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1802 United States Senate special election in New York

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The 1802 United States Senate special election in New York was held on February 9, 1802, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

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  • ✪ Exhibition Opening: "Shall Not Be Denied: Women Fight for the Vote"
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>> Speaker 1: Please welcome Librarian of Congress, Dr. Carla Hayden. [ Applause ] >> Dr. Carla Hayden: Thank you. Thank you, thank you, and good evening and welcome to the Library of Congress. It is our pleasure to have everyone here for a very special night to open the library's newest exhibition, Shall Not Be Denied. [ Applause ] It is my honor to welcome Madame Speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, members of Congress, members of the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission. I think they deserve a special hand. [ Applause ] Including its Chair, Ms. Kay Cole James, and co-chair Senator Barbara Mikulski, [ Applause ] who is the longest-serving woman in Congress in United States' history [applause]. A special welcome also to the leaders and staff of the different cultural institutions across Washington. We're so pleased that you're joining us tonight and, of course, library staff, guests, and the viewers online. We're live streaming. This wonderful exhibition is part of the library's commemoration of the National Centennial Celebration of women's suffrage. And the library's year-long initiative to explore America's changemakers will spotlight stories of diverse women who shaped the suffrage history and made history. We are opening this exhibition on this day, June the 4th, because it holds an important part of this nation's history. On this day, and I should tell you, this is in bold, 100 years ago today, Congress finally approved the 19th Amendment for women's suffrage. [ Applause ] As you may know, it was a long road to get here, from the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848, to the State of Tennessee becoming the last state needed to ratify the 19th Amendment on August 18th, 1920. And today, because the efforts of those courageous suffragettes and the people who supported them, nearly 70 million women vote in this country. That's an applause. [ Applause ] Now, the Library of Congress's exhibit, Shall Not Be Denied, will tell the story of the largest reform movement in American history, with documents and artifacts from the women who changed political history. The exhibition will show you how women were prevented to vote and the 19th Amendment removed that barrier. It should be clear, women were not granted the right to vote. Instead, as this exhibition will show you, women earned it [applause]. And so, from rallies to even imprisonment, we owe a lot to these heroic women from a hundred years ago. This exhibition is also unique because the Library of Congress holds the personal collections of many American suffragettes and leaders of the movement. This includes their handwritten letters, speeches, and scrapbooks created to document their work. The suffragettes donated their materials to the Library of Congress because they wanted their stories to be remembered. And this exhibition will tell those stories. We'll draw from the collections of Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucy Stone, Mary Church Terrell, Carrie Chapman Catt, and the significant organizations, the National Women's Party and the National American Women's Suffrage Association. Through the personal collections of these extraordinary women, you will get a more intimate view into the struggles, the rivalries, and ultimately the challenges of this 70-year movement. And as you walk through the exhibit, I hope you'll take a moment to read passages from the letters on display to get a glimpse of the women's personalities. For example, Abigail Adams telling her sister that she will never consent to have their sex considered in an inferior light; Susan B. Anthony pushing Elizabeth Cady Stanton to write an address for her on equal education, while she said she knew that Elizabeth Cady Stanton was juggling a baby on her knee and her four boys were buzzing about her, but she was the better writer; Nellie Grunder [assumed spelling] of Howard University asking if black women were welcome in the March 3rd, 1913, parade. They were not. And also on display are artifacts describing the suffragettes' harsh treatment in jail, force-feeding them, rare printed versions of the 1848 Declaration of Sentiments and the 1878 Declaration of Rights for Women, a bust of Susan B. Anthony that she personally wanted Congress to buy and install in this very building. So it's finally here; a sash and buttons belonging to the suffragette Cora Week, whose photo shows the petite artist staring defiantly into the camera as she heads off to the White House shortly before being arrested. The Library of Congress's mission is to engage, inspire, and inform the American people, and we know that this exhibition will do that. It would not have been possible without the generous support of the library's James Madison Council and additional support from 1st Financial Bank USA, the Democracy Fund, Mr. Tom Girardi, who's with us tonight, AARP, I'm a personal member, the Barbara Lee Family Foundation Fund at the Boston Foundation, the History Channel and Roger and Julie Baskes, [applause] the creative team. And thank you, thank you to all of them. Now the creative team that made this exhibition possible and brought it to life includes lead curator Janice Ruth and Miss Elizabeth Novara. They're right here in front. [ Applause ] The library's Center for Exhibits and Interpretation and its director, Mr. David Mandel [applause], accompanied by our later suffragette, his daughter, Zoe [applause], and Ms. Carol Johnson, the exhibit director [applause]. We're also joined tonight with our creative partners, Pure and Applied for exhibition design and the Upswell [phonetic] for the interactive videos. And both firms, you should know, are women-owned businesses, who brought a real passion and energy to this project. [ Applause ] Now the exhibition will share the remarkable stories of courage, perseverance, creativity, and the hope on the part of many generations of women fighting for the most fundamental right in a democracy, the right to vote. And in so, I am hoping that you will join me in a rousing welcome for our next guest. Hello. You are here. Thank you. >> Speaker 1: Please welcome United States Senator, Shelley Moore Capito. >> Carla Hayden: Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Shelley Moore Capito: Wow. Well, good evening to everyone. Thank you. It's a very special evening in this beautiful, I think probably the most beautiful building in this city, very historic, with some of the most accomplished and inspiring female leaders. Where is Senator Mikulski? I know she's here. There. How can I miss you? I mean, really, how could I miss you? And many trailblazers in the room. Dr. Hayden certainly one of our trailblazers. Yes. And Speaker Pelosi, who I know will be here any minute. So it's only fitting that we are here this evening I think to remember and to honor the women who really helped to make all of this possible for all of us, the suffragists. I think we all know the history, or at least we should. We've recounted a bit of it all through the day over in the Senate. And we have hopefully heard many of the names in the documentary and many more that I've heard today that I hadn't really recognized, but certainly Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, and Sojourner Truth. Those are just three. Their deeds were certainly great and the outcomes, monumental, monumental. Over the past several months, we've celebrated various key moments in women's suffrage and the ultimate, we will be celebrating soon in another year, the ultimate ratification of the 19th Amendment, House passage and Senate passage today. And with each of the celebrations, like the opening of this exhibit tonight, I'm constantly inspired by these women that I read and hear about. Their words, their images that we're going to see, some of the letters that Dr. Hayden talked about. As Susan B. Anthony said, and I quote, "It was we, the people, not we the white male citizens, nor yet the male citizens, not yet we the male citizen, but we the whole people who formed the union. Men, their rights and nothing more; and women, their rights and nothing less." That is powerful and, given the times, very brave. Of course, in the words of another suffragist, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she said, and I quote briefly, "The best protection any woman can have his courage." These women were certainly courageous. This was not an easy effort that they undertook, and it certainly didn't happen overnight. It certainly did not happen overnight. The suffrage movement actually lasted for more than seven decades. Now, you get a perspective of a young child here thinking, are you kidding me. It took 70 years. That just shows you what is so important to retrospectively back and remind ourselves of the struggles. Can you imagine having ideas, having opinions knowing in your head and your heart that you should be able to express opinions and ideas, share them with the world and take them with you to the ballot box that we're gifted to do in this country, and then being told that your ideas and opinions don't really matter? Being told that your ideas and opinions don't really matter, many of you, I think many of us have felt that at one time or another. But to suffragists, it wasn't a question. It was the way things were until these women, the suffragists said enough and they stood up. They organized. They put on their purple and their white and their gold and their sashes, and they paraded in the streets. They made their voices heard, and they changed history. The 19th Amendment gave women more than just the right to vote. In many ways, it gave women the courage to run and to advocate and to lead. And it's that courage that we are here today to celebrate tonight with this exhibit, the courage of the suffragists and the courage that they worked to impart on generations and generations of women to come, of which I'm blessed to be in their footsteps; the courage to turn an idea into an achievement; the courage to turn a passion into an action; the courage to think yes, yes when so many people are telling you no and then to say it, not just say it, but yell it I'm sure, and say it out loud. I work every day in my state of West Virginia to make sure that girls and young women across our country and in my state understand that they can do the same. And I know that so many others in this room do that, through your words, your actions, your example. It doesn't have to be running for office. It doesn't have to be starting a movement to change the very fabric of our nation like the suffragists did. It can be anything. And no matter what the situation, no matter what the goal, no matter what the barriers, you just got to take that first step. You have to breathe life into that idea or that opinion, and you just have to act on it. Thankfully, the women we're here to celebrate tonight did just that. Their actions led to so many opportunities for so many other women throughout history. And that will be the case for generations to come. That's a good thing because we still have so many mountains left to climb. We still have a lot to accomplish, and we still have many first to celebrate. But if history is any indication, these days are here and they will keep coming. And they will become, because of the confidence to say yes to ourselves, the determination to say yes to the world and the courage to do something about it. Thank you so much. [ Applause ] >> Speaker 1: On this day in 1919, the United States Congress approved the Women's Suffrage Amendment for the right to vote. Today, we invite members of Congress to the stage, to read this historic amendment in commemoration of its centennial. We also welcome the chair of the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission, Kay Coles James, and the vice chair, Senator Barbara Mikulski, to join the reading. [ Applause ] [ Multiple Speakers ] >> Barbara A. Mikulski: You got the mic. This is kind of a congressional karaoke here. >> Carla Hayden: And so. >> Barbara A. Mikulski: Suffrage karaoke. >> Speaker 2: It might be great. >> Shelley Moore Capito: And so, let's begin. Three, two, one. >> Multiple Speakers: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [ Applause ] >> Speaker 1: And we thank the members of Congress who are joining us today, former, the members of the commission. We thank you so, so much. [ Applause ] Please welcome United States Senator, Marsha Blackburn, and United States representative, Brenda Lawrence, sponsors of the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commemorative Coin Act. [ Applause ] >> Marsha Blackburn: Well Brenda and I should have just -- We came up the steps together. We should have come here. I have to tell you, today's been a magnificent day in US Senate, and we have truly kicked off our year of celebration as we have celebrated 100 years past that this was the day that we sent the 19th Amendment to the states for ratification. And for us, we've had such a good time celebrating this and just recognizing the women from our state who did so much to make this happen. And as we have talked about the day, we've talked about Tennessee. And Carla mentioned this. We were the 36th state. And ratification came on August 18th, 1920. And we know that the 72 years, just think about it, 72 years, that this movement carried the momentum that was necessary to empower each and every one of us. And then, in that August, when everyone came to Nashville, all the suffragists and all the pros and cons came, it was 72 steps from the Hermitage Hotel, where they gathered for tea and organized to the state capital, where they were successful. So we've had a wonderful time celebrating. And also today, in the house, we passed the Women's Suffrage Centennial Commission Commemorative Coin Bill, S.1235. And this is being handled in the House by Brenda and also our colleague, Elise Stefanik, who is from New York. And this coin will commemorate the 72 years that it took to get women's suffrage passed, and the US Treasury will mint a silver commemorative coin in honor of this centennial. Brenda. [ Applause ] >> Brenda L. Lawrence: Good evening. And so, I'm so excited to be here. We had our celebration last month. And to be here today in our white with our yellow roses, it's such an honor. I just want to give a little reflection on history today at a time in our country where there were decisions made that women would not have the right to vote. Think about it, the actual conversation, legislation protests that was needed for us to have the right to vote. And ladies and gentlemen, I stand here today as a black woman in America. And while we celebrate the women who fought and who protest, went to jail, because they would not give up, they had courage, also want to remember and make sure that history reflects that black women did not get the right to vote until 60 years later. [ Applause ] Native American women did not get the right to vote till four years later. [ Applause ] And so often, people don't realize that Sojourner Truth was a suffragist. She was one of the original ones. And I just want to use one of her quotes because she was such an amazing woman. "Then that little man in black, he says women can't have as many rights as men, because Christ wasn't a woman. Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman. Man didn't have nothing to do with it." [ Applause ] And then she continues, "If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back and get it right side up again. And now, they are asking to do it, and the men better let them." [ Applause ] I am so glad to be standing here today because I stand on the shoulders of those women, those leaders who had courage. And I say this constantly, women, we are writing history today. As we reflect on these amazing and brave women, we are 52% of the population and the largest voting bloc in America. And so, when I listen to the words that were said back at the first women's convention, that we as women can turn it back right, I'm counting on every woman in this room. I'm so glad for us to reflect on our history. I'm also proud that we'll be able to have a coin that will commemorate and to stand with the leadership of Senator Blackburn to be able to make that happen. You know, I'm going to tell my children, like this young lady there, I'm going to tell my grandchildren, your grandma did that. [ Applause And Laughter ] We are also leading a house and senate letter to the Citizens' Stamp Advisory Committee to make sure, next year, we actually get a postage stamp as well to commemorate our official 100th year. I'm proud to be the Democratic lead on the stamp and the coin, and I just want to leave you with this. I fight every day and show up because I love this country. I love America. And those who've heard me speak before, I love America even though sometimes she didn't love me back. She didn't love me because I was a woman. She didn't love me because I was an African-American. But our democracy of this amazing country, with persistence and with the hard work and sacrifice and the courage of Americans, we change things in this country. And I will continue to show up and walk the halls of Congress built by slaves, to show up to understand and to fight and make sure that the democracy that we love continues. I am the bipartisan chair of the women's caucus, and I'm zero focus on ensuring women in America will continue to have the rights and the freedoms that were fought for in this country. And I will continue to show up because I believe in one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all, and that includes us women. Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Speaker 1: Please welcome the chairman of the 1st Financial Bank, Albert Hegyi. [ Applause ] >> Albert Hegyi: Good evening, everyone. This has been a wonderful celebration, and it's really a privilege for 1st Financial to be supporting this exhibition, along with the other generous sponsors and donors of this exhibition celebrating the centennial of women's right to vote. We're here to support the Library of Congress and to support the first woman to lead this institution since 1802. [ Applause ] That's much more than 72 years. So congratulations. Carla Hayden is also the first African-American librarian of Congress. [ Applause ] How appropriate it is that Dr. Hayden now holds this prominent position on a day that we celebrate a great milestone for America: the enactment of the 19th Amendment. Already in the rather short time Dr. Hayden has been at the helm, she exemplifies change and progress. For example, Dr. Hayden has a new strategic plan. Sometimes papers stick together. Sorry. For the future of the library, including the new digital plan to benefit the public. And she's even announced efforts to redesign parts of this Thomas Jefferson building to create the optimum experience for its more than 2 million visitors every year, all for the public, all for the future. Through her many exhibitions, displays, celebrations, awards, symposiums, and programs, she has proven throughout her life to be a trailblazer and a very decisive leader. Now, Dr. Hayden, as librarian of Congress, is on a mission. In her words, she wants to open to the world to the treasure chest that is the Library of Congress. I'm honored to welcome the librarian of Congress, Dr. Carla Hayden, back to the podium. Dr. Hayden. [ Applause ] >> Carla Hayden: Thank you, Mr. Hegyi, for those very kind words and your support of this institution. And I want to know that we do support equal rights and you were able to speak [laughter]. Now, it is my pleasure to introduce two very special guests. We have two very accomplished writers who have done extensive research on the suffrage movement and have written brilliant books about it. So please join me in welcoming Rebecca Boggs Roberts, author of "Suffragists in Washington, DC: The 1913 Parade and the Fight for the Vote," and Elaine Weiss, author of "The Woman's Hour: The Great Fight to Win the Vote." [ Applause ] >> Rebecca Boggs Roberts: So much for having us here on this historic night in this historic room. We got a sneak peek of the exhibit upstairs, and it is jaw-dropping. We both had to be dragged out of there. And you all will get a chance to see it later on. It just showcases not just the extraordinary story of women's suffrage, but the resources this institution has to offer to historians and visitors and people interested in learning more about our country. Both of us did lots of research here. The collections are unrivaled. And if you want to learn more about the suffrage story, and we certainly hope you do, read our books, but then also come and learn what there is to learn here. And you got a chance to be in another historic room today. >> Elaine Weiss: I did. I was, along with other members of the commission and other guests. I was able to be in the gallery of the Senate this afternoon to hear her some very beautiful tributes to the passage of the 19th Amendment on June 4th of 1919. And it was very stirring for me for someone who had studied the Congressional record of that day and, of course, spent many, many hours of working with Library of Congress materials. I tried to imagine what it was like for the suffragists to be sitting in that very gallery, watching their cause being decided, something again we know of the 72 years that the movement had to work in order to finally achieve equal rights for women. But in the Senate and in the House, in Congress, it had been stalled, the amendment, a federal amendment had been stalled for 40 years. And it had been voted down 28 times. >> Rebecca Boggs Roberts: And sometimes so close. >> Elaine Weiss: Yes, either in committee or on the floor. And so, the women must have had a sense of both elation and dread and exhaustion and a sense of final justice, but they didn't celebrate. In fact, we know that Alice Paul and Carrie Catt, the leaders of the two wings of the suffrage movement, were not in the gallery as some of us were today. They were out already planning for the ratification fight, which was going to be a very, very difficult fight. So we know that, looking forward, these women and the men who supported them were always looking forward. They were never satisfied. They didn't just, you know, have a party and say that's enough. They had to go to the next stage of the fight. And that was very moving. >> Rebecca Boggs Roberts: And, you know, so most of my research is about the National Women's Party, especially here in Washington, and Alice Paul and all the things she did here. Elaine focuses on the ratification fight and Carrie Chapman Catt, who was the general of that success. And those two women really sort of embody something that comes up a lot. We discovered when we talk about our books and about this movement that a lot of people ask what can the contemporary women's movement learn from the suffrage fight and what do you see reflected in current feminists' work. And one of the things that I think we both emphasize a lot is that, you know, the National Women's Party, led by Alice Paul, and the National American Woman Suffrage Association, led by Carrie Chapman Catt, they, at times, were rivals and at times post each other's donors and said nasty things about each other in the past and things like that. But they also really served each other's purposes because the radical wing served to make the moderate wing look reasonable. And the moderate wing went about doing this slow, steady, exhausting grassroots work, while the radical wing could do the massive publicity radical stunts that they did. And without the moderate wing, the women's party was just stunts, right. And without the fringe element, the moderate party would have kept fighting that slow, steady fight for God knows how long. >> Elaine Weiss: And I, again, both Rebecca and I in our research, again at different moments of the suffrage fight, realize how much this idea of two organizations with the same goals, with the same passion, with the same idea of justice and equality in their sights and their reason for being, but they went about it in different ways. They had different strategies. They had different methods. And to see them work on their own tracks but towards that same goal is something I think we can really learn from. We can learn how we can take different approaches to the same problem, to the same goal, and there's a synergy between the different approaches. And what I hope that we can avoid is some of the personal animosity that you see in the letters here in the Library of Congress when you do go through them. You see that the political does become the personal very often, and there is distrust between the women, not just the leaders, but even the foot soldiers. So that's something I hope we can learn from and learn that that is not really productive. But the idea of protest, you know, there are different kinds of protests. And Rebecca's book gives enormous, tantalizing detail about the great march that was staged here, right here in Washington, in March 1913, one of the biggest protests in the early last stage of the suffrage movement. And Rebecca, you can talk about that. And then I'll just mention how important protest is. >> Rebecca Boggs Roberts: Yeah. So, you know, we all are Washingtonians. You go down Pennsylvania Avenue on any given day, there's always a protest, right. We think of it as just a traffic headache. But that idea of taking an issue to the core of federal power, marching very deliberately from the legislative branch to the executive branch, right down Pennsylvania Avenue, that was Alice Paul's idea. Civil rights marches were her idea. She brought that presence here. And, you know, the research is so great because she kept trying to get the permit for Pennsylvania Avenue, and the police chief was really not down with that plan, in part because she wanted to coincide with the Wilson's inauguration. The parade would be March 3rd and Wilson's inauguration would be March 4th. And the police force was sort of stretched thin with the inauguration coming up. And the end of Pennsylvania Avenue where Freedom Plaza is now, where the National Theater is, like 12, 13th street was Rum Row. So he thought, you know, a bunch of women marching in the street plus thin police force plus booze equals bad news. And he kept saying things like how about 16th Street. You can still end at the White House, right. And Alice Paul didn't want the safe, leafy street of Shepherd Park. She wanted to march down the middle of the quarters of federal Washington. And the other part of the story, I mean, it is amazing that she was that bold. It was pretty transgressive for women to march on the streets in 1913. It was not something nice girls did. The organization level is extraordinary. The women had matching costumes. But also, she was such a great publicity manager. I mean, she managed to plant stories in newspapers all over the country. She thought through how things would look in pictures. There was this whole sort of tortured allegory of a tableau on the treasury steps that had very little to do with suffrage. But, boy, are those pictures amazing. You can find them all here. And she just was such a pro about how all of that worked. And now, we look back and, you know, we look back through the lens of history if it's a hundred years ago, all that, but they were really thorough. Today, as activists today, think what they would do with social media, right. All those banners are tweets. >> Elaine Weiss: Exactly. And all those photographs. There's an enormous collection here at the library, which is so valuable to both of us. It's called Women of Protest. And it is the photographic record of the women's party, which Alice Paul knew this was going to be important. And she has pictures of every woman who is serving at headquarters, which was right on Lafayette Square right across from the White House. No accident that that's where their headquarters would be. And this is a wonderful, wonderful picture from that collection when the 36th state was finally won. And in my book, I tell you how close it comes to not being ratified at all. So we shouldn't take for granted that just because we have this wonderful moment right now, that Congress finally after 40 years has passed the amendment. It now has to go and be ratified by three-quarters of the states of the union, which was 36th of the time, the 48 states. It's a terrible fight. It was not easy at all. The first few come in very early, which is Wisconsin and Illinois and Michigan. But then it begins to slow down. And it's a very, very difficult fight. But what this shows is Alice Paul, again, a publicity ploy, would sew -- She called herself the Betsy Ross of ratification. And she would sew a star on that banner in the women's party colors for each state they ratified. And on August 18th, when Tennessee finally does just ratify by the smallest of margins, she puts the 36th star, and she unfurls it on Jackson Place, which was the headquarters then. And this is this wonderful picture of the women's party members and workers saluting. And then there's another picture of her at that a few moments later when she's toasting the ratification. Yes. Now you know that that is not champagne. Prohibition's in effect. And she didn't drink. But you know that that grape juice is really, really sparkling. But again, the idea of protests coupled with political strategy I think is what comes through for us as researchers. And here, we could find not only these wonderful photographs, not only the historic newspapers, which the library has digitized, which is an enormous, enormous gift to any researcher or writer. I can look up what was being said in Kingsport, Tennessee in the summer of 1920, from the comfort of my home. So this is important resources, but also there's letters, the letters that we find here in the manuscript collection, which we read on microfilm. We don't touch them. We don't, you know, soil them. Your eyes do begin to cross when you've read a lot of microfilm. But what we find is this idea that, yes, we're going to protest, we're going to be in the streets. We are going to write our congressmen and senators. We are going to lobby. We are going to keep files. There was opposition research, very sophisticated opposition research that the suffragists were able to have in their offices. So they knew exactly which representative was beholden to whom. They used these sophisticated political tools in conjunction with the in-the-streets kind of publicity gathering protests. And I think that's important to realize. Again, we have two groups on different tracks, but they are complementing one another. And when young people ask me what can the suffrage movement teach us, I think it's that there is a place, an important place, for nonviolent protests and of course, the kind of techniques that the suffragists pioneered, the marches, the pickets, the using test cases to go up to the Supreme Court, legal cases. Those would be used by the civil rights movement later in the 20th and in the 21st century. >> Rebecca Boggs Roberts: So I would say yes, take the lessons of nonviolent protests. Vote all the time, even in a weird off your school board elections, and learn the history, learn it here; learn it in the exhibit; learn it in our book. And thank you so much for being here and having us. [ Applause ] >> Carla Hayden: Thank you both. That was wonderful. And we would like to show our gratitude with a few special gifts, being brought in by ladies you might recognize. These are framed facsimiles from the library's collection, the official program of the Women's Suffrage Procession that was held on that day, March 3rd, 1913. And you can see that we've come a long way, baby. >> Rebecca Boggs Roberts: Wow. >> Carla Hayden: So thank you, thank you both. Really appreciate it. >> Elaine Wiess: Thank you so much. >> Rebecca Boggs Roberts: This is extraordinary. Thank you. >> Carla Hayden: Thank you both. >> Elaine Wiess: Thank you. [ Applause ] >> Carla Hayden: And before -- This has been a wonderful evening. And before, we've talked a lot about the exhibition and told you some things about it. We were able to have Congressman Lawrence be reassured that the role of African-American women and their struggle is well represented in the exhibition. And so, we will invite everyone upstairs to see it and enjoy another reception. And on the way up to the mezzanine, you'll be serenaded by the cast of the musical 19. It's a dynamic show that tells the stories of the suffragettes who were the women who fought for our right to vote. And so, to end before we make it to the exhibition, it is my honor to welcome to the stage speaker Nancy Pelosi [applause]. [ Applause ] >> Nancy Pelosi: Good evening. Thank you [applause]. Thank you all very much. What a wonderful, wonderful evening and program to hear Becca and Elaine talk about the research they have done, the appreciation that they have, and to make it possible for -- Hello, hello, how are you? The future. So here we are. On May 21st, we passed the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote, in the House of Representatives. We regaled that day by Senator Barbara Mikulski, who boasted of her service in the House and in the Senate [applause], and Kay Coles James. So thank you, madame chair on the committee. Thank you. And I know you have heard from some of our colleagues, including Brenda Lawrence from the House, and others. I don't know everyone who was here, so I don't want to go down that path. But House and Senate women. Now here we are. Here we are seated in the Library of Congress. In this Congress, we have over 100 women serving for the first time, 100 women serving at the same time, [applause] in the Congress that will observe the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment being ratified. Pretty exciting, and in a congress and this anniversary happening when we have the first woman librarian of Congress. [ Applause ] Thank you, Carla Hayden, and, from Baltimore, Barbara Mikulski. And I take special pride in the Baltimore roots of Dr. Hayden. Congratulations to you. So you've heard so much about the work of the suffragettes. Imagine their courage. They were starved. They did starve. They had to, shall we say, break with family in certain instances, leave home. Imagine the courage they had. But they knew their why. They knew their purpose. They knew what they wanted to achieve, and they knew how to get it done, and Dr. Hayden referenced, whether it was court cases or marches or whatever it was to get it done. What an example to the rest of us. We stand on their shoulders. I'm very proud that the first partner of California is here. Where is she? Jen Siebel Newsom. Very proud of her role on the commission. And I was telling her yesterday, so you have to undergo it again today, a couple of the stories that I like to tell and my colleagues. I know Jan Jakowski has heard these stories so many times. But when we decided, when we took house a while back, we decide that we were going to, shall we say, add some color to the House of Representatives, the statues and the rest, Rosa Parks, Sojourner Truth, Helen Keller, even adding women, et cetera. So the day we dedicated the bust of Sojourner Truth, it was a big deal. We had newly opened our Emancipation Center in the Visitors Center of the Congress. And so, more people than could ever fit in the rotunda showed up, thousands of people, for this important occasion to recognize, as Dr. Carla Hayden has mentioned, the role women of color and a suffragist movement. And so, what was memorable about that day was that it happened to be the beginning of the Obama administration. And Michelle Obama honored us with her presence. And she said this: She was talking about how wonderful and remarkable, I mean, Sojourner Truth is beyond, I mean, just beyond, just superhuman, all the things that she did. But after she talked about that, she said I just can't help but think how happy Sojourner Truth would be to see a woman speaker of the House, but I can't even imagine what she'd be thinking to seeing me, Michelle Obama, the first lady of America [applause]. How far we have come. How far we have come. And our colleagues who were there when we celebrate the 21st will have to undergo my telling my favorite story, which many of you have heard, but it's my suffragist story and so I'm sticking with it. And it's this. When I went to my first meeting as leader to the White House, meeting with the president of the United States and the leadership of the House and Senate, Democratic and Republican, maybe like 10 people at the table. Well, I wasn't very apprehensive of going to the meeting because Barbara Mikulski can tell you, as an appropriator, you're there a lot. And as intelligence and appropriations, I didn't even give it a thought. I was just going to a meeting at the White House. Another meeting at the White House. And poor Becca, you have to undergo this again. I'm sorry, my darling. I've known her since she was a baby, and I'm so proud of her. So, in any event, we go to -- A door opens going to the meeting and I realized this meeting is not like any meeting I've ever been before in the White House before. In fact, it's not like any meeting any woman has been at the White House before because there it was, president, vice president, House, Senate, Democratic leader [inaudible]. And so, I sat down thinking, wow, no woman has ever -- Women have been at cabinet meetings, and that's a wonderful thing. It's a fabulously wonderful thing, but your presence there is derivative of the person at the head of the table. But this is different. The president is there. You're there as the representative of a co-equal branch of government selected by your colleagues. So I go in there. I sit down ever gracious, President Bush, just as lovely as he could be, welcoming and that. And while he was speaking, I was sitting in my chair. I was all squeezed in. I couldn't figure out what was happening. I was all crowded on my chair. I was squeezed in. And then I realized, Sojourner Truth, Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, you name it, Alice Paul, they were all right there on the chair with me [applause]. And, no, then they said, I could hear them say, at last, we have a seat at the table. [ Applause ] And then they were gone, and then they were gone. Imagine all the time since they started and then finally the vote came, and then all those many years later to have a seat at the table. And as soon as they said that, my first thought is we want more. We want more. And that's what we do. We want more. But this is just a wonderful time in our country's history when, whether it's at the archives or the Smithsonian and now the Library of Congress. I'll tell you Barbara's story. We were at the Smithsonian Institution and they're having the opening of their display exhibit. And we were told to wear white. Barbara didn't wear a white jacket. But she said -- That night. Today, she does. She said the last time I wore a white jacket, I failed chemistry. [ Laughter ] She did say that. I don't believe she failed chemistry. We went to the same high school. I'm not sure she ever failed anything. But any event, we stand on the shoulders of these really remarkable people who did something so historic really. And, you know, our founders, they were entrepreneurial and brave and courageous and the rest. But their families weren't saying don't do that and you should stay home and cook or anything like that. These women had to overcome the personal, as well as the political, as well as the official. So we stand on some pretty broad shoulders. We understand that responsibility, my women colleagues here, Brenda and Jan, too, whom I have seen, understand the shoulders that we stand on and that others stand on our shoulders, and may we be worthy, worthy of the tradition that we are so much a part of and helping us appreciate that tradition further as the Library of Congress in such a very special way. So thank you, Dr. Hayden, for, once again, taking the lead, having us understand our history, being the custodian of our values and our history, and making it available to so many people in our country to appreciate and enjoy, and that they shall not be denied. Thank you, all, very much. [ Applause ]

Contents

Background

John Armstrong had been re-elected in January 1801 to a full term (1801–1807), but resigned on February 5, 1802. At the last state election, George Clinton had been elected Governor again, serving now his seventh term, and his Democratic-Republican Party had managed to win a large majority to the Assembly which could outvote the small Federalist Senate majority in a joint ballot. Aaron Burr accused the Clintons later to have hatched a scheme to seat DeWitt Clinton, the governor's nephew, in the U.S. Senate. Burr affirmed that Thomas Tillotson, a brother-in-law of Chancellor Robert R. Livingston like Armstrong, was appointed Secretary of State of New York in 1801 as part of a deal which required Tillotson to procure Armstrong's resignation.

At the State election in April 1801, the Democratic-Republican Party won a large majority in the Assembly, and half of the 12 State Senate seats up for renewal. The 25th New York State Legislature met from January 26 to April 5, 1802, at Albany, New York.

Candidates

State Senator DeWitt Clinton ran as the candidate of the Democratic-Republican Party.

Ex-State Senator (1794–1795) Matthew Clarkson was the Federalist candidate.

Result

Clarkson was nominated by the Senate, Clinton by the Assembly. The Legislature then proceeded to a joint ballot, and Clinton was elected. This was the first time that a joint ballot was necessary to choose between the nominees of different majorities in the houses of the Legislature.

1802 United States Senator special election result
Office House Democratic-Republican Federalist
U.S. Senator State Senate (44 members) DeWitt Clinton 16 Matthew Clarkson 19
State Assembly (107 members) DeWitt Clinton 68 Matthew Clarkson 28
Joint ballot (151 members) DeWitt Clinton 82 Matthew Clarkson 45

Aftermath

Clinton took his seat on February 23, 1802, but resigned on November 4, 1803, and Armstrong was appointed by Governor Clinton to re-take his former seat. In February 1804, a special election was held by the State Legislature to fill both seats in the U.S. Senate and, either due to a mistake or to give Armstrong two more years to serve, Armstrong was then elected to the Class 1 seat (term 1803-1809), and John Smith to the Class 3 seat (term 1801-1807) on which Clinton and Armstrong had sat. Armstrong set a record that still stands after more than 200 years, presenting four different credentials to take a seat in the U.S. Senate within as many years, being three times elected and once appointed. Armstrong resigned his seat again on June 30, 1804 after his appointment as U.S. Minister to France.

Sources

This page was last edited on 22 August 2019, at 02:53
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