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1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1792 and 1793 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1790 / 1791 August 27, 1792 – September 6, 1793 1794 / 1795 →

All 105 seats in the U.S House of Representatives
53 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Frederick Muhlenberg.jpg
TheodoreSedgwick.jpg
Leader Frederick Muhlenberg[1] Theodore Sedgwick
Party Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
Leader's seat Pennsylvania at-large Massachusetts 2nd
Last election 30 seats 39 seats
Seats won 54 51
Seat change Increase 24 Increase 12

3rdHouse.svg
Results:      Pro-Administration (F) majority
     Anti-Administration (DR) majority
     Even split

Speaker before election

Jonathan Trumbull
Pro-Administration

Elected Speaker

Frederick Muhlenberg
Anti-Administration

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 3rd Congress were held in 1792 and 1793, coinciding with the re-election of George Washington as President. While Washington ran for president as an independent, his followers (more specifically, the supporters of Alexander Hamilton) formed the nation's first organized political party, the Federalist Party, whose members and sympathizers are identified as pro-Administration on this page. In response, followers of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison created the opposition Democratic-Republican Party, who are identified as anti-Administration on this page. The Federalists promoted urbanization, industrialization, mercantilism, centralized government, and a broad interpretation of the United States Constitution. In contrast, Democratic-Republicans supported the ideal of an agrarian republic made up of self-sufficient farmers and small, localized governments with limited power.

Despite nearly unanimous support for Washington as a presidential candidate, Jeffersonian ideas edged out Hamiltonian principles at the ballot box for congressional candidates, with the Democratic-Republicans taking 24 seats more than they had prior to the organization of their political movement. Most of the increase was due to the addition of new seats in Western regions as a result of the United States census of 1790. Dominated by agrarian culture, these Western territories offered strong support to Democratic-Republican congressional candidates. As a result, they secured a thin majority in the legislature.

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Transcription

The French Revolution was the most important social and political change which took place in Europe in the late XVII Century. It was a violent period in which the old regime was overthrown, setting up a new regime where the burgeoisie, occasionally supported by the masses, became the ruling political class. Let's see the causes of this revolution: 18th Century, we are in France, the active current of thought is the Enlightenment. The ideas of people, such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Montestquieu, have made bedlams in society. They held human thought could battle ignorance, superstition and tirany, to build a better world. This kind of thinking was expanded through meetings, held in wealthy people's houses, in which intellectuals participated, and philosophy , politics and literature were discussed. The Encyclopaedia was read, an initiative by Diderot and D'Alambert that told in its successive publishings with many colaborators that wrote thousands of articles to embody the Enlightened thought. The Encyclopaedia contributed to the discredit of the system, a cultivated society that thinks for itself, it was the best way to ensure the end of the Old Regime. The principles based on the Reason, Equality and Liberty were present in the mind of the French. Not only of the French, the Enlightened ideas had spread across Europe and its colonies. On the other side of the ocean, the Enlightenment had worked as an impulse so that on a Fourth of July, 1776 the Thirteen Colonies of North America achieved Independence. France is under the yoke of an absolutist monarchy, ruled then by Louis XVI, who was married to Marie Antoinette, the power of the King and the Nobility was the base of this regime. The economy in the State was in a very precary situation, the military spendings and the bad harvests created a serious social situation, the people were hungry, while the luxury and wastes of the royalty continued normally, getting even more into debt the situation of the State. The Enlightened thought plus the social discontent were the perfect broth for the beginning of the revolution. But first, let's see the division of the French society: The society was composed by three sectors, named Estates The First Estate was the church, which didn't pay taxes, obtained from the peasant the tithe, i.e., one tenth part of the product of the harvests. Only the church could legalize marriages, births and deaths, and the education was in its hands. The Second Estate was composed by Nobility, owners of the land, which did not pay taxes, either. The peasants would pay them tribute and could only sell their harvests to them. It was a breed enclosed on itself. The First and Second Estates, i.e. the clergy and nobility, summed up around 3% of the population. The Third Estated would make up to 97% of the population, and the composition was very diverse: on one hand, there was the burgeoisie, formed by the wealthy merchants and bankers, the liberal professionists, physicians, lawyers... also by artisants and small merchants. On the other hand there were free peasants, small landlords, lessees and workers. The Third Estate had no power nor political decision, but paid all of the taxes, had the worst jobs and no rights. The burgeoisie needed access to power, and to handle a centralized State which protected and impulsed its economic activities, just as it had been happening in England. Let's go back to Paris. When poverty provoked revolts, people went to complain to Versailles about the hunger they endured, then the rumour spread about the Queen, very haughty, said the phrase: "Let them eat cake". Something like that trascended and resulted very provoking. To raise the serious taxing deficit, the King declared the State in bankruptcy and convened in 1788 the Estates General, a Medieval Parliament which was last held 174 years before. It was an assambly in which the deputies of the clergy, nobility and the people reunite. Around 1200 deputies were present, the half of them represented the first two Estates, and the other half represented the Third Estate which achieved to duplicate its representation. The inaugural session was held by the King Louis XVI, The clergy and the nobility claimed the vote for Estate, which granted them a majority without the need of a consensus. The Third Estate asked the vote per capita, which allowed more equality in the vote. With the negative of the first two Estates and the blocking of every vote, the Third Estate invited loose deputies of the clergy and nobility to join them. Two nobles and 149 members of the clergy did, in the face of this revolutionary act, the King Louis XVI closed the room and forbade the entrance to the members of the Third Estate. The deputies of the Third Estate agree to constitute in a new assembly, and to be the real representatives of the French people. They found a new place for reunions, the Tennis Court in the Palace of Versailles, this assembly took the name of National Assembly, promising to be together until getting France a Constitution. The King tried to break up the assembly, deputy Mirabeau then said the phrase: "We are here by the will of the people, and that we shall be removed only at the point of a bayonet". On July 14th, Parisian people supported their representatives, and with the fear of the royal troops arresting them, they assaulted the fortress of the Bastille, symbol of monarchy absolutism, but also strategic spot of the repression of Louis XVI since his canyons aimed to the workers' neighborhoods. After three hours of battle, the insurgents captured the prison, returning to the town hall, the crowd accused the governor of the prison of betrayal, he was stabbed and received a shot that killed him. He was beheaded and his head was exhibited in the city nailed in a pica. emerging the custom of nailing and parading in a pica the heads of the beheaded, something very common during the Revolution, the Capture of the Bastille gave the parisians a lot of confidence in themselves, what was expressed in the press, Jean-Paul Marat, a physician founder of a newspaper of huge success, became the voice of the Revolution, and a species of leader of the proletariat, with his constant harrassment to the rich. The King finally gave in and invited the nobility and the clergy to join the National Assembly, the assembly took the name of National Constituent Assembly. among the labors that the assembly would do, it can be highlighted the approval of the Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, the supression of feudalism, the appropiation of the goods of the church, the Civil Constitution of the clergy, the Freedom of press, and of course the redaction of a new Constitution. In this assembly the ones defending a parliamentary Monarchy would sit on the right, and in the left, the supporters of a republic that represented the interests of the middle and popular classes. This is how the concepts of political right and left were born. In the late september of 1789, a rumour of the King preparing his troops started to spread, and the journalists, with Marat on top, scared people so that they would react. The people marched to Versailles, camped, organized revolts on the outside of the Palace, and even a group of women entered to the Palace and beheaded members of the Royal Guard. They, later, demanded the King to move his residence from Versailles to Paris, and so he did; a big crowd paraded to Paris and he had to lodge in the Palace of the Tuileries. It was a way to have him more controlled and submit him under the people's will. The Constituent Assembly, which moved his chamber to Paris, achieves to approve the Constitution in 1791, France would work as a Constitutional Monarchy, the Constitutions established the sovereignty resided on the Nation, and no mor on the King, the King does nothing else but to accept the Constitution, with his immensely weakened power, the King starts to scratch a new plan to recover his power. He knows he only can do this with the aid of a foreign army, his plan is to escape Tuileries, to reach the closest border. The King and Queen dress up as peasants and escape during the night. When they are about to reach the border with Austria, his plan fails, they're discovered and made prisoners. In this moment, the doctor Guillotin proposed a sofisticated beheading method which he presents to the assembly. The journalist Marat, excited with this artifact, gives this machine the name of guillotine, which will have a very important role. With the King and Queen made prisoners, and the fear of an imminent attack, the assembly gets ahead and declares the war to Austria, the country of the family of Marie Antoinette. Soon Prussia joins Austria. On August 10th, 1792, the masses assaulted the Palace of the Tuileries, and the Constituent Assembly suspended the constitutional functions of the King. The Constituent Assembly convenes elections with the purpose of setting up, by universal suffrage, a new Parliament that would recieve the name of National Convention, The social and political tension in France was increasing, and also it was in war and was giving in territories to its enemies. The new chosen parliament composed almost entirely by the Jacobeans, with Robespierre on top, and the Girondins being more moderate, decide to abolish the monarchy and proclaim the Republic. They opened up a trial against the King for betrayal, who is finally condemned to death, and dies executed in the guillotine. the Queen Marie Antoinette would end with the same luck and would later be executed. The Revolution radicalized. During this period the accounts were squared, between the radical Jacobeans and the moderate Girondines. Bloodthirsty Marat lashes out against the moderates in the newspaper, and publishes alleged lists of traitors to the Revolution. This would end with a murdered Marat, while taking a bath in his house; the consequence, Marat would become a martyr, a legend of the radicals. The National Convention redacted a new Constitution, created also a new calendar, according to which, the year 1792 would become the year 1 of their era. They changed the name of the months: Floréal, Brumaire, Germinal... weeks were deleted with the ideal of supressing the religious connotations of Sunday and each month would divide in three periods of three days. The big orators Danton and Robespierre are the revolutionary figures that took more protagonism in that moment. The Legislative Power of the new Republic was in charge of the Convention, while the Executive power was held by by a newly created body, the Committee of Public Safety, with the purpose of safeguarding the Republic. This body was under the lead of the Jacobean Robespierre. The Jacobeans tied off what now is known as the Reign of Terror, from 1793 and 1794, a species of Jacobean dictatorship. The French republican experiment evolved into a terrorist regime; between 10,000 and 40,000 people were guillotined in face of accusations of anti revolutionary activities. The merciless responsible of the Terror served wrong to the values they pledged to defend. Priests and members of the Nobility were guillotined. Meanwhile, in the war of the border, a young General starts to win battles for the French Republic, Napoleon Bonaparte, but in the interior, a war that evolved into a civil war faced the supporters of the French revolution and the anti revolutionaries. It was named the War in the Vendée. The collective madness made the revolutionary leaders themselves run with the same fate by being accused and condemned because of the jealousy of their rivals or because of their aspiration of a personal dictatorship. Robespierre proposes more terror in a way to virtue, Danton, on the other hand, believes it is time to finish the terror, consequence, Danton is guillotined. The number of executions increases, what is known as Great Fear, Robespierre's madness could only end one way, beheaded in the guillotine. With the fall of Robespierre, the fear ended, but the Revolution didn't. As an attempt of moderation, in 1795 the Constitution of the year 3 was enacted, which had elaborated and approved the constitution in the previous years, it was a very different Constitution than that of 1793, and in essence, the principles of the Monarchical Constitution of 1791 returned. The two novelties it featured was that the Legislative power was composed by two chambers, following the British model, and the Executive was integrated by five people that would make up the Directory, name with which the Republican regime would still be known. The Directory is a phase between 1795 and 1799 with a more moderate tone. This period is distinguished by the dissension among the directors and a bad economic crisis. Napoleon Bonapart, returned of his campaign in Egypt, found the motivation so that in 1799 he would execute a coup d'État, on Brumaire 18th. He made himself be called First Consul of the Republic, the first political stage of the Consulate starts. In this period he got to restore the internal order with great support of the French. The economy would grow again. In 1804, he strikes again through a plebiscite, and Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor. For many historians, this is were the Revolution ended, but the cry of Revolution lasts nowadays everywhere. Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité. These words transformed the way of Occident forever.

Contents

Election summaries

In this period, each state fixed its own date for a congressional general election, as early as August 1792 (in New Hampshire and Rhode Island) and as late as September 1793 (in Kentucky). In some states, the congressional delegation was not elected until after the legal start of the Congress (on the 4th day of March in the odd-numbered year), but as the first session of Congress typically began in November or December, the elections took place before Congress actually met. The 3rd Congress first met on December 2, 1793.

These were the first elections held after reapportionment following the first census. Thirty-six new seats were added,[2] with 1 state losing 1 seat, 3 states having no change, and the remaining 11 states gaining between 1 and 9 seats. This was the first apportionment based on actual census data, the apportionment for the 1st and 2nd Congresses being set by the Constitution using estimated populations.

54 51
Anti-Administration Pro-Administration
State Type ↑ Date Total
seats
Anti-
Administration
Pro-Administration
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
General elections
New Hampshire At-large August 27, 1792 4 Increase1 1 Increase1 3 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 28, 1792 2 Increase1 0 Increase1 2 Steady
Connecticut At-large September 17, 1792 7 Increase2 0 Steady 7 Increase2
Georgia At-large October 1, 1792 2 Decrease1 2 Decrease1 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 1, 1792 8 Increase2 4 Increase1 4 Increase1
Delaware At-large October 2, 1792 1 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Decrease1
New Jersey At-large October 9, 1792 5 Increase1 0 Steady 5 Increase1
Pennsylvania At-large October 9, 1792 13 Increase5 8 Increase4 5 Increase1
Massachusetts Mixed November 2, 1792[a] 14 Increase6 3 Increase2 11 Increase4
New York Districts January 2, 1793 10 Increase4 3 Increase1 7 Increase3
Vermont Districts January 7, 1793[b] 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts February 5, 1793 6 Increase1 5 Increase3 1 Decrease2
North Carolina Districts February 15, 1793 10 Increase5 9 Increase6 1 Decrease1
Late elections (after the March 4, 1793 beginning of the 3rd Congress)
Virginia Districts March 18, 1793 19 Increase9 15 Increase7 4 Increase2
Kentucky Districts September 6, 1793 2 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Total 105 Increase 36 54
51.4%
Increase 24 51
48.6%
Increase 12
House seats
Anti-Administration
51.43%
Pro-Administration
48.57%

House composition

End of the 2nd Congress

With new seats, due to reapportionment, outlined.

 
 
A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A V P P P
Majority→ P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P
 
 

Result of the elections

A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
A A A A A A A A A A
Majority→ A
P P P P P P P P A A
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P P P P P P P P P
P P
Key:
A = Anti-Administration
P = Pro-Administration
V = Vacant

Special elections

There were special elections in 1792 and 1793 during the 2nd United States Congress and 3rd United States Congress.

Elections are sorted here by state then district.

2nd Congress

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Kentucky admitted June 1, 1792. New member elected September 7, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated November 9, 1792.[3]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Christopher Greenup (Anti-Administration)[c]
Robert Brackenridge
Kentucky 2
"Northern District"
Kentucky admitted June 1, 1792. New member elected September 7, 1792.
Anti-Administration gain.
Winner seated November 8, 1792.[3]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Alexander D. Orr (Anti-Administration)[c]
Hubbard Taylor
Georgia 1 Anthony Wayne Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent disqualified March 21, 1792.
New member elected July 9, 1792.
Anti-Administration hold.
Winner later lost re-election to the next term, see below.
John Milledge (Anti-Administration) 55.2%
Matthew MacAllister (Pro-Administration) 44.8%
John Glen 0.2%[4]
Maryland 2 Joshua Seney Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent resigned December 6, 1792 to become Chief Justice of Maryland's 3rd Judicial District.
New member elected January 7–10, 1793.
Pro-Administration gain.
Winner was already elected to the next term, see below.
William Hindman (Pro-Administration) 63.2%
Thomas Whittington 36.8%[5]

3rd Congress

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Connecticut at-large Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent resigned to become Associate Justice of the Connecticut Supreme Court.
New member elected April 8, 1793.[d]
Pro-Administration hold.
Uriah Tracy (Pro-Administration) 49.8%
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Administration) 18.5%
Asher Miller[e] 16.1%
Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Administration) 9.9%
Tapping Reeve[e] 5.7%
Connecticut at-large Benjamin Huntington Pro-Administration 1788 Representative-elect resigned.
New member elected September 16, 1793.
Pro-Administration hold.
Jonathan Ingersoll (Pro-Administration)
[Data unknown/missing.]
Connecticut at-large Jonathan Ingersoll Pro-Administration 1793 (Special) Representative-elect Ingersoll declined the seat and Representative-elect Mitchell resigned to become U.S. Senator.
Two new members elected on a general ticket November 11, 1793.
Two Pro-Administration holds.
Joshua Coit (Pro-Administration) 35.7%
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Administration) 24.2%
James Davenport (Pro-Administration) 17.2%
Roger Griswold (Pro-Administration) 12.6%
Chauncey Goodrich (Pro-Administration) 5.1%
Nathaniel Smith (Pro-Administration) 3.1%
Samuel W. Dana (Pro-Administration) 2.1%
Connecticut at-large Stephen M. Mitchell Pro-Administration 1792

Connecticut

Connecticut gained two seats in reapportionment following the 1790 census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Connecticut at-large
7 seats on a general ticket
James Hillhouse Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (Pro-Admin) 14.1%
James Hillhouse (Pro-Admin) 13.0%
Jonathan Sturges (Pro-Admin) 11.5%
Benjamin Huntington (Pro-Admin) 10.6%
Jeremiah Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 10.4%
Amasa Learned (Pro-Admin) 9.5%
Stephen Mix Mitchell (Pro-Admin) 7.8%
Uriah Tracy (Pro-Admin) 6.3%
Jonathan Ingersoll 5.4%
Asher Miller 4.3%
Zephaniah Swift (Pro-Admin) 4.3%
Tapping Reeve 3.0%
Amasa Learned Pro-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Sturges Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Jeremiah Wadsworth Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

Three special elections followed the 1792 elections in Connecticut after Representatives-elect Sturges and Huntington resigned before the start of Congress and Mitchell was elected to the Senate.

Delaware

Delaware's apportionment did not change following the 1790 census. As in the 1st and 2nd Congresses, each voter cast votes for two separate candidates, at least one of whom had to be from a different county as the voter.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Delaware at-large John M. Vining Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Election was later challenged and overturned.[1]
John Patten (Anti-Admin) 38.8%
Henry Latimer (Pro-Admin) 38.3%
Francis Many 11.7%
Edward Roche 7.9%
Andrew Barrett 3.3%

Georgia

Following the 1790 census, Georgia's apportionment was decreased from 3 seats to 2 (the only state whose representation decreased after the census). Georgia switched from separate districts to at-large seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Georgia at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John Milledge
Redistricted from the 1st district
Anti-Administration 1792 (special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Abraham Baldwin (Anti-Admin) 44.5%
Thomas P. Carnes (Anti-Admin) 29.5%
George Mathews 10.8%
John Milledge (Anti-Admin) 8.1%
Scattering 7.0%
Francis Willis (Anti-Admin) 0.3%
Abraham Baldwin
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
Francis Willis
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration loss

Kentucky

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Kentucky 1
"Southern District"
Christopher Greenup Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected. Christopher Greenup[c] (Anti-Admin)
Kentucky 2
"Northern district"
Alexander D. Orr Anti-Administration 1792 (New state) Incumbent re-elected. Alexander D. Orr[c] (Anti-Admin)

Maryland

Maryland increased from 6 to 8 representatives after the 1790 census. The previous mixed district/at-large system was replaced with a conventional district system.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Maryland 1 Philip Key Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
George Dent (Pro-Admin) 44.7%
John Parnham (Pro-Admin) 29.8%
Philip Key (Pro-Admin) 25.5%
Maryland 2 John Francis Mercer
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. John Francis Mercer (Anti-Admin) 57.0%
John Thomas (Pro-Admin) 42.1%
Richard A. Contee 0.9%
Maryland 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Uriah Forrest (Pro-Admin) 71.8%
William Dorsey (Anti-Admin) 28.1%
Others 0.1%
Maryland 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Thomas Sprigg (Anti-Admin) 100%
Maryland 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Samuel Smith (Anti-Admin) 61.1%
Charles Ridgely (Anti-Admin) 38.9%
Maryland 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Gabriel Christie (Anti-Admin) 63.6%
William Matthews (Pro-Admin) 36.4%
Maryland 7 Joshua Seney
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Incumbent then resigned December 6, 1792 to become Chief Justice of Maryland's 3rd Judicial District.
Winner was then also elected to finish the term, see above.
William Hindman (Pro-Admin) 51.7%
James Tilghman (Anti-Admin) 48.3%[7]
Maryland 8 William V. Murray
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. William V. Murray (Pro-Admin) 93.8%
Littleton Dennis (Pro-Admin) 5.4%
Others 0.9%

Massachusetts

Following the 1790 Census, Massachusetts's representation increased from eight to fourteen Representatives and was redistricted into four plural districts, plus a single at-large district. The 4th district covered the District of Maine (the modern-day State of Maine). The plural districts were concurrent tickets rather than a single general ticket, though the 1st and Massachusetts 2s appear to have also had a general ticket alongside the more specific tickets.

As before, a majority was required for election, in those districts where a majority was not achieved, additional ballots were required.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat A: At-large
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Jonathan Jones 39.8%
William Heath 31.0%
James Bowdoin 23.2%
Theophilus Parsons 6.0%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Jonathan Jones 29.3%
Samuel Holten (Anti-Admin) 25.6%
James Bowdoin 17.1%
Samuel Sewall (Pro-Admin) 13.1%
William Heath 8.3%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Anti-Admin) 3.8%
Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Admin) 2.8%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Samuel Holten (Anti-Admin) 69.9%
Benjamin Austin 30.1%
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat B: Essex County
Benjamin Goodhue
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Benjamin Goodhue (Pro-Admin) 100%
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat C: Middlesex County
Elbridge Gerry
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Samuel Dexter (Pro-Admin) 61.4%
Joseph Bradley Varnum (Anti-Admin) 26.2%
Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Admin) 12.4%
Massachusetts 1 (4 seats)
Seat D: Suffolk County
Fisher Ames Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. Fisher Ames (Pro-Admin) 62.4%
Benjamin Austin 37.6%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat A: At-large
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 41.3%
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Admin) 37.9%
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 6.7%
Samuel Moorhaus 6.2%
Simson Strong 4.%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 3.5%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 35.4%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 25.1%
Thomson J. Skinner (Anti-Admin) 19.6%
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 12.1%
Jonathan Grout (Anti-Admin) 4.0%
William Shepard (Pro-Admin) 3.8%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 55.3%
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 44.7%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat B: Berkshire County
Theodore Sedgwick
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Admin) 63.8%
Thomson J. Skinner (Anti-Admin) 29.1%
John Bacon (Anti-Admin) 7.1%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat C: Hampshire County
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 37.4%
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 32.3%
Thomas Dwight (Pro-Admin) 16.8%
Samuel Hinshaur 6.7%
John Williams 3.6%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 3.1%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 38.0%
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 31.3%
William Shepard (Pro-Admin) 18.0%
Thomas Dwight (Pro-Admin) 12.7%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
William Lyman (Anti-Admin) 53.1%
Samuel Lyman (Pro-Admin) 46.9%
Massachusetts 2 (4 seats)
Seat D: Worcester County
Artemas Ward
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Artemas Ward (Pro-Admin) 59.5%
Jonathan Grout (Anti-Admin) 36.8%
Dwight Foster (Pro-Admin) 3.8%
Massachusetts 3 (2 seats)
Seat A: Barnstable, Dukes, & Nantucket Counties
George Leonard
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Peleg Coffin Jr. (Pro-Admin) 52.6%
George Leonard (Pro-Admin) 34.3%
Phanuel Bishop (Anti-Admin) 13.1%
Massachusetts 3 (2 seats)
Seat B: Bristol & Plymouth Counties
Shearjashub Bourne
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot (November 2, 1792):
John Davis 49.2%
Shearjashub Bourne (Pro-Admin) 26.1%
James Warren 24.8%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Shearjashub Bourne (Pro-Admin) 53.0%
John Davis 40.6%
James Warren 6.4%
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat A: Cumberland County
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
Daniel Davis 40.0%
Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 38.6%
Robert Southgate 11.7%
Josiah Thacker 9.8%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 48.4%
Daniel Davis 42.2%
Robert Southgate 9.4%

Third ballot (April 1, 1793):
Peleg Wadsworth (Pro-Admin) 58.0%
Daniel Davis 42.0%
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat B: Lincoln, Hancock, & Washington Counties
None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
First ballot (November 2, 1792):
William Lithgow 49.98%
Henry Dearborn (Anti-Admin) 32.2%
Daniel Coney 11.8%
Alan Campbell 6.0%

Second ballot (January 14, 1793):
Henry Dearborn (Anti-Admin) 60.9%
William Lithgow 39.1%
Massachusetts 4 (3 seats)
District of Maine Seat C: York County
George Thatcher
Redistricted from the 8th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. George Thatcher (Pro-Admin) 57.7%
Nathaniel Wells 35.4%
Tristan Jordan 6.9%
Massachusetts at-large None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
David Cobb (Pro-Admin) 52.6%
Charles Jarvis 9.6%
William Heath 6.9%
Theodore Sedgwick (Pro-Admin) 4.9%
Elbridge Gerry (Anti-Admin) 2.1%
Jonathan Jones 1.9%
Fisher Ames (Pro-Admin) 1.7%
James Sullivan (Anti-Admin) 1.5%
Samuel Horton 1.3%
Scattering 17.4%

New Hampshire

New Hampshire increased from 3 seats to 4 seats after the 1790 census.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New Hampshire at-large
4 seats on a general ticket
Jeremiah Smith Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Jeremiah Smith (Pro-Admin) 24.1%
Nicholas Gilman (Pro-Admin) 16.3%
John Samuel Sherburne (Anti-Admin) 14.2%
Paine Wingate (Pro-Admin) 12.2%
Abiel Foster (Pro-Admin) 8.9%
James Sheafe (Pro-Admin) 8.2%
Nathaniel Peabody 7.7%
Timothy Walker 4.0%
William Page 2.3%
Joshua Atherton 2.3%
Samuel Livermore Pro-Administration 1789 Retired
Anti-Administration gain.
Nicholas Gilman Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

New Jersey

Following the 1790 census, New Jersey's apportionment increased from 4 to 5 seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[f]
New Jersey at-large
5 seats on a general ticket
Elias Boudinot Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. John Beatty (Pro-Admin) 16.4%
Jonathan Dayton (Pro-Admin) 13.4%
Abraham Clark (Pro-Admin) 11.8%
Elias Boudinot (Pro-Admin) 10.8%
Lambert Cadwalader (Pro-Admin) 10.1%
Thomas Sinnickson (Pro-Admin) 48.7%
Aaron Kitchell (Pro-Admin) 8.6%
James Linn 5.2%
Jonathan Elmer (Pro-Admin) 4.4%
Samuel Dick 4.1%
Thomas Henderson 2.9%
Abraham Clark Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Jonathan Dayton Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Aaron Kitchell Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.

New York

Due to re-apportionment following the 1790 census, New York's congressional delegation grew from 6 to 10. Three incumbents ran for re-election, two of whom won, and the other three incumbents retired. With the increase following re-apportionment, this left seven open seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
New York 1 Thomas Tredwell Anti-Administration 1791 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Thomas Tredwell (Anti-Admin) 50.1%
Joshua Sands (Pro-Admin) 26.6%
Harry Peters (Pro-Admin) 23.3%
New York 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
John Watts (Pro-Admin) 72.6%
William S. Livingston (Anti-Admin) 27.3%
New York 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Philip Van Cortlandt (Anti-Admin) 55.5%
Richard Hatfield (Pro-Admin) 44.5%
New York 4 Cornelius C. Schoonmaker Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Peter Van Gaasbeck (Pro-Admin) 47.3%
John Hathorn (Anti-Admin) 46.8%
John Carpenter (Anti-Admin) 2.3%
Cornelius C. Schoonmaker (Anti-Admin) 1.7%
William Thompson (Anti-Admin) 1.3%
Jesse Woodhull (Anti-Admin) 0.6%
New York 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Theodorus Bailey (Anti-Admin) 53.6%
James Kent (Pro-Admin) 46.4%
New York 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Ezekiel Gilbert (Pro-Admin) 35.1%
Peter R. Livingston (Anti-Admin) 34.1%
Peter Van Ness (Anti-Admin) 30.8%
New York 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
John Evert Van Alen (Pro-Admin) 56.9%
Henry K. Van Rensselaer (Anti-Admin) 42.5%
Thomas Sickles (Anti-Admin) 0.6%
New York 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Henry Glen (Pro-Admin) 63.8%
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer (Anti-Admin) 36.2%
New York 9 James Gordon
Redistricted from the 6th district
Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. James Gordon (Pro-Admin) 46.0%
John Williams (Anti-Admin) 41.2%
John M. Thompson (Anti-Admin) 12.8%
New York 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Silas Talbot (Pro-Admin) 34.1%
William Cooper (Pro-Admin) 26.6%
John Winn (Anti-Admin) 25.7%
Andrew Fink (Anti-Admin) 11.3%
Josiah Crane (Anti-Admin) 2.4%

North Carolina

Following the 1790 census, North Carolina's apportionment increased from 5 to 10 seats.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
North Carolina 1 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Joseph McDowell (Anti-Admin)[c]
North Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Matthew Locke (Anti-Admin)[c]
Alexander[g](Pro-Admin)
Montford Stokes
North Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Joseph Winston (Anti-Admin)[c]
Jesse Franklin (Anti-Admin)
John Williams (Anti-Admin)
James Martin
Clarke[g]
North Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Alexander Mebane (Anti-Admin) 44.8%
Stephen Moore (Pro-Admin) 39.0%
Ambrose Ramsay 16.2%
North Carolina 5 Nathaniel Macon
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Nathaniel Macon (Anti-Admin)[c]
North Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
James Gillespie (Anti-Admin)[c]
William Henry Hill (Pro-Admin)
Benjamin Smith
North Carolina 7 William B. Grove
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. William B. Grove (Pro-Admin) 100%[c]
North Carolina 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
William J. Dawson (Anti-Admin) 63.8%
Stephen Cabarrus (Anti-Admin) 36.1%
William Cumming 0.2%
North Carolina 9 John B. Ashe
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration hold.
Thomas Blount (Anti-Admin)[c]
John B. Ashe (Anti-Admin)
John Leigh (Pro-Admin)
North Carolina 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Benjamin Williams (Anti-Admin)[c]
William Maclure (Anti-Admin)

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania switched from using districts to electing its representatives on an at-large basis for the 3rd Congress, just as it had done for the 1st Congress. This would be the last time that Pennsylvania would elect all of its Representatives at-large. Due to re-apportionment following the 1790 census, Pennsylvania's delegation increased from 8 representatives to 13.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[8]
Pennsylvania at-large
13 seats on a general ticket
Thomas Fitzsimons
Redistricted from the 1st district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. William Findley (Anti-Admin) 8.21%
Frederick Muhlenberg (Anti-Admin) 8.01%
Daniel Hiester (Anti-Admin) 7.96%
William Irvine (Anti-Admin) 7.67%
John W. Kittera (Pro-Admin) 7.39%
Thomas Hartley (Pro-Admin) 7.06%
Peter Muhlenberg (Anti-Admin) 5.40%
Thomas Fitzsimons (Pro-Admin) 4.46%
Andrew Gregg (Anti-Admin) 4.30%
James Armstrong (Pro-Admin) 4.29%
William Montgomery (Anti-Admin) 4.22%
John Smilie (Anti-Admin) 4.15%
Thomas Scott (Pro-Admin) 4.13%
Samuel Sitgreaves (Pro-Admin) 3.86%
Jonathan D. Sergeant (Anti-Admin) 3.74%
John Barclay (Anti-Admin) 3.70%
Charles Thomson (Anti-Admin) 3.68%
William Bingham (Pro-Admin) 3.59%
Henry Wynkoop (Pro-Admin) 3.55%
Israel Jacobs (Pro-Admin) 0.65%
Frederick Muhlenberg
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
Israel Jacobs
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration hold.
Daniel Hiester
Redistricted from the 4th district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
John W. Kittera
Redistricted from the 5th district
Pro-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Andrew Gregg
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
Thomas Hartley
Redistricted from the 7th district
Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected.
William Findley
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island gained a second representative from the results of the 1790 census. Rhode Island did not divide itself into districts, but elected two at-large representatives on separate tickets.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Rhode Island at-large Seat A Benjamin Bourne Pro-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Benjamin Bourne (Pro-Admin) 100%
Rhode Island at-large Seat B None (Seat created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
Francis Malbone (Pro-Admin)[c]
Paul Mumford

South Carolina

South Carolina gained one representative as a result of the 1790 census, increasing from 5 to 6.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 William L. Smith Pro-Administration 1788 Incumbent re-elected. William L. Smith (Pro-Admin) 61.5%
Thomas Tudor Tucker (Anti-Admin) 22.2%
Jacob Read (Pro-Admin) 16.4%
Thomas Tudor Tucker
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1788 Incumbent lost re-election.
Anti-Administration loss.
South Carolina 2 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
John Hunter (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Lemuel Benton (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Richard Winn (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Alexander Gillon (Anti-Admin)[c]
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Andrew Pickens (Anti-Admin)[c]

Vermont

Vermont had no apportionment in the House of Representatives before 1790 census because it was not admitted to the Union until 1791. Vermont's election laws at the time required a majority to win election to the House of Representatives. If no candidate won a majority, a runoff election was held, which happened in the 1st district.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[f]
Vermont 1
"Western district"
Israel Smith Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. First ballot: January 7, 1793
Israel Smith (Anti-Admin) 44.2%
Matthew Lyon (Anti-Admin) 33.8%
Isaac Tichenor (Pro-Admin) 17.8%
Samuel Hitchcock 4.2%

Second ballot: March 20, 1793
Israel Smith (Anti-Admin) 51.0%
Matthew Lyon (Anti-Admin) 44.0%
Isaac Tichenor (Pro-Admin) 4.3%
Samuel Hitchcock 0.6%
Others[h] 0.1%
Vermont 2
"Eastern district"
Nathaniel Niles Anti-Administration 1791 Incumbent re-elected. Nathaniel Niles (Anti-Admin) 60.3%
Elijah Paine (Pro-Admin) 14.0%
Stephen Jacob 7.7%
Paul Brigham (Anti-Admin) 4.4%
Samuel Cutler 3.9%
Daniel Buck (Pro-Admin) 3.5%
Isaac Tichenor (Pro-Admin) 2.2%
Others 4.0%

Virginia

Virginia gained nine representatives from the 1790 census, and in addition, the old 2nd district was lost after its territory became the new State of Kentucky. There were, therefore, ten new districts created for the 3rd Congress.

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Virginia 1 Alexander White Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Robert Rutherford (Anti-Admin) 56.6%
John Smith (Anti-Admin) 25.8%
Alexander White (Pro-Admin) 17.6%
Virginia 2 Andrew Moore
Redistricted from the 3rd district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Andrew Moore (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 3 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Joseph Neville (Anti-Admin)[c]
George Jackson (Anti-Admin)
Jeremiah Jacobs
William MacCleery
Virginia 4 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Results subsequently challenged but upheld.
Francis Preston (Anti-Admin)
Abraham Trigg
Virginia 5 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Pro-Administration gain.
George Hancock (Pro-Admin) 60.5%
Charles Clay 34.0%
Calohill Minnis 5.5%
Virginia 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Isaac Coles (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 7 Abraham B. Venable
Redistricted from the 6th district
Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. Abraham B. Venable (Anti-Admin)[c]
Joseph Wyatt
Thomas Scott (Pro-Admin)
Tarlton Woodson (Pro-Admin)
Virginia 8 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Thomas Claiborne (Anti-Admin)[c]
Richard Kennon
Jesse Brown
J. Nicholson
Virginia 9 William B. Giles Anti-Administration 1790 Incumbent re-elected. William B. Giles (Anti-Admin)[c]
Robert Bolling
Virginia 10 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Carter B. Harrison (Anti-Admin)[c]
John H. Briggs
Virginia 11 Josiah Parker
Redistricted from the 8th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
as Pro-Administration
Josiah Parker (Pro-Administration)[i][c]
John Neirson
Virginia 12 John Page
Redistricted from the 7th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. John Page (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 13 Samuel Griffin
Redistricted from the 10th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected.
as Pro-Administration
Samuel Griffin (Pro-Administration)[i][c]
Virginia 14 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Francis Walker (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 15 James Madison, Jr.
Redistricted from the 5th district
Anti-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. James Madison, Jr. (Anti-Admin)[c]
Virginia 16 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
Anthony New (Anti-Admin)[c]
John Roane (Anti-Admin)
Francis Corbin
Virginia 17 Richard Bland Lee
Redistricted from the 4th district
Pro-Administration 1789 Incumbent re-elected. Richard Bland Lee (Pro-Admin)[c]
Virginia 18 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
John Nicholas (Anti-Admin)[c]
William Pickett
Virginia 19 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Anti-Administration gain.
John Heath (Anti-Admin)[c]
Walter Jones (Anti-Admin)
Francis L. Lee

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Massachusetts required a majority for election, which led to additional ballots on January 14, 1793 and April 1, 1793.
  2. ^ Vermont required a majority for election, which led to an additional ballot on March 20, 1793.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Source does not give numbers of votes or has incomplete data.
  4. ^ Date given for the start of the term, of the person elected at the special election.[6] In some cases this is clearly wrong as the date of the legal start of the Congress is given, even though the member was elected at a later date.
  5. ^ a b Party affiliation not given in source
  6. ^ a b Only candidates with at least 1% of the vote listed.
  7. ^ a b Source does not give full name.
  8. ^ Four individuals received 1 vote each.
  9. ^ a b Had been Anti-Administration in the previous election.

References

  1. ^ a b "Third Congress (membership roster)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 6, 2014. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
  2. ^ Stat. 253
  3. ^ a b "Second Congress (membership roster) – see footnotes 12 and 13" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6, 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  4. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:ga.uscongress.special.1792
  5. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:md.uscongress2.1793
  6. ^ See Congressional Biographical Directory.
  7. ^ https://elections.lib.tufts.edu/catalog/tufts:md.uscongress7.1792
  8. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography

External links

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