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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

First voyage of James CookTreaty of AllahabadMozart family grand tourTreaty of Paris (1763)Meermin slave mutinyStamp Act 1765Nicolas-Joseph CugnotGeorge III of the United Kingdom
From top left, clockwise: English Explorer James Cook commenced his first voyage around the world and becoming the first known Europeans to reach the east coast of Australia; victory at the Battle of Buxar and subsequent Treaty of Allahabad marked start of the political and constitutional involvement East India Company and the beginning of British rule in India; the Dutch ship, the Meermin is taken over by the slaves it was transporting in the Meermin slave mutiny; George III is crowned king of the United Kingdom and would go on to reign longer than any of his predecessors; French inventor Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built the world's first full-size and working self-propelled mechanical land-vehicle, the "Fardier à vapeur" — effectively the world's first automobile; the Stamp Act is passed by the British parliament required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London. The unpopularity of the Stamp Act, and other such taxes levied by the parliament would contribute to the start of the American revolution; Leopold Mozart and his family toured Europe allowing there children to experience to the full the cosmopolitan musical world which in Wolfgang's case this would continue through further journeys in the following six years, prior to his appointment by the Prince-Archbishop as a court musician; the signing of the Treaty of Paris formally ended the Seven Years' War and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe.

The 1760s (pronounced "seventeen-sixties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1760, and ended on December 31, 1769.

Marked by great upheavals on culture, technology, and diplomacy. The 1760s was a transitional decade that effectively brought on the modern era from Baroqueism. The Seven Years' War – arguably the most widespread conflict of its time – carried trends of imperialism outside of European reaches, where it would head on to pillage countless of territories (mainly in Asia and Africa) for decades to come with the wrath of colonialism. Due to skyrocketing ideals of republicanism at this period, dissatisfaction against monarchies would later spark revolutions such as the American and French Revolutions, in pursuit of democracy.

Events

1760


January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1761

January–March

April–June

  • April 1 – The Austrian Empire and the Russian Empire sign a new treaty of alliance. [24]
  • April 4 – A severe epidemic of influenza breaks out in London and "practically the entire population of the city" is afflicted; particularly contagious to pregnant women, the disease causes an unusual number of miscarriages and premature births. [25]
  • April 14Thomas Boone is transferred south to become the Royal Governor of South Carolina after proving to be unable to work with the local assembly as the Royal Governor of New Jersey. [26]
  • May 4 – The first multiple death tornado in the 13 American colonies strikes Charleston, South Carolina, killing eight people and sinking five ships in harbor. [27]
  • June 6 – (May 26 old style); A transit of Venus occurs, and is observed from 120 locations around the Earth. In his observations by telescope at St. Petersburg, Mikhail Lomonosov notes a ring of light around the planet's silhouette as it begins the transit, and becomes the first astronomer to discover that the planet Venus has an atmosphere. [28]

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Marine chronometer
Marine chronometer

1762

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1763

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1764


January–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1765

January–March

April–June

  • April 4 – At Fort Tombecbe, near what is now the town of Epes, Alabama, representatives of the British Empire and of the Choctaw Indian tribe in Mississippi sign a peace treaty in the wake of French cession of claims to the British. A boundary is fixed between land to be occupied by the Choctaws and for lands which British settlers can use; in addition, the British agree to provide a police official and a gunsmith at Fort Tombecbe for the Choctaws to use for trespassing complaints and for weapons repairs. By 1775, however, the Choctaws are outnumbered in Mississippi.[90]
  • April 5 – After completing the portion of the Mason–Dixon line marking the semi-circular boundary between Pennsylvania and Delaware, English surveyors Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon begin the two and a half year process of plotting out the 230-mile boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland along the latitude of 39°43′20″ N.[91]
  • April 14 – Three days after getting the news that the Stamp Act has passed, American colonists invade the British Army arsenal near the New York City Hall and sabotage guns inside by spiking them.[92]
  • April 26 – At Saint Petersburg, German engineer Christian Kratzenstein presents to the Russian Academy of Sciences a perfected version of the arithmetical machine originally invented by Gottfried Leibniz. Kratzenstein claims that his machine solves the problem with the Leibniz machine has with calculations above four digits, perfecting the flaw where the machine is "prone to err whenever it is necessary to make a number of 9999 move to 10000", but the machine is not developed further.[93]
  • May 18 – Not long after British rule has started over the formerly French colony of Quebec, an accidental fire destroys one quarter of the town of Montreal.[94]
  • May 26 – During a stroll in the park "on a fine Sabbath afternoon" at Glasgow Green, Scottish engineer James Watt receives the inspiration that provides the breakthrough in his development of the steam engine; he recounts later that "The idea came into my mind, that as steam was an elastic body it would rush into a vacuum, and if a communication was made between the cylinder and an exhausted vessel, it would rush into it, and might be there condensed without cooling the cylinder... I had not walked further than the Golf-house when the whole thing was arranged in my mind." [95]
  • June 21 – The Isle of Man is brought under British control, the Isle of Man Purchase Act (coming into force 10 May) confirming HM Treasury's purchase of the feudal rights of the Dukes of Atholl, as Lord of Mann over the island, and revesting them into the British Crown.[96]

July–December

Map of India in 1765 showing territories loyal to the Marathas in (Yellow); and the territories of those loyal to the Great Mogul in (Green).
Map of India in 1765 showing territories loyal to the Marathas in (Yellow); and the territories of those loyal to the Great Mogul in (Green).

Date unknown

1766

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1767

January–March

April–June

July–September

October –December

1768

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

1769

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

October 23: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrates his steam-wagon.
October 23: Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrates his steam-wagon.

Date unknown

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