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1796 and 1797 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1796 and 1797 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1794 / 1795 August 12, 1796 – October 15, 1797 1798 / 1799 →

All 106 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
54 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
JDayton.jpg
NC-Congress-NathanielMacon.jpg
Leader Jonathan Dayton[1] Nathaniel Macon
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Leader's seat New Jersey at-large North Carolina 5
Last election 47 seats 59 seats
Seats won 57 49
Seat change Increase 10 Decrease 10

5thHouse.svg
Results:
     Federalist majority      Democratic-Republican majority
     Even split

Speaker before election

Jonathan Dayton
Federalist

Elected Speaker

Jonathan Dayton
Federalist

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 5th Congress took place in the various states took place between August 12, 1796 (in North Carolina), and October 15, 1797 (in Tennessee). The first session was convened on May 15, 1797, at the proclamation of the new President of the United States, John Adams. Since Kentucky and Tennessee had not yet voted, they were unrepresented until the second session.

Gains for the Federalist Party provided the president with a reliable majority in support of his policies. Many of the Federalist pick-ups in Congress came from the former Middle Colonies (New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware). New England remained heavily Federalist, whereas the South and West favored Democratic-Republican candidates. Federalist trade and infrastructure policies found widespread approval in the Mid-Atlantic states during this era. With the growth of cities in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York, government intervention in the interest of industrialization and mercantilism became more attractive to voting citizens in these areas.

During this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election. Elections to a Congress took place both in the even-numbered year before and in the odd-numbered year when the Congress convened. In some states the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year).

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Transcription

Professor Dave here, let’s learn about John Adams. To follow George Washington would have been difficult for anyone, but it was especially so for John Adams, who was by his own admission, stubborn, disagreeable and unlikeable. Adams’ Administration managed to debilitate the Federalist Party and give the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans a forty-year reign. Like his political opponent Thomas Jefferson, many of Adams’ greatest contributions to the United States occurred before he became president. He first gained fame in 1765 as a fierce opponent of the Stamp Act, the tax on all paper that had been marked with a Royal Stamp, one of the flashpoints of the Revolution. Adams wrote that the Act violated two fundamental tenets of British Law: the right to be tried in a jury of one’s peers, and the right to be taxed only by consent. With the passage of the Stamp Act, the British Admiralty Courts, which had no juries, had been given the jurisdiction to preside over Colonial disputes, even though they were widely viewed as corrupt and unfair. Five years later, a crowd of Bostonians taunted a group of British soldiers who then fired into the crowd, killing five colonialists. This event became known in the colonies as the “Boston Massacre”. The soldiers found it difficult to get legal representation, but Adams agreed to try their case, believing that everyone was entitled to legal representation, even though it was an extremely unpopular decision. In his arguments, Adams famously said, “Facts are stubborn things and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence.” Adams won an acquittal for six of the soldiers while just two were convicted of manslaughter. In the 1770’s, Adams’ home state of Massachusetts was quickly becoming the seat of the rebellion in the British colonies. Adams and his cousin Sam were becoming well-known firebrands. Adams felt that separation from Great Britain was inevitable, and was selected as the Massachusetts representative at the First Continental Congress in 1774. After the battles of Concord and Lexington in 1775, more colonial leaders came to share his perspective, and the voices calling for independence grew stronger. At the Second Congress that June, Adams nominated George Washington to lead the Continental Army. His influence had grown so great and his arguments for a republic were so persuasive that friends convinced him to write down his thoughts. The ensuing pamphlet, “Thoughts on Government,” was his most eloquent argument for separation and had a major impact on the American public and the Congress. In it he argued for a republic, stating, “There is no good government but what is republican. That the only valuable part of the British constitution is so because the very definition of a republic is an empire of laws, and not of men.” He also came out strongly in favor of a bicameral government, similar to the British House of Lords and Commons. “Thoughts on Government” became hugely influential in every colony contemplating a state Constitution and remains Adams’ most important contribution to American political thought. Throughout the convention, Adams agitated for independence and on July 2nd, such a resolution was passed. A Committee of Five comprised of Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, Robert R. Livingston, and Roger Sherman was given the task of drafting a written declaration of independence from Britain. After discussing the general outline that it should follow, it was decided that Jefferson would write the first draft. Jefferson objected, saying to Adams, “You ought to do it”, but Adams replied, “First, you are a Virginian, and a Virginian ought to appear at the head of this business. Reason second, I am obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular. You are very much otherwise. Reason third, you can write ten times better than I can.” Said Jefferson, “I will do as well as I can.” Although the first draft was written primarily by Jefferson, Adams contributed to its completion. After editing the document and removing its condemnation of slavery, Congress approved it on July 4th. Years later, Jefferson would hail Adams as a pillar of support and its ablest defender on the Congress. Adams was a tireless worker in the Board of War and Ordinance, and at the war’s conclusion he became the first minister to Great Britain. Returning home, Adams was elected the first Vice President under Washington. Among his duties was to act as President of the Senate, where he was allowed to vote as a tiebreaker when required, and he voted a historic 31 times to break such ties. At the start his tenure, Adams became involved in a month-long Senate debate over the official Presidential title, with Adams favoring such grandiose titles as “His Majesty the President” or “His High Mightiness, the President of the United States and Protector of Their Liberties.” Adams’ pomposity, along with his obesity, earned him the nickname, “His Rotundity.” Though Washington seldom sought his counsel, Adams was the presumed nominee for President after Washington declared his intention not to seek a third term. Opposing him was Jefferson, who had resigned from Washington’s Cabinet because of his endless disagreements with Alexander Hamilton. Jefferson and James Madison had formed the Democratic-Republican Party as a counterweight to the Federalist Party. It resisted a strong Federal government, and promoted the virtues of States’ Rights, those that the Constitution had granted to the State governments. It was largely a Southern Party, while the Federalists were Northern; it leaned more towards the common man while the Federalists were elitist, it was agrarian while the Federalists were urban, it resisted standing armies and navies while the Hamiltonians felt these were imperative; it opposed the National Bank that the Federalists had chartered; it was pro-French while the Federalists leaned towards Britain; and so on. Adams defeated Jefferson in the 1796 election, so Jefferson became Adams’ Vice President, as at the time, the runner-up in the election became Vice President. The Jay Treaty, which the Federalists negotiated with the British the year before, had averted war with the British Empire and established a trading policy that resulted in a decade of prosperity for the new nation. However, Revolutionary France was enraged. It saw the two Anglo-speaking nations in collusion and began attacking US ships. At first, public sentiment was with the French for their assistance during the Revolution, but Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans were embarrassed when the French began demanding bribes from the U.S. This led to Quasi-War in 1798, in which American ships began harassing the French. To pay for the Navy, Adams imposed a Direct Tax on Property, which caused an uprising, and Hamilton was put in charge of the Army created to deal with it. During the Quasi-War, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were one of the blackest marks in American History and a stain on the Adams Administration. The four measures included the Naturalization Act, the Alien Friends Act, the Alien Enemies Act, and the Sedition Act. The Naturalization Act increased the period of residence required for an immigrant to attain American citizenship to fourteen years. The Alien Friends Act and the Alien Enemies Act allowed the president to deport any foreigner from any nation considered dangerous to the country. And the Sedition Act made it a criminal offense to publish “false, scandalous, and malicious writing” against the government or its officials, punishable by fines and jail time. Although Adams had not promoted any of these acts, he signed them into law, even though they violated the First Amendment’s protection of Free Speech. There was much outcry among the public against the Alien and Sedition Acts; one anti-Federalist journalist was imprisoned and fined for writing that President Adams was “A hideous hermaphroditical character, which has neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentleness and sensibility of a woman.” Starting with Congressman Matthew “Spitting” Lyon of Vermont, a total of twelve people were convicted under the law, including a man in a New Jersey tavern who was arrested and prosecuted for drunkenly saying that Adams had a “big ass.” The judge fined him $150, decreeing the truth was not an adequate defense under the Sedition Act. The Federalists’ attempt at suppressing dissent was considered a grave assault on the liberties guaranteed by the Constitution and generated considerable ill will towards the Federalists, providing further evidence that the Jeffersonians had been correct about their monarchist leanings. Jefferson and Madison wrote the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions in response to the Federalist attempt to suppress free speech, and in it they argued that because the Constitution was a pact between the states, the states had the right to nullify laws that were unconstitutional. Jefferson even wanted to include an argument for secession but Madison talked him out of it. In only the second Presidency, Adams’ actions had already imperiled the Union. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions would be cited as legal justification for secession by South Carolina during the Civil War. Adams was able to negotiate a Peace Treaty with Napoleon, which ended the Quasi-War, but the damage had been done. He was defeated for re-election by Jefferson and running mate Aaron Burr, after just moving into the still unfinished White House a few months prior. The Federalist Party had lost Washington in 1799, its great unifier, and Hamilton, its other leading figure, would die in a duel with Vice President Aaron Burr five years later. The Federalist Party would soon fade away, though the Whig Party, and later, Abraham Lincoln’s Republican Party, would contain elements of its ideals. Perhaps Adams’ greatest presidential legacy was his appointment of John Marshall to the Supreme Court. During his 34 years as Chief Justice, Marshall’s rulings would help establish a strong central government, insuring the Federalist ideology remained enshrined, even as the party itself collapsed. One of the most important cases decided by the Marshall Court was over Adams’ attempt at stacking the Judicial Circuit with Federalist judges just before his term expired. Originally, Supreme Court justices had to travel around the country, resolving cases. The Federalists’ Judicial Act of 1801 reorganized the circuit courts, doubling them in number and creating new judgeships for each circuit. He appointed 16 Federalist circuit judges and 42 Federalist justices of the peace in an attempt to put a brake on the incoming Administration’s plans to dismantle the Federalist agenda. Purportedly, he was signing new appointments until midnight of his final day in office. These “Midnight Judges” appointments were to be delivered by Marshall himself, though several failed to get out in time. Incoming President Jefferson ordered the remainder to be cancelled by the new Secretary of State, James Madison. One Federalist appointee, William Marbury, sued Madison for his revoked appointment. With Marshall presiding as Chief Justice, the Court found that Madison’s refusal to deliver the commission was illegal. However, it also ruled that the provision enabling Marbury to bring his claim was unconstitutional, since it attempted to extend the Court’s jurisdiction beyond what Article III permitted. Therefore, the petition was denied. Marbury vs. Madison was a landmark ruling where the Supreme Court established the basis of judicial review under Article III of the Constitution and helped to define the boundaries between the executive and judicial branches. Adams would live for another quarter of a century and he and Jefferson eventually reconciled, carrying on a lengthy correspondence. He died on the 4th of July 1826, the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. His final words were, “Thomas Jefferson still lives.” But Jefferson had died just a few hours earlier.

Contents

Election summaries

During this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election. Elections took place both in the even-numbered year before and in the odd-numbered year when a Congress convened. In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year). The 1st session of the 5th Congress ran May 15 – July 10, 1797,[1] before the states of Kentucky and Tennessee had their elections, causing those states to be unrepresented in the 1st session.

57 49
Federalist Democratic-Republican
State Type
Date
Total
seats
Federalist Democratic-
Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Regular elections
North Carolina Districts August 12, 1796 10 1 Steady 9 Steady
New Hampshire At-large August 29, 1796[a] 4 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Rhode Island At-large August 30, 1796 2 2 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont Districts September 9, 1796[b] 2 1 Steady 1 Steady
Connecticut At-large September 19, 1796 7 7 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 3, 1796 8 6 Increase 2 2 Decrease 2
Delaware At-large October 4, 1796 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Pennsylvania Districts October 11, 1796 13 6 Increase 2 7 Decrease 2
South Carolina Districts October 11, 1796 6 3 Increase 1 3 Decrease 1
Georgia At-large November 7, 1796 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 7, 1796[c] 14 11 Increase 1 3 Decrease 1
New York Districts December 15, 1796 10 6 Increase 2 4 Decrease 2
New Jersey At-large January 11, 1797 5 5 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1797 start of Congress)
Virginia Districts March 20, 1797 19 4 Increase 2 15 Decrease 2
Kentucky Districts September 2, 1797 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
Tennessee At-large October 15, 1797 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Total 106 57
53.8%
Increase10 49
46.2%
Decrease10
House seats
Democratic-Republican
46.23%
Federalist
53.77%

Special elections

Elections are sorted by election date, then by district.

Fourth Congress

There were special and late elections to the 4th Congress in 1796.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 2 Gabriel Duvall Democratic-Republican 1794 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 28, 1796, having been elected judge of the Supreme Court of Maryland.
New member elected April 18, 1796.[d]
Democratic-Republican hold.
New member was seated May 5, 1796.
New member was later elected to the next term, see below.
Richard Sprigg, Jr. (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed[3]
Massachusetts 10 Benjamin Goodhue Federalist 1789 Incumbent resigned sometime in June 1796 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected September 12, 1796.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated December 7, 1796.[1]
New member was later elected to the next term, see below.
First ballot (August 1, 1796):[4]
Samuel Sewall (Federalist) 31.9%
Jonathan Ingersoll (Unknown) 22.5%
John Morris (Unknown) 21.2%
John Cabot (Unknown) 10.5%
Samuel Holten (Federalist) 6.8%
Elias H. Dooly (Unknown) 4.0%
Scattering 3.1%

Second ballot (September 12, 1796):[5]
Samuel Sewall (Federalist) 61.7%
Loammi Baldwin (Federalist) 38.3%
Connecticut at-large James Hillhouse Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned July 1, 1796 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected September 19, 1796.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated December 5, 1796.
On the same day however, new member lost election to the next term, see below.
James Davenport (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Maryland 3 Jeremiah Crabb Federalist 1794 Incumbent resigned sometime in 1796.
New member elected October 3, 1796.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated December 5, 1796.
On the same ballot, new member elected to the next term, see below.
William Craik (Federalist) 50.7%
Benjamin Edwards (Federalist) 49.3%[6]
Pennsylvania 5 Daniel Hiester Democratic-Republican 1788 Incumbent resigned July 1, 1796.
New member elected October 11, 1796.[d]
Federalist gain.
New member was seated December 8, 1796.
George Ege (Federalist) 56.8%
Joseph Hiester (Democratic-Republican) 45.2%[7]
Tennessee at-large None (District created) New state admitted June 1, 1796.
New member elected October 15, 1796.[d]
Democratic-Republican gain.
New member was seated December 5, 1796.[d]
Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 98.9%
James Rody 1.1%[8]
Rhode Island at-large Benjamin Bourne Federalist 1790 (Late ratification) Incumbent resigned in 1796 to become a U.S. district judge.
New member elected November 15, 1796.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated December 19, 1796.
New member was also elected to the next term, see below.
Elisha Reynolds Potter (Federalist) 71.0%
Peleg Arnold (Democratic-Republican) 29.0%[9]
Massachusetts 1 Theodore Sedgwick Federalist 1789 Incumbent resigned sometime in June 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected November 21, 1796.[d]
Democratic-Republican gain.
New member was seated January 27, 1797.[1]
First ballot (September 5, 1796):[10]
Thomson J. Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 48.0%
Ephraim Williams (Federalist) 49.9%
Scattering 2.1%

Second ballot (November 21, 1796):[11]
Thomson J. Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 62.7%
Ephraim Williams (Federalist) 32.0%
Scattering 5.3%
North Carolina 4 Absalom Tatom Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent resigned June 1, 1796.
New member elected November 28, 1796.
Federalist gain.
New member seated December 13, 1796.
New member did not run for the next term.
William F. Strudwick (Federalist) 76.3%
Richard Stanford (Democratic-Republican) 22.5%
Scattering 1.2%[12]
Connecticut at-large Uriah Tracy Federalist 1792 Incumbent resigned October 13, 1796 to become U.S. Senator.
New member elected December 5, 1796.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated January 3, 1797.
New member had already been elected to the next term, see below.
Samuel Dana (Federalist)
[Data unknown/missing.]

Fifth Congress

There were special and late elections to the 5th Congress in 1797.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Vermont 2 Daniel Buck Federalist 1795 Incumbent re-elected, but declined to serve.
New member elected May 23, 1797.[d]
Federalist hold.
Lewis R. Morris (Federalist) 56.9%
Stephen Jacob (Federalist) 13.6%
Nathaniel Niles (Democratic-Republican) | 11.2%
Amasa Paine (Federalist) 6.6%
Scattering 11.8%[13]
Massachusetts 11 Theophilus Bradbury Federalist 1794–1795 Incumbent resigned July 24, 1797.
New member elected August 4, 1797.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated November 27, 1797.
Bailey Bartlett (Federalist) 81.4%
Scattering 18.6%[14]
New Hampshire at-large Jeremiah Smith Federalist 1794 Incumbent resigned July 26, 1797.
New member elected August 28, 1797.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated December 15, 1797.
First ballot (August 28, 1797):
Peleg Sprague (Federalist) 43.3%
Woodbury Langdon (Democratic-Republican) 22.5%
Edward Livermore (Federalist) 21.3%
Others 12.8%[15]

Second ballot (October 30, 1797):
Peleg Sprague (Federalist) 66.6%
Woodbury Langdon (Democratic-Republican) 33.4%[16]
Rhode Island at-large Elisha Potter Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned sometime in 1797.
New member elected August 29, 1797.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated November 13, 1797.
Thomas Tillinghast (Federalist)[e]}} 78.3%
James Burrill, Jr. (Federalist) 18.1%
Scattering 3.6%[17]
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Federalist 1788 Incumbent resigned July 10, 1797.
New member elected September 4–5, 1797.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated November 23, 1797.
Thomas Pinckney (Federalist)
Unopposed[18]
Connecticut at-large James Davenport Federalist 1796 (Special) Died August 3, 1797.
New member elected September 18, 1797.[d]
Federalist hold.
New member was seated November 13, 1797.
William Edmond (Federalist) 56.3%
John Treadwell (Federalist) 24.8%
Gideon Granger Jr. 16.1%
David Daggett (Federalist) 2.8%[19]
Tennessee at-large Andrew Jackson Democratic-Republican 1797 (New state) Incumbent resigned sometime in September 1797 when elected U.S. Senator.
New member elected September 26, 1797.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New member seated in November 23, 1797 despite being under the minimum age for service.
William C. C. Claiborne (Democratic-Republican)
John Rhea
John Carter[20]
Pennsylvania 5 George Ege Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned sometime in October 1797.
New member elected October 10, 1797.[d]
Democratic-Republican gain.
New member was seated December 1, 1797.
Joseph Hiester (Democratic-Republican)
Unopposed[21]

Connecticut

Connecticut's results
Connecticut's results

Connecticut elected its seven representatives at-large on a general ticket.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
Uriah Tracy Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner declined to serve.
Uriah Tracy (Federalist) 13.8%
Roger Griswold (Federalist) 13.3%
Joshua Coit (Federalist) 12.1%
Zephaniah Swift (Federalist) 12.0%
Nathaniel Smith (Federalist) 11.9%
Chauncey Goodrich (Federalist) 9.7%
Samuel W. Dana (Federalist) 7.5%
James Davenport (Federalist) 6.2%
David Daggett (Federalist) 4.7%
John Allen (Federalist) 3.3%
William Edmond (Federalist) 3.3%
Jonathan Treadwell 2.6%
Gideon Granger (Democratic-Republican) 2.2%
Roger Griswold Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected.
Joshua Coit Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected.
Zephariah Swift Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner declined to serve.
Nathaniel Smith Federalist 1795 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Chauncey Goodrich Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected.
James Hillhouse Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned July 1, 1796.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.

Delaware

Delaware's result
Delaware's result
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large John Patten Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
James A. Bayard (Federalist) 56.3%
William Perry (Democratic-Republican) 43.7%

Georgia

Georgia's results
Georgia's results
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
Abraham Baldwin Democratic-Republican 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Abraham Baldwin (Democratic-Republican) 35.8%
John Milledge (Democratic-Republican) 33.1%
Thomas P. Carnes (Federalist) 18.7%
Francis Willis (Democratic-Republican) 10.5%
George Nailor (Democratic-Republican) 1.8%
John Milledge Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected.

Kentucky

Kentucky's results by district
Kentucky's results by district
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Christopher Greenup Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas Terry Davis (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Kentucky 2
"Northern District"
Alexander D. Orr Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Fowler (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Notley Conn
Edmund Bollock

Maryland

Maryland's results by district
Maryland's results by district

Two of the four Democratic-Republicans were replaced by Federalists, bringing the Federalists from a 4-4 split to a 6-2 majority.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 George Dent Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected. George Dent (Federalist) 99.7%
Philip Key 0.3%
Maryland 2 Richard Sprigg, Jr. Democratic-Republican 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Richard Sprigg, Jr. (Democratic-Republican) 100%
Maryland 3 William Craik Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. William Craik (Federalist) 51.0%
Benjamin Edwards 49.0%
Maryland 4 Thomas Sprigg Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
George Baer, Jr. (Federalist) 72.1%
Samuel Ringgold (Democratic-Republican) 27.9%
Maryland 5 Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 100%
Maryland 6 Gabriel Christie Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
William Matthews (Federalist) 51.5%
Gabriel Christie (Democratic-Republican) 48.5%
Maryland 7 William Hindman Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected. William Hindman (Federalist) 62.6%
Robert Wright (Democratic-Republican) 37.4%
Maryland 8 William V. Murray Federalist 1790 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
John Dennis (Federalist) 100%

Massachusetts

Massachusetts's results

Massachusetts's electoral law required a majority for election, necessitating additional trials in three districts.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1
"1st Western District"
Vacant Incumbent representative-elect Theodore Sedgwick (Federalist) resigned sometime in June 1796 to become U.S. Senator.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New member also elected to finish the term on a later ballot, see above.
Thomson J. Skinner (Democratic-Republican) 56.4%
Ephraim Williams (Federalist) 43.6%
Massachusetts 2
"2nd Western District"
William Lyman Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
First ballot (November 7, 1796):
William Shepard (Federalist) 46.3%
Sam Hinshaw 23.9%
William Lyman (Democratic-Republican) 21.4%
John Williams 4.0%
Nahum Park 2.0%
Scattering 2.4%

Second ballot (January 16, 1797):
William Shepard (Federalist) 100%
Massachusetts 3
"3rd Western District"
Samuel Lyman Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel Lyman (Federalist) 83.3%
Daniel Bigelow (Democratic-Republican) 16.7%
Massachusetts 4
"4th Western District"
Dwight Foster Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected. Dwight Foster (Federalist) 80.8%
Levi Lincoln Sr. (Democratic-Republican) 19.2%
Massachusetts 5
"1st Southern District"
Nathaniel Freeman Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Nathaniel Freeman (Democratic-Republican) 82.1%
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Federalist) 17.9%
Massachusetts 6
"2nd Southern District"
John Reed Sr. Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected. John Reed Sr. (Federalist) 78.8%
Edward H. Robbins (Federalist) 21.2%
Massachusetts 7
"3rd Southern District"
George Leonard Federalist 1788
1794
Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
First ballot (November 7, 1796):
Elisha May (Federalist) 45.3%
Stephen Bullock (Federalist) 28.3%
Laban Wheaton (Federalist) 26.4%

Second ballot (January 16, 1797):
Stephen Bullock (Federalist) 35.8%
Laban Wheaton (Federalist) 32.7%
Elisha May (Federalist) 31.5%

Third ballot (April 3, 1797):
Stephen Bullock (Federalist) 56.7%
Elisha May (Federalist) 28.3%
Laban Wheaton (Federalist) 15.1%
Massachusetts 8
"1st Middle District"
Fisher Ames Federalist 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Harrison Gray Otis (Federalist) 57.0%
James Bowdoin (Democratic-Republican) 43.0%
Massachusetts 9
"2nd Middle District"
Joseph Varnum Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Varnum (Democratic-Republican) 69.0%
Ebenezer Bridge (Federalist) 16.8%
Samuel Dexter (Federalist) 14.3%
Massachusetts 10
"3rd Middle District"
Samuel Sewall Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Samuel Sewall (Federalist) 67.9%
Loammi Baldwin (Federalist) 22.1%
Massachusetts 11
"4th Middle District"
Theophilus Bradbury Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Theophilus Bradbury (Federalist) 100%
Massachusetts 12
"1st Eastern District of the District of Maine"
Henry Dearborn Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
First ballot (November 7, 1796):
Isaac Parker (Federalist) 40.5%
Henry Dearborn (Democratic-Republican) 31.7%
John Bowman 27.8%

Second ballot (January 16, 1797):
Isaac Parker (Federalist) 48.2%
Henry Dearborn (Democratic-Republican) 33.8%
John Bowman 18.0%

Third ballot (April 3, 1797):
Isaac Parker (Federalist) 52.6%
Henry Dearborn (Democratic-Republican) 47.5%
Massachusetts 13
"2nd Eastern District of the District of Maine"
Peleg Wadsworth Federalist 1792 Incumbent re-elected. Peleg Wadsworth (Federalist) 100%
Massachusetts 14
"3rd Eastern District of the District of Maine"
George Thatcher Federalist 1788 Incumbent re-elected. George Thatcher (Federalist) 100%

New Hampshire

New Hampshire's results
New Hampshire's results

In 1796, New Hampshire had a single at-large district with 4 seats. Each voter cast 4 votes and a majority of voters (12.5% of votes) was required to be elected. Since only three candidates received a majority, a run-off was held between the candidates in fourth and fifth place to fill the remaining seat.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[g]
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Jeremiah Smith Federalist 1790 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (August 29, 1796):
Jeremiah Smith (Federalist) 25.0%
Abiel Foster (Federalist) 24.3%
William Gordon (Federalist) 14.9%
Jonathan Freeman (Federalist) 9.5%
Peleg Sprague (Federalist) 4.4%
Woodbury Langdon (Democratic-Republican) 4.2%
John Prentice 4.1%
Thomas Cogwell 3.4%
Nathaniel Peabody 2.3%
John Bellows 2.1%
Joseph Cilley 1.9%
Nathaniel Rogers 1.9%

Second ballot (November 7, 1796):
Jonathan Freeman (Federalist) 72.5%
Peleg Sprague (Federalist) 27.5%
Nicholas Gilman Federalist 1788/89 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
John Samuel Sherburne Democratic-Republican 1792 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Abiel Foster Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected.

New Jersey

New Jersey's results
New Jersey's results
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[g]
New Jersey at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Jonathan Dayton Federalist 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Jonathan Dayton (Federalist) 15.8%
Mark Thomson (Federalist) 10.4%
James H. Imlay (Federalist) 9.6%
James Schureman (Federalist) 9.3%
Thomas Sinnickson (Federalist) 9.1%
Aaron Kitchell (Democratic-Republican) 8.6%
Joseph Bloomfield (Democratic-Republican) 5.5%
James Linn (Democratic-Republican) 5.3%
Ebenezer Elmer (Democratic-Republican) 4.8%
John Condit (Democratic-Republican) 4.6%
William Crane (Federalist) 3.5%
Joseph Cooper (Democratic-Republican) 3.5%
William Helms (Democratic-Republican) 2.8%
Thomas Lowrey (Federalist) 1.5%
Jonathan Elmer (Federalist) 1.3%
Mark Thomson Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected.
Aaron Kitchell Federalist 1794 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Thomas Henderson Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Isaac Smith Federalist 1794 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.

New York

New York's results by district
New York's results by district
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Jonathan Nicoll Havens Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Jonathan Nicoll Havens (Democratic-Republican) 66.0%
Selah Strong (Federalist) 34.0%
New York 2 Edward Livingston Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Edward Livingston (Democratic-Republican) 56.6%
James Watson (Federalist) 43.3%
New York 3 Philip Van Courtlandt Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Philip Van Courtlandt (Democratic-Republican) 50.3%
Samuel Haight (Federalist) 49.7%
New York 4 John Hathorn Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Lucas Elmendorf (Democratic-Republican) 56.1%
Conrad E. Elmendorf (Federalist) 43.9%
New York 5 Theodorus Bailey Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
David Brooks (Federalist) 54.5%
Theodorus Bailey (Democratic-Republican) 45.5%
New York 6 Ezekiel Gilbert Federalist 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Hezekiah L. Hosmer (Federalist) 57.7%
John P. Van Ness (Democratic-Republican) 42.3%
New York 7 John E. Van Alen Federalist 1793 Incumbent re-elected. John E. Van Alen (Federalist) 57.9%
John Woodworth (Democratic-Republican) 42.1%
New York 8 Henry Glen Federalist 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Henry Glen (Federalist) 77.7%
Peter Swart (Democratic-Republican) 22.3%
New York 9 John Williams Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected as a Federalist.
Federalist gain.
John Williams (Federalist) 62.8%
James Gordon (Federalist) 27.3%
Douw I. Fonda (Democratic-Republican) 10.0%
New York 10 William Cooper Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
James Cochran (Federalist) 50.6%
William Cooper (Federalist) 48.7%
Charles Williamson (Democratic-Republican) 0.7%

North Carolina

North Carolina's results by district
North Carolina's results by district
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 James Holland Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Joseph McDowell (Democratic-Republican)[f]
James Holland
North Carolina 2 Matthew Locke Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Matthew Locke (Democratic-Republican) 56.9%
Nathaniel Alexander (Democratic-Republican) 27.1%
Robert Irwin (Federalist) 15.8%
Others 0.2%
North Carolina 3 Jesse Franklin Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Robert Williams (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Jesse Franklin (Democratic-Republican)
North Carolina 4 William F. Strudwick Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Richard Stanford (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Absalom Tatom (Democratic-Republican)
William Sheppard (Federalist)
Stephen Moore (Federalist)
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Nathaniel Macon (Democratic-Republican)[f]
North Carolina 6 James Gillespie Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. James Gillespie (Democratic-Republican)[f]
William H. Hill (Federalist)
James Keenan
Gabriel Holmes (I)
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove Federalist 1791 Incumbent re-elected. William B. Grove (Federalist) 73.4%
Duncan MacFarland (Democratic-Republican) 26.6%
North Carolina 8 Dempsey Burges Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent re-elected. Dempsey Burges (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Joseph Riddick (Democratic-Republican)
James Gregory (Federalist)
James Brown (Federalist)
North Carolina 9 Thomas Blount Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Blount (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Willis Alston (Federalist)
North Carolina 10 Nathan Bryan Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent re-elected. Nathan Bryan (Democratic-Republican) 54.1%
Richard D. Spaight (Democratic-Republican) 45.9%

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania's results by district
Pennsylvania's results by district
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[22]
Pennsylvania 1 John Swanwick Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. John Swanwick (Democratic-Republican) 51.3%
Edward Tilghman (Federalist) 48.7%
Pennsylvania 2 Frederick Muhlenberg Democratic-Republican 1788 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Blair McClenachan (Democratic-Republican) 60.2%
Robert Waln (Federalist) 39.8%
Pennsylvania 3 Richard Thomas Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Thomas (Federalist) 52.9%
William Gibbons (Democratic-Republican) 47.1%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 2 seats
Samuel Sitgreaves Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel Sitgreaves (Federalist) 42.6%
John Chapman (Federalist) 25.2%
Peter Muhlenberg (Democratic-Republican) 13.0%
John Richards (Democratic-Republican) 12.3%
Robert Lollar (Democratic-Republican) 6.9%
John Richards Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Pennsylvania 5 Vacant Representative Daniel Hiester (Democratic-Republican) resigned July 1, 1796.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Winner was also elected to finish the current term, see above.
George Ege (Federalist) 56.8%
Joseph Hiester (Democratic-Republican) 43.2%
Pennsylvania 6 Samuel Maclay Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John A. Hanna (Democratic-Republican) 74.3%
John Carson (Federalist) 21.1%
Samuel Maclay (Democratic-Republican) 4.6%
Pennsylvania 7 John W. Kittera Federalist 1791 Incumbent re-elected. John W. Kittera (Federalist) 95.6%
William Webb (Federalist) 4.4%
Pennsylvania 8 Thomas Hartley Federalist 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Hartley (Federalist) Unopposed
Pennsylvania 9 Andrew Gregg Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Andrew Gregg (Democratic-Republican) 53.8%
William Irvine (Democratic-Republican) 32.0%
James Wallace (Federalist) 7.9%
Robert Whitehall (Democratic-Republican) 4.1%
Thomas Kennedy (Federalist) 2.3%
Pennsylvania 10 David Bard Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. David Bard (Democratic-Republican) 45.1%
Abraham Smith (Democratic-Republican) 30.3%
William M. Brown (Federalist) 24.6%
Pennsylvania 11 William Findley Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent re-elected. William Findley (Democratic-Republican) 79.3%
James Findley (Federalist) 20.7%
Pennsylvania 12 Albert Gallatin Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Albert Gallatin (Democratic-Republican) 61.7%
John Woods (Federalist) 26.4%
Thomas Stokely (Federalist) 11.9%

Rhode Island

Rhode Island's results
Rhode Island's results

Rhode Island had an at-large district with two seats, each of which were elected separately.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large
Seat A
Benjamin Bourne Federalist 1790 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner later declined the seat.
Benjamin Bourne (Federalist) 99.9%
Others 0.1%
Rhode Island at-large
Seat B
Francis Malbone Federalist 1792 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist hold.
Christopher G. Champlin (Federalist) 51.4%
William Greene (Federalist) 48.4%
Others 0.2%

South Carolina

South Carolina's results by district
South Carolina's results by district
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1
Also known as the Charleston district
William L. Smith Federalist 1788 Incumbent re-elected. William L. Smith (Federalist) 84.8%
Robert Simons (Democratic-Republican) 13.6%
John Rutledge (Democratic-Republican) 1.6%
South Carolina 2
Also known as the Beaufort district
Wade Hampton Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
John Rutledge, Jr. (Federalist) 87.3%
Elnathan Haskell (Democratic-Republican) 16.7%
South Carolina 3
Also known as the Georgetown district
Lemuel Benton Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Lemuel Benton (Democratic-Republican) 63.3%
Tristam Thomas (Federalist) 24.4%
Joseph Blyth (Federalist) 12.3%
South Carolina 4
Also known as the Camden district
Richard Winn Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Thomas Sumter (Democratic-Republican) 50.7%
Richard Winn (Federalist)[h] 49.3%
South Carolina 5
Also known as the Ninety-Six district
Robert Goodloe Harper Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected. Robert Goodloe Harper (Federalist) 67.6%
William Butler (Democratic-Republican) 32.4%
South Carolina 6
Also known as the Washington district
Samuel Earle Democratic-Republican 1794 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
William Smith (Democratic-Republican) 37.0%
Abraham Nott (Federalist) 32.5%
William Will (Democratic-Republican) 25.4%
Samuel Lowrie (Federalist) 2.6%
Robert Anderson (Democratic-Republican) 2.5%

Tennessee

Tennessee's result
Tennessee's result
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Tennessee at-large Andrew Jackson Democratic-Republican 1796 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner later resigned in September 1797 when elected U.S. Senator.
Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republican)[23]
[Data unknown/missing.]

Vermont

Vermont's results by district
Vermont's results by district

Due to Vermont's law requiring a majority to secure a congressional seat, the 1st district required three ballots to choose a winner.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[g]
Vermont 1
"Western District"
Israel Smith Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
First ballot (September 9, 1796):
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 40.7%
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 22.1%
Samuel Williams 7.3%
Nathaniel Chipman (Federalist) 7.1%
Isaac Tichenor (Federalist) 6.5%
Gideon Olin (Democratic-Republican) 4.5%
Enoch Woodbridge 4.3%
Jonas Galusha (Democratic-Republican) 3.4%
Daniel Chipman (Federalist) 2.0%
Samuel Hitchcock 1.2%
Others 1.0%

Second ballot (December 11, 1796):
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 46.7%
Samuel Hitchcock 25.7%
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 21.4%
Samuel Williams 2.9%
Gideon Olin (Democratic-Republican) 1.1%
Others 2.3%

Third ballot (February 7, 1797):
Matthew Lyon (Democratic-Republican) 55.1%
Samuel Hitchcock 29.4%
Israel Smith (Democratic-Republican) 8.9%
Jonas Galusha (Democratic-Republican) 3.9%
Samuel Williams 0.7%
Scattering 2.1%
Vermont 2
"Eastern District"
Daniel Buck Federalist 1795 Incumbent re-elected.
Winner declined the seat.
Daniel Buck (Federalist) 97.1%
Scattering 2.9%

Virginia

Virginia's results by district
Virginia's results by district
District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Robert Rutherford Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
The election was unsuccessfully challenged by Rutherford.[1]
Daniel Morgan (Federalist)[f]
Robert Rutherford (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore Democratic-Republican 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
David Holmes (Democratic-Republican) 60.4%
John Steele (Federalist) 27.5%
John Bowyer (Democratic-Republican) 12.1%
Virginia 3 George Jackson Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
James Machir (Federalist) 45.4%
George Jackson (Democratic-Republican) 28.7%
John Mitchell (Democratic-Republican) 20.1%
Thomas Wilson (Federalist) 5.7%
Virginia 4 Francis Preston Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Abram Trigg (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Virginia 5 George Hancock Federalist 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican gain.
John J. Trigg (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Virginia 6 Isaac Coles Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Matthew Clay (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable Democratic-Republican 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Abraham B. Venable (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Virginia 8 Thomas Claiborne Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Claiborne (Democratic-Republican) 62.3%
Jesse Browne (Federalist) 37.7%
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Democratic-Republican 1790 Incumbent re-elected. William B. Giles (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Virginia 10 Carter B. Harrison Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Carter B. Harrison (Democratic-Republican) 55.4%
Edwin Gray (Federalist) 44.6%
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker Federalist 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Josiah Parker (Federalist)[f]
Virginia 12 John Page Democratic-Republican 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Federalist gain.
Thomas Evans (Federalist)[f]
John Page (Democratic-Republican)
Virginia 13 John Clopton Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent re-elected. John Clopton (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Burwell Bassett (Federalist)
Virginia 14 Samuel J. Cabell Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel J. Cabell (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Virginia 15 James Madison Jr. Democratic-Republican 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
John Dawson (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Thomas Posey (Federalist)
Virginia 16 Anthony New Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. Anthony New (Democratic-Republican) 70.6%
Carter Braxton Jr. (Federalist) 29.3%
Robert P. Waring 0.1%
Virginia 17 Richard Brent Democratic-Republican 1795 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Brent (Democratic-Republican) 100%
Leven Powell (Federalist)[i]
Virginia 18 John Nicholas Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent re-elected. John Nicholas (Democratic-Republican)[f]
John Blackwell (Federalist)
William Fitzhugh (Federalist)
Virginia 19 John Heath Democratic-Republican 1793 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Walter Jones (Democratic-Republican)[f]
Burgess Ball (Federalist)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ New Hampshire law required a majority for election, requiring an additional ballot on November 7, 1796.
  2. ^ Vermont law required a majority for election, requiring additional ballots on December 11, 1796 and February 7, 1797.
  3. ^ Massachusetts law required a majority for election, requiring additional ballots on January 16, 1797 and April 3, 1797.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Date cited is the election date, but the new member in some cases "took" the seat on a later date.[2]
  5. ^ Source mistakenly gives party as Democratic-Republican; Tillinghast did later become a Democratic-Republican, but in the 5th Congress, he was a Federalist
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  7. ^ a b c Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed
  8. ^ Although Winn had run as a Democratic-Republican in the previous election, the source used stated that he'd run as a Federalist in this election, however, by the time he returned to Congress in 1801 he was a Democratic-Republican again
  9. ^ The source used does not list votes for Powell, but provides a citations stating "Col. Powell of Loudoun was expected to have been a candidate on this occasion; but from the present ill state of his health, it was understood he had declined and consequently had but a few votes."[24]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Fifth Congress (membership roster)". Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  2. ^ Dubin, Michael J. (1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 0786402830.
  3. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  4. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  5. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  6. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:md.uscongress3.special.1796
  7. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:pa.uscongress5.specialelection.1796
  8. ^ "Tennessee 1796 U.S. House of Representatives". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts Digital Library, Tufts University. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  9. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  10. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  11. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  12. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  13. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  14. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  15. ^ New Hampshire Special Election Race from Ourcampaigns.com
  16. ^ New Hampshire Special Election Runoff Race from Ourcampaigns.com
  17. ^ Election details from Ourcampaigns.com
  18. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:sc.uscongress.specialelection.1797
  19. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:ct.special.congress.1797
  20. ^ "Tennessee 1797 U.S. House of Representatives". A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts Digital Library, Tufts University. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
  21. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:pa.uscongress5.specialelection.1797
  22. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project
  23. ^ Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data
  24. ^ Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette. March 21, 1797.

Bibliography

External links

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