected. George Poindexter 64.6%
Robert Williams 28.2%
David Cooper 6.7%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 12th Congress.
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections.
  3. ^ The speaker during the 1st Congress, Frederick Muhlenberg was also a new member, albeit under unique circumstances.
  4. ^ Majority required for election, which was not met in one district, so a second election held April 1, 1811.
  5. ^ First ballot held August 27, 1810 but required majority was not met, so a second election was held April 1, 1811.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Numbers of votes missing or incomplete in source(s).
  7. ^ John Brown's resignation date is unknown, but it had to be after his October 1, 1810 re-election and before the November 15, 1810 special election to replace him.
  8. ^ a b The vacancies, for the remainder of the 11th Congress and the whole of the 12th Congress, were both filled by one ballot. This was the first of three examples of this method being used in Congressional special elections.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Based on incomplete returns
  10. ^ a b c d e f Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  11. ^ a b Tied
  12. ^ Changed parties
  13. ^ Source did not have full name
  14. ^ Detailed data not available, but margin of victory given as 223 votes

References

  1. ^ Heitshusen, Valerie (February 11, 2011). "The Speaker of the House: House Officer, Party Leader, and Representative" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, the Library of Congress. p. 2. Retrieved February 18, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "11th Congress March 4, 1809, to March 3, 1811". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  3. ^ "New York 1810 U.S. House of Representatives, District 2, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  4. ^ "Connecticut 1810 U.S. House of Representatives, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  5. ^ "Maryland 1810 U.S. House of Representatives, District 4, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  6. ^ "Massachusetts 1810 U.S. House of Representatives, Worcester South District, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  7. ^ "Massachusetts 1810 U.S. House of Representatives, Worcester North District, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  8. ^ "New Jersey 1810 U.S. House of Representatives, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Maryland 1810 U.S. House of Representatives, District 7, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  10. ^ "South Carolina 1811 U.S. House of Representatives, District 1, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d "12th Congress March 4, 1811, to March 3, 1813". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved October 5, 2018.
  12. ^ "Maryland 1811 U.S. House of Representatives, District 6, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
  13. ^ "Massachusetts 1811 U.S. House of Representatives, Middlesex District, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  14. ^ "Massachusetts 1811 U.S. House of Representatives, Middlesex District, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
  15. ^ "NH At-Large". January 4, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2018 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  16. ^ "NH At-Large - Runoff". January 4, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2018 – via OurCampaigns.com.
  17. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  18. ^ "Virginia 1811 U.S. House of Representatives, District 1". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 3, 2018.
  19. ^ "Virginia 1811 U.S. House of Representatives, District 8". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved October 3, 2018.

Bibliography

External links

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