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1796 and 1797 United States Senate elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1796 and 1797 United States Senate elections

← 1794/95 Dates vary by state 1798/99 →

11 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Seats before 19 12
Seats after 20 10
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 2
Seats up 8 3
Races won 9 1

Majority party before election

Federalist

Elected Majority party

Federalist

The United States Senate elections of 1796 and 1797 were elections for the United States Senate which, coinciding with John Adams's election as President, had the ruling Federalist Party gain one seat.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

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Transcription

I'm Mr. Beat The United States has 100 senators. Two for every state. and they each serve a term of six years. The Senate collectively makes up half of Congress, the folks who make laws that apply to the whole country. They represent the states, not the people. The year I was born, the average age of a U.S. Senator was 53. Today, while the average age of all Americans is my age, the average age of a Senator is 61. They're getting older, man. This dude here, is Bernie Sanders, a Senator representing Vermont, and polls say he is the most popular Senator in the country. Polls say that this dude Mitch McConnell, a Senator representing Kentucky, is the least popular Senator in the country. Does that mean Bernie is the best Senator in the country and Mitch is the worst? Absolutely not. I think? But anyway, this got me thinking What about all of American history? Who were the best Senators? Who were the worst Senators? Let’s be negative first, shall we? Based on my research, here are the 10 worst Senators in American history. And remember, of course, that this is just my measly opinion. Also, before we get into this list, I didn’t include the senators like Bernie or Mitch who are currently in office or recently got out of office because of our bias to automatically hate politicians currently in office or who recently got out of office. So, let's get right into it. How about a little corruption to start things off? #10 James Simmons Senator from Rhode Island from 1841 to 1847 and again from 1857 to 1862, Simmons got caught getting a contract for two Rhode Island rifle manufacturers in return for $20,000 in promissory notes. So basically, he was bribed to help these two companies make lots of money from the U.S. government, which needed lots of rifles as it turns out since it was fighting the Confederate forces in the Civil War. The reason why Simmons isn’t higher up on this list is because technically there wasn’t a law saying you couldn’t do this, although Congress promptly passed a law saying "you can't do that!" #9 William Blount Yeah that's how you pronounce his name. Senator from Tennessee from 1796 to 1797, Blount was a Founding Father, and the only Senator on this list to actually sign the U.S. Constitution. Originally from North Carolina, Blount was instrumental in opening up lands west of the Appalachians to settlement. He bought up millions of acres out there himself, but his risky land investments caused him to get a lot of debt. Due to this debt, he conspired with Britain to take over the Spanish-controlled Louisiana to try to raise the prices of his land. Well, he didn’t get away with it. When Congress found out in 1797, he became the first Senator kicked out of the Senate and also the first federal official to get impeached. Blount was arrested, but posted bail and went to Tennessee and never came back. He never showed up to trial, and the feds eventually gave up trying to arrest him again. #8 Joseph Burton Aw man, this dude’s from my home state. Senator from Kansas from 1901 to 1906, uh Burton had a little conflict of interest you could say. He was getting paid for defending a company successfully against the United States government while he was Senator. Eventually, he was found guilty of public corruption, which means he was misusing the power he had as Senator for private gain. Burton became the first member of the Senate to actually be convicted of a crime. Now, does that mean other Senators weren’t doing crap like this before this? Of course not, but he was the first one to get caught. #7 John Mitchell Weird coincidence, Mitchell was Senator the same time as Burton. He represented the state of Oregon from 1901 to 1905 and was all about Big Business and against most of the political reforms of the Populists. The biggest reason why he’s on this list is because of his involvement in the Oregon land fraud scandal. Yep, this was more public corruption. Mitchell abused his power, helping a client get patents to fraudulent land claims. After being found guilty, he was sentenced to six months in prison and a $1,000 fine, but he died soon after getting a tooth pulled. True story, bro. #6 Harrison Williams Senator from New Jersey from 1959 to 1982, Williams was a career politician who actually had quite a few accomplishments in his career. Many of the social programs and public urban transit Americans take for granted today is because of him. However, beginning in the 1980s, things went downhill fast for Williams. He was convicted of bribery and conspiracy after the Abscam scandal, (that is hard to say. say that three times) a FBI-led sting operation that also took out several other politicians. He resigned after the Senate was going to kick him out anyway, and was sentenced to 3 years in prison, the first time in more than 80 years that a U.S. Senator had spent time in prison by the way. #5 Bob Packwood Sorry Oregon, here’s another one from your state. He represented it from 1969 to 1995. I’ll try not to be too mean because he is still alive, however, he was mean, man. Packwood was another career politician who did accomplish a lot while in Congress. But that whole freaking time, he was consistently abusing his power by committing sexual misconduct. The Senate Ethics Committee, which recommended his expulsion in 1995, reported that he made at least 18 “separate and unwanted and unwelcome sexual advances between 1969 and 1990.” And he even wrote about it in his diary. Packwood resigned before the Senate could kick him out. And of course, after he resigned he promptly became a lobbyist. #4 Pat McCarran Senator from Nevada from 1933 to 1954, McCarran is known as one of the few Democrats who was against Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal initiatives. Of course he was racist and xenophobic, but he also had anti-Semitic beliefs. Oh, and he was a fan of fascists. He openly admired the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. He also was in bed with the oil industry. Most infamously, he was a big reason the Second Red Scare happened. He hated communism so much that he didn’t even care if he trampled right over civil liberties, sponsoring the paranoia-based Internal Security Act and establishing the Subversive Activities Control Board to start witch hunts targeting communists. He was so bad, that Nevada representatives recently even called for the removal his statue that’s sitting in the National Statuary Hall Collection. Yep, here’s one you have probably heard of... #3 Joseph McCarthy Senator from Wisconsin from 1947 to 1957, McCarthy became the face of the Second Red Scare of the late 1940s and early 1950s. After three years of not doing much in the Senate, McCarthy all of a sudden became a household name in February 1950 when he claimed he had a list of members of communist spies and members of the Communist Party employed within the State Department. Did he ever reveal that list to the public? No. Did he continue to throw out baseless allegations? Absolutely. He stirred up so much communist hatred and paranoia in the United States that today we name it after him. It’s called McCarthyism. Oh yeah, and don’t forget the Lavender Scare he also stirred up, which was another witch hunt that targeted homosexuals, causing them to lose their government jobs throughout the 1950s. And later he helped turn socialism into a dirty word, too. McCarthy is not known for policy or getting sweeping legislation passed. He’s known today for just causing mass hysteria. Even the Senate had had enough of him so much that they censured him in 1954. “Censured” just means they officially said “you did bad, stop it, we disapprove.” And here’s one you probably HAVEN’T heard of. #2 Theodore Bilbo Senator from Mississippi from 1935 to 1947 and poster boy for white supremacy and segregation in the South. While most Senators throughout American history have been at least somewhat racist, Bilbo was a special kind of racist. First of all, he was a member of the KKK, so there’s that. He didn’t just hate African Americans. He hated communists, Jews, unions, and of course immigrants. As governor of Mississippi, he did nothing as mobs lynched African Americans in the streets. Also as governor, he tried to get a bunch of teachers fired and caused his state to almost go bankrupt. Wait a second, why didn’t this dude make my Worst Governors video? Anyway, his ego was ridiculously big and he always liked to be the center of attention, wearing bright, flashy suits and...no joke...always referring to himself in the third person. And finally, after his re-election to the Senate in 1946, a group of African American World War II vets said they and several other blacks were not allowed to vote in the election. But before the Senate could act on the charges, Bilbo died in his mansion. And #1. It's a tie. and if you saw my Worst Governors video, this one may not be much of a surprise. These are all of the Senators who left the Union to join the Confederacy during the Civil War. All of them declared allegiance to the Confederacy in the name of preserving the institution of slavery. Maybe you CAN call them traitors. Regardless, they should have stuck with the Union. So that’s it. The ten worst senators in American history. I know I left a lot of bad senators off this list. And maybe you disagree with this list. Yeah, yeah, go ahead and tell me how wrong I am. Also, I want to get a list going of (dis)honorable mentions. Get it? (Dis)honorable? And I want to gather those and put them in the description of this video and maybe pin a comment. A special shout out to Ian for suggesting the topic of this video. Ian and his mother are long time Patreon supporters. Thank you so much guys. It means the world. Next week, I have another Patreon-requested video coming. Get excited! Thanks for watching. Now how do I get out of here? How did I even get here? Why is it so warm outside? Is this real?

Contents

Results summary

Senate Party Division, 5th Congress (1797–1799)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (22)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (9)
  • Vacant: 1 (later filled by Democratic-Republican)
  • Total Seats: 32

Change in composition

Before the elections

After the August 2, 1796 admission of Tennessee.

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Va.
Unknown
DR10
Tenn.
Ran
DR11
N.Y.
Ran
V2 V1 F19
Vt.
Resigned
F18
Mass.
Resigned
F17
R.I.
Ran
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12
Conn.
Ran
F13
Del.
Ran
F14
Md.
Ran
F15
N.J.
Ran
F16
Pa.
Ran
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Results of the general elections

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Va.
Re-elected
V2
Tenn.
DR Loss
V2 V1 F20
N.Y.
Gain
F19
Vt.
Hold
F18
Mass.
Hold
F17
R.I.
Re-elected
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12
Conn.
Re-elected
F13
Del.
Re-elected
F14
Md.
Re-elected
F15
N.J.
Re-elected
F16
Pa.
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summaries

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 4th Congress

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1797; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Georgia
(Class 3)
George Walton Federalist 1795 (Appointed) Appointee retired when successor elected.
New senator elected February 20, 1796.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Oliver Ellsworth Federalist 1788
1791
Incumbent resigned to become Chief Justice of the United States.
New senator elected May 12, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Caleb Strong Federalist 1788
1793
Incumbent resigned June 1, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Federalist 1794 or 1795 Incumbent resigned June 10, 1796 to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut.
New senator elected October 13, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Vermont
(Class 1)
Moses Robinson Federalist 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
New senator elected October 18, 1796.
Federalist hold.
New York
(Class 3)
Rufus King Federalist 1789
1795
Incumbent resigned May 23, 1796 to become U.S. Minister to Great Britain.
New senator elected November 9, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Maryland
(Class 1)
Richard Potts Federalist 1793 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 24, 1796.
New senator elected November 28, 1796.
Federalist hold.
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Pierce Butler Democratic-Republican 1789
1793
Incumbent resigned October 25, 1796.
New senator elected December 8, 1796.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Frederick Frelinghuysen Federalist 1792 or 1793 Incumbent resigned November 12, 1796.
New senator elected November 12, 1796.
Federalist hold.

Races leading to the 5th Congress

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1797; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1797.
Delaware Henry Latimer Federalist 1795 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 6, 1797.
Maryland John Eager Howard Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 9, 1796.
Massachusetts George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the third ballot.
Federalist hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
New Jersey John Rutherfurd Federalist 1790 Incumbent re-elected in 1796.
New York Aaron Burr Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 24, 1797.
Federalist gain.
Pennsylvania James Ross Federalist 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected February 16, 1797.
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Federalist 1790
1791
Incumbent re-elected in 1797.
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-Republican 1796 Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Incumbent later appointed to continue term.[11]
None
Vermont Moses Robinson Federalist 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
New senator elected October 18, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Virginia Stevens Mason Democratic-Republican 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected November 29, 1796.

Special elections during the 5th Congress

In these special elections, the winners were seated after March 4, 1797, the beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Class 1)
William Cocke Democratic-Republican 1796
1797 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost re-election.
New senator elected September 26, 1797.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Tennessee
(Class 2)
William Blount Democratic-Republican 1796 Incumbent expelled July 8, 1797.[14]
New senator elected September 26, 1797.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Vermont
(Class 1)
Isaac Tichenor Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 17, 1797 to become Governor of Vermont.
New senator elected October 17, 1797.
Federalist hold.
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
William Bradford Federalist 1793 Incumbent resigned in October 1797.
New senator elected November 13, 1797.
Federalist hold.
Maryland
(Class 3)
John Henry Federalist 1788
1795
Incumbent resigned July 10, 1797 to become Governor of Maryland.
New senator elected December 8, 1797.
Federalist hold.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle (Springfield, MA). June 21, 1796.
  2. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Political Gazette (Newburyport, MA). June 16, 1796.
  3. ^ "New York 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1796. 18. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1796. 12.
  4. ^ "Maryland 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Charles Carroll to James McHenry. Nov. 28, 1796. Reel 2, Item 990. Charles Carroll Papers. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
  5. ^ "South Carolina 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 30, 1796.
  6. ^ "New Jersey 1796 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Albany Gazette (Albany, NY). November 21, 1796.
  7. ^ "Delaware 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1797. 18.
  8. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle (Springfield, MA). June 21, 1796.
  9. ^ "New York 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1797. 68. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1797. 43-44.
  10. ^ "Pennsylvania 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The New World (Philadelphia, PA). February 17, 1797.
  11. ^ United States Congress. "William Cocke (id: C000572)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  12. ^ "Virginia 1796 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Virginia Argus (Richmond, VA). December 2, 1796.
  13. ^ a b "Tennessee 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY). November 11, 1797.
  14. ^ United States Congress. "William Blount (id: B000570)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  15. ^ "Maryland 1797 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 13, 1797.
This page was last edited on 19 August 2019, at 21:50
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