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1600–1650 in Western European fashion

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Frans Hals' Laughing Cavalier (in the Wallace Collection) wears a slashed doublet, wide reticella lace collar and cuffs, and a broadbrimmed hat, 1624
Frans Hals' Laughing Cavalier (in the Wallace Collection) wears a slashed doublet, wide reticella lace collar and cuffs, and a broadbrimmed hat, 1624

Fashion in the period 1600–1650 in Western European clothing is characterized by the disappearance of the ruff in favour of broad lace or linen collars. Waistlines rose through the period for both men and women. Other notable fashions included full, slashed sleeves and tall or broad hats with brims. For men, hose disappeared in favour of breeches.

The artist Rubens with his first wife c. 1610. Her long, rounded stomacher and jacket-like bodice are characteristic Dutch fashions
The artist Rubens with his first wife c. 1610. Her long, rounded stomacher and jacket-like bodice are characteristic Dutch fashions

The silhouette, which was essentially close to the body with tight sleeves and a low, pointed waist to around 1615, gradually softened and broadened. Sleeves became very full, and in the 1620s and 1630s were often paned or slashed to show the voluminous sleeves of the shirt or chemise beneath.

Spanish fashions remained very conservative. The ruff lingered longest in Spain and the Netherlands, but disappeared first for men and later for women in France and England.

The social tensions leading to the English Civil War were reflected in English fashion, with the elaborate French styles popular at the courts of James I and his son Charles I contrasting with the sober styles in sadd colours favoured by Puritans and exported to the early settlements of New England (see below).

In the early decades of the century, a trend among poets and artists to adopt a fashionable pose of melancholia is reflected in fashion, where the characteristic touches are dark colours, open collars, unbuttoned robes or doublets, and a generally disheveled appearance, accompanied in portraits by world-weary poses and sad expressions.

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The word „opera“ comes from the Italian phrase opera in musica which means work in music. It stands for a theatrical work which is made of a dramatic text, also known as a libretto, which has been set to music and involves a stage that requires beautiful sceneries, flamboyant costumes and solo as well as choral singers on the stage who are backed by a group of instrumentalists who play offstage. It has attracted many supporters and at the same time opera is known to have been criticized by many people because of the costs it involves. It is considered to be an expensive form of music which requires many people starting from the writing of the story to the enactment of the opera involving the music, singers and the dance. The producer has to ensure that everything falls in place perfectly and practice on the opera can vary from a few days to months depending on the complexities of the opera that will be performed. In the course of history, opera has continuously shifted the balance that it strikes between poetry and music. What began as a seamless blending of the two where the performers achieved a language which was between singing and speaking, gradually moved towards the favor of music and the text became less pronounced. Some historical reforms in opera tried to reinforce the balance between the two but the manner in which opera and its creators continuously innovate to come up with performances that try to fulfil the tastes of the audiences and the changing attitudes of the patrons. At the same time, opera has also adapted to the different national preferences of the countries around the world surviving over 400 years in the Western culture. Opera was born during the Renaissance period in Italy. It was primarily a mode of Royal entertainment for the kings and queens of the 16th century. Elaborate presentations were made to celebrate royal events which allowed the kings and the nobility to brag about their wealth to the royal people as well as the foreign dignitaries. Using flamboyant costumes and spectacular effects, opera became a favorite means of alluring people to enjoy the time they spent celebrating an event. Most of the themes around which the opera was created were taken from classical mythology of the Greeks and Romans. When opera was introduced to the people, its purpose was mainly to impress the audience and to ensure that a positive image of the emperor and its people was portrayed before those who came to the royal court. What started as a form of Roman revival became opera over the next two centuries. In the 16th century when the Renaissance period was at its peak, many Italian courts began the performance of Roman plays on festive occasions. But Roman plays could turn rather intense, and the audience was accustomed to something more light-hearted. This gave way to lavish musical entertainments which came to be known as intermezzi which stands for intermediate pieces. The intermezzi was acted between plays to lighten the mood and augment the spirits of the viewers with splendid effects, extravagant costumes and a lot of singing and dancing. The audience began looking forward to these intermezzi which seemed to be a lot more exciting than the actual plays. One of the most popular intermezzi which has been preserved in spectacular detail was performed at a lavish wedding at the Medici Court, Florence in the year 1589. The scenes of the intermezzi became the foundation of modern day opera with clouds floating across the stage and delightful gardens and a rocky mountain with a mermaid sitting on it. This was every bit the kind of entertainment the nobility at Florence needed. This started gaining momentum in Florence and the artists began to innovate as they discovered a new form of music which soon came to be known as opera. The transition from intermezzi to Opera was not quick. It took a considerable amount of time, as musicians and artists dabbled in music, trying to bring the best for their audience and ensuring that their work was entertaining enough. The soul of opera lies in the music but it takes a beautiful form through the visuals that are used. These visuals played an equally important role to stimulate the senses of the audience so that they enjoyed the piece of music along with the sights they saw and the experience they had. While opera continues to have its soul embedded deep in the music even today, it is one of those forms of music which has never stopped low when it came to visuals. Charming dresses, enticing backgrounds and heavenly scenes have always been a part of opera. The fact is, that opera has maintained its originality in a lot of ways and that continues to keep opera a classy affair which is usually enjoyed by people of a higher class and taste. Opera continues to be a form of music which is enjoyed by the elite class more than anyone else. The Beginning of Opera and the Baroque Period Opera began with Dafne by Jacopo Peri which was a musical play and was meant to revive classical Greek drama. With Renaissance being the driving force for many artists during the period, the revival of Greek drama led to opera because it was believed that the chorus of the play was originally sung and even entire texts may have been delivered in the form of songs. Dafne relates the story of Daphne who took the form of a laurel so that she could escape the attention of Apollo. The entire enactment is full of drama, music and songs. Sadly, Dafne is lost and we have no means to find out the details of this opera which is considered by many to be the first opera created in the world. Peri did write a second one known as Eurydice in 1600 which has survived. Eurydice was performed at Pitti Palace, Florence as a means of entertainment on the occasion of the marriage of Maria de’Medici along with Henri IV of France. While Eurydice is considered to be the earliest opera that has survived, it is Claudio Monteverdi’s Orfeo, which has gained a lot of popularity in the world of opera, and is considered to be very popular even today. The plot is beautiful and the enactment is splendid. With Orfeo becoming a favorite quickly, Claudio soon became famous in the region. It is said that Orfeo was Claudio’s first attempt at opera. This opera was first presented at the Court of Mantua in 1607 before the lent began. At that time opera was fairly new to the world, about ten years old, and its freshness made it welcoming and the visual effects added to the beauty of the music. Through Orfeo, the story of Orpheus’ love for Eurydice is displayed, and how he goes to the extent where he is willing to descend to the underworld to bring back the love of his life. Orpheus’ parts were sung by a castrato. Today, Orfeo remains a favorite for many opera players and it continues to be played on the stage every now and then. The astounding effect it has on the viewers makes opera singers chose it for the stage time and again. After the death of the Duke of Mantua, Monteverdi became Master of Music for the Venetian Republic. As Master of Music, Monteverdi primarily composed sacred music which was used in the recitals and performances at St. Mark’s. His popularity in Europe is mainly owed to these compositions which quickly spread through the continent. The citizens of Venice found no reason to restrict the beautiful musical performances to the aristocratic classes only. This lead to the opening of the first public opera house in Venice in the year 1637. It was named Teatro San Cassiano. Monteverdi had turned seventy by this time but his love for music especially, opera, had never died. With an opera house in the city, he began working on new opera pieces. The two that survive from this period are considered as masterpieces in the form till this day. The first one is named Ilritorno d’Ulisse in patria which means The return of Ulysses to his country. This piece was premiered in Teatro San Cassiano in the year 1641. By this time, a second public opera house made its appearance in the city, it was grander than the first one and it was named Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo. In this opera house, Monteverdi’s second piece known as L’Incoronazione di Poppea was premiered in 1642. Monteverdi is known to have turned the manner in which people listened to vocal music. Certain accounts mention that people even cried at some of the operatic performance which were created by him. Venice is considered to be the place from where opera’s fame spread to the world. The people of Venice considered it to be a great form of music and opera was brought to public notice by the many opera houses in Venice. It is known that Venice had seven opera houses in the 17th century – a time when opera was at its most nascent stages and it required a platform to launch itself. One of Monterverdi’s pupils, Francesco Cavalli, gained a lot of popularity as an opera composer during his era. He created over two dozen operas between 1639 and 1669 and his compositions became famous in the Venetian opera houses. One of his most renowned works in Giasone which translates to Jason which was composed in 1649. Cavalli’s most notable competitor was Pietro Antonia Cesti who also composed over a dozen operas out of which Orontea, 1656, is the most popular one. The Baroque period lasted from 1600 to 1750, during this period, many other composers began to rise once opera gained popularity. Other composers who are known for their compositions are Antonio Sartorio, Giovanni Legrenzi and Antonio Vivaldi who was popular in the early 18th century. Vivaldi has 49 compositions to his credit, but most of his work is lost. Once opera was popular enough and many composers began creating operas, the publications of opera ceased and the patronage extended by the aristocracy ceased to exist. Most of the opera lasted for just one season and they were quickly replaced with new operas created by composers. These operas were short lived and this is why most of them have been lost. Recover and revival of these opera work gained pace in the late 20th century and some of the operas especially the works of Cavalli were found at this time. The Venetian operas became an extravagant affair where the composers focused more on the solo arias and the duets than the choral singers. This was contrary to the Florentine opera style. In addition to this, the number of arias increased from 24 to 60 and the Venetian opera gained its own distinctive persona as opera developed in the Baroque period. Other Italian cities quickly took to opera too, especially Rome where there were many wealthy patrons who were willing to sponsor the composers. Some of the most popular Roman composers were Stefano Landi, Domenico Mazzocchi and Luigi Rossi. The Roman composers were strongly influenced by the Florentine opera styles but they gradually diverged from the style as they experimented with the arias and recitatives, striving to strike a better balance. Like the Venetians, the Romans added comic acts to tragedies to lighten the opera. They chose to make the recitatives less musical and more speech-like. The Romans did not allow women to sing on the stage so female roles were taken up by the castrati. Opera was also popular in Naples where the first opera house of the city, Teatro San Bartolomeo, came up in the mid-17th century. By 1700 Naples had become Venice’s competitor in opera compositions. Most of the opera compositions in Naples was popular because of Alessandro Scarlatti who wrote 66 operas out of which 32 were for the Teatro San Bartolomeo. His works flourished between 1684 and 1702. The War of The Spanish Succession made him leave Naples and return to Rome. His best work is La catuda de’ Decemviri which means The Fall of the Decemvirs. Scarlatti continued to compose operas for Rome, Naples and Florence before his return to Naples in the year 1709, however, by this time, his style was fading as budding composers rendered refreshing changes to opera styles. By 1730, Italian opera started gaining popularity in over 130 cities and towns across Europe. Opera was brought to France as early as 1650 but it was not able to establish a stronghold in the country because of the dominance of ballet performances in France. People preferred ballet and spoken drama over opera during the period. In 1671, Pomone by Robert Cambert is known to be the first French opera which led to the inauguration of the Academie Royale de Musique which is now known as the Paris opera. Most of Pomone is lost and only the overture, prologue, first act and a part of the second act are available today. Under the royal patronage of Louis the XIV, Jean-Baptiste Lully changed opera through his compositions. He was able to exercise monopoly in when it came to the production of sung drama in France from the year 1672. Till his death in 1687, Lully’s work pervaded the country’s music tastes. His elaborate creations along with the literary geniuses who collaborated with him ensured that Lully’s popularity did not decline till the time he was alive. Just like ballet made it difficult for opera to make its presence felt in France, masque, portrayed a problem for opera in England. Another thing that inhibited the popularity of opera in England was the financial weak state of the monarchs who were caught in Civil wars in the mid-17th century. Henry Purcell is known to have created one of the most lasting impressions in English opera through his compositions. But there were no successors to his work and the development of a fully sung opera in England did not happen until the late 19th century. Opera was able to get recognition to a certain extent with the arrival of German composer George Frideric Handel in 1710. His company obstinately dedicated themselves to opera giving the form a better direction in the country. Some of his popular works are Giulio Cesare, Rodelinda and Orlando. Handel assembled some of the most famous sopranos and castrati in his company so that he can create a sensation among the audiences, but tastes were changing and people began to move away from the his style of opera which created an economical problem for Handel. The composer took to the creation of oratorios which were set to Biblical texts in English. These were found to be appealing for the Protestants and opera soon became a thing of the past for Handel. His works were later revived in 1920s and towards the end of the 20th century, these compositions became the most popular ones in English opera. In Germany, opera was introduced by the Italian composers who resided in the country. Abbe Agostino Stefani was a Venetian who helped in spreading word about the opera in Munich, Hanover and other places in Germany. Starting with the production of Marco Aurelio, Steffani composed operas for 28 years. He fused different styles which included both French and Italian styles to come up with a style of his own which was later used by many other composers who composed opera away from their home country. It was a sort of International Itlain style which became so popular in Germany that even the German composers were influenced by the Italian style and they also used Italian texts. Johann Theile, a pupil of Shutz is accredited with the creation of some of the early operas like Adam und Eva which inaugurated the first public opera house in Hamburg, Germany. Reinhard Keiser created some of the most notable operas in the early 18th century for the opera house in Hamburg. His complete work consists of over 60 operas out of which a meagre 19 operas have survived. He was a great influence for George Friedric Handel who worked in Hamburg for a brief period of time before going to Italy and then London. Reformations Leading to The Grand Opera The Baroque period ended in 1750 by when opera was an established form of music and it had many supporters across Europe. However, the different styles in which opera was being popularized gave rise to a polemic war which was a showdown between opera seria and opera buffa. In layman terms, the styles which existed between French and Italian opera was the cause of the rivalry which seemed to have reached national sentiments. At a time like this, Jean Jacques Rousseau, who was a leader of the Italian faction, staged a single-act comic opera Le Devin du village which translates into the Village Soothsayer. It was staged in Fontainebleau, France and it blended both French and Italian styles to perfection which helped in pleasing people in both the countries. Rousseau’s work influenced many composers who wanted to achieve the same effect that Rousseau had on the public. One of the most popular composers who followed into Rousseau’s footsteps were Francois Andre Danican who was known as Philidor. He was also a splendid chess player. He wrote 20 opera comiques. Belgian composer Andre Gretry was also one of the finest opera composers of the period. He was able to strike a perfect equilibrium between the two styles. He composed operas for almost 30 years which was during the period of the French Revolution. In Paris, Etienne Nicolas Mehul was taking the opera audience by storm with his flexible forms of opera which included a variety of operas that encapsulated different sentiments starting from light-hearted comedy to romance to chivalry. Mehul was able to influence many composers of the Romantic period which started in the 19th century. The reform began with a level of dissatisfaction arising among people who did not find the dominance of opera seria to be very delightful. So gradually a movement towards a genre which somewhat resembled Rousseau’s efforts began to be noticed. Tommas Traetta and Niccolo Jommelli are two composers who began using a technique which is referred to as recitativo accompagnato which means the recitatives are accompanied by the orchestra. They also promoted the use of ensembles and choruses which had diminished in purpose in opera seria. Cristoph Willibald Gluck is known to be one of the most historically recognized figures who is associated with the 18th century opera reform. He had a lot of composers who claimed that they were his legitimate successors and some very important opera composers were influenced by his works and used his compositions for inspiration. Gluck’s compositions were a synthesis of the French and Italian styles of opera. Gluck had greatly inspired Mehul and Mozart and Italian composers who were inspired by him include Antonio Salieri who is known to have imparted lessons to Ludwig Van Beethoven. Other Italian composers influenced by Gluck were Niccolo Piccinni and Antonio Sacchini. While most of Gluck’s operatic compositions were the usual librettos influenced by Metatasio, he gradually began absorbing the French opera styles during his stay in Vienna in 1750. With the help of Conte Giacomo Durazzo who was the superintendent of the imperial Vienna theatre, Gluck was able to absorb the example of Jean-Georges Noverre who was considered to be one of the most popular French dancer-choreographer of the time. Noverre wanted ballet to be more than just a collection of episodes which did not bear connection to each other. Durazzo also began an anti-Metatasian movement which attracted the poet Ranieri Calzabigi who later wrote three liberettos for Gluck. Calzabigi is also known for drawing up the renowned dedication of the publication of Alceste in 1769. This dedication played a pivotal role in the operatic reform. According to it, the tru office of music was to serve poetry which was being mired by the manner in which the florid da capo arias were being written. Gluck tried to restore opera to its true function which was drama set to music. These ideals are seen primarily in the opera Orfeo and Euridice, Alceste and Paride and Elena. While these were Italian operas which were staged in Vienna, Gluck reconstituted the first two operas to French librettos for the operatic audiences in Paris making the two operas statelier and resonating an influence of Rambeau in the compositions. In Vienna, the Italian opera buffa was a strong influence and many Austrian composers were also inspired by it. A notable composer of comic opera in the 18th century was Carl Ditters von Dittesdorf. One of his most popular works was Doktor und Apotheker, 1786 which translates into Doctor and Apothecary. But his work was eclipsed by the compositions of Mozart for whom Vienna proved to be an important centre. He became one of the most renowned masters of opera which was considered to be one of the most prestigious forms of music of his time. Mozart had started writing music at the early age of 10 and by the age of 25 he had composed his first opera, Idomeneo, 1781 in Munich. His first work reflected the combination of opera seria and Gluck’s inspirations along with tragedie lyrique. Today, Idomeneo is seen as one of the most popular example of opera seria composed during the late 18th century. A year after Ideomeneo, Mozart composed an enchanting singspiel which won over the hearts of his Viennese audience and helped him establish his reputation in Vienna. The name of the opera is Die EntfuhrungausdemSerail, 1782 which translates into the Abduction from the Seraglio. The style of music, the depth of the sentiments that fills this opera and the beauty of the story had everyone awestruck. It also includes a soprano aria which is considered to be one of the most difficult sopranos till this day. Mozart’s works continued to gain popularity and his next work, Le nozze di Figaro, 1786, which means the Marriage of Figaro, is a notable piece of work for the elaborate music and the fast-paced ensemble finales which helps in adding a certain amount of thrill to the comic situations. The opera tells the story of Figaro who is a character created by Pierre de Beaumarchais. Figaro is considered to be a crafty servant who cunningly outwits his master, who is an aristocrat, in the game of love. His next opera was commissioned by an impresario. It was for the National Theatre in Prague. Mozart’s Don Giovanni was based on previous works of Don Juan librettos and plays by other writers. Today, Don Giovanni is one of the most highly regarded operas. The elements of music that define this opera were noticed as the predecessors of operatic Romanticism and the protagonist of the opera was considered to be a model of the Romantic hero. Mozart had collaborated with Da Ponte to create the opera seria for Don Giovanni and the results were simply outstanding. For a last time, the two worked together on an opera buffa, Cosi fan tutte, 1790. It translates into All Women Are Like That and it is considered to be another masterpiece which has great lyrics and an awesome melodious score. Mozart last work for the stage was Die Zauberflote, 1791 which translates to The Magic Flute. The librettos are by Emanuel Schikaneder and the music created by Mozart is beautiful. It adds a lot of meaning to the different characters in the opera and gives the opera a great sense. Audiences have enjoyed listening to such beautiful opera productions even till this day. Beethoven’s Fidelio, 1805 which was revised in 1806 and then 1814 is another example of an awesome composition which was a lot more than a singspiel and had a lot of meaningfulness in the beauty of the music created. Fidelio has a grandeur to it which comes through its music and the splendid story about Leonore who is disguised in the form of Fidelio so that she can rescue her husband from incarceration. The theme along with the music that accompanies it is admirable and it has ensured Fidelio an important place in the history of opera. In Italy, during the first half of the 19th century, some popular composers were Simon Mayr, Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Bellini. All of them had different styles but they all played their part in inculcating the love of opera among the audiences in Italy where opera was born. Their varied styles and the numerous compositions made them popular and they had some masterworks to their credit too which are considered great till the present day. The Grand Opera and Contemporary Works In Paris, the 19th century introduced the Grand Opera which was an international form of opera. It involved the use of historical or pseudohistorical librettos along with scenic backgrounds, gorgeous costumes, ballets, and many supernumeraries. The Grand Opera was very similar to a Hollywood movie with all elements of a blockbuster film. The Grand Opera had somehow found its roots in the original Venetian operas which were meant for the royal courts. They involved a lot of flamboyance and had a huge amount of money spent on the backgrounds and the costumes. It also seemed to have been influenced by the stately scores of revered opera composers like Rameau and Gluck. While the beginning of this trend was in Paris, the opera writers who began this were Italian expats. The two Italian expats were Luigi Cherubini and Gaspare Spontini. While they may be known for starting the Grand Opera, the person who was seen as the leader of Grand Opera in Paris was a German composer by the name of Giacomo Meyerbeer. Meyerbeer’s work, Robert le diable, 1831 which means Robert the Devil, became a huge success and by the year 1893 it had already been sung 751 times at the Paris Opera. The main author of this worked for many other composers writing librettos for many of them at the same time. Meyerbeer’s success in the Grand Opera led to other composers copying his style. La Juive, 1835 by Fromental Halevy is known to be a close copy of his style and could almost be mistaken for Meyerbeer’s work. With Grand Opera gaining success, composers quickly began to copy the styles and variation started cropping up with more composers trying to sway the audiences to win their hearts through their unique compositions of music. The Grand Opera had become one of the most effective styles in the early 19th centuries for the composers in France. While most of the composers were expatriates, the music that was being created in France was outstanding and the people began to appreciate opera even more as they began to enjoy the grandeur of this form of music. Beautiful voices, elegant costumes and admirable music blended perfectly into each other forming an art which was more than a simple means of entertainment, it was a joy to behold such operatic performances and the composers took motivation in the fulfilment of such joys. Romanticism started in Germany with three operas which were created between the years 1821 and 1826. These works were composed by Carl Maria von Weber. The first one was Der Freischutz, 1821 which established the romantic era where the writers enjoyed creating works which were around the themes of dark forests, hunting horns, supernatural forces and love. The popularity of romanticism was overwhelming in Germany and in all other countries too. The two other operas, Euryanthe and Oberon were not as successful as the first one but they helped in furthering the romantic operas is Germany. Romantic opera dominated the stages for a notable period of time and it stayed until the First World War. While there are many composers who played their part in the romantic period, some of the most notable opera composers of the time were Giuseppe Verdi, Richard Wagner and Giacomo Puccini. This was roughly the time when Russia also came up with notable opera composers like Mikhail Glinka, Modest Mussorgsky and Pyotr Tchaikovsky. Verdi was 26 when he had composed his first opera, Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio, 1839 in Milan. He wrote 26 operas in his lifetime with the last one written in the year 1893 when Verdi was 80. His dominion over Italian music lasted for most of the second half of the 19th century. Verdi’s works are considered to be some of the most frequently performed operas till today. His operas bore loyalty to the traditions of Italian opera which made him a national hero. Wagner on the other hand found opera to be a form of human drama which was focused on voice. He wrote the music and the librettos for his works and he gave instructions for setting up the stage and the scenic design too. He started his operatic career with Das Liebesverbot – The Ban on Love – which was performed in Magdeburg in 1836. Some of the operas he created had librettos which were inspired by his own love affairs in real life. He continued to compose some of the most amazing operas in history with his last one being Parsifal, 1882. By the 20th century, opera had become popular in many countries apart from Europe. The contemporary works of the opera composers were influencing many people but a lot of opera that was being performed were the ones that were written in the last three hundred years and not those that were being written more recently. Not that new operas were not being created at all, but the previous works of the composers were used more often for the performances. At this time, opera has reached a new level. It continues to be a sophisticated form of music which is followed by a limited number of composers and even the audience for opera remains limited. Opera lovers enjoy new creations as well as the old opera masterpieces. Some of the modernists if the 20th century were Arnold Schoenberg and Alban Berg. Benjamin Britten and Dmitri Shostakovich were prominent in the mid-20th century while the most recent composers of the time are Philip Glass and John Adams. Each of them introduced their own innovative ideas in the world of operatic music as they tried to win over the hearts of the audience and make a niche for themselves in the world of opera. There have been revivals of previous works and new creations which continue to form the path for opera and the many variations created by it. Opera continues to remain a form of music which can be molded into different styles to suit different nationalities and to further new causes.


Fashions influenced by royal courts

Fabric and patterns

Scrolling floral embroidery decorates this Englishwoman's dress, petticoat, and linen jacket, accented with blue-tinted reticella collar, cuffs, and headdress, c. 1614–18.
Scrolling floral embroidery decorates this Englishwoman's dress, petticoat, and linen jacket, accented with blue-tinted reticella collar, cuffs, and headdress, c. 1614–18.

Figured silks with elaborate pomegranate or artichoke patterns are still seen in this period, especially in Spain, but a lighter style of scrolling floral motifs, woven or embroidered, was popular, especially in England.

The great flowering of needlelace occurred in this period. Geometric reticella deriving from cutwork was elaborated into true needlelace or punto in aria (called in England "point lace"), which also reflected the popular scrolling floral designs.[1][2][3]

In England, embroidered linen silk jackets fastened with ribbon ties were fashionable for both men and women from c. 1600–1620, as was reticella tinted with yellow starch. Overgowns with split sleeves (often trimmed with horizontal rows of braid) were worn by both men and women.

From the 1620s, surface ornament fell out of fashion in favour of solid-colour satins, and functional ribbon bows or points became elaborate masses of rosettes and looped trim.

Portraiture and fantasy

In England from the 1630s, under the influence of literature and especially court masques, Anthony van Dyck and his followers created a fashion for having one's portrait painted in exotic, historical or pastoral dress, or in simplified contemporary fashion with various scarves, cloaks, mantles, and jewels added to evoke a classic or romantic mood, and also to prevent the portrait appearing dated within a few years. These paintings are the progenitors of the fashion of the later 17th century for having one's portrait painted in undress, and do not necessarily reflect clothing as it was actually worn.[4]

Women's fashions

Elizabeth Poulett wears a low rounded neckline and a small ruff with paired with a winged collar. Her tight sleeves have pronounced shoulder wings and deep lace cuffs. English court costume, 1616
Elizabeth Poulett wears a low rounded neckline and a small ruff with paired with a winged collar. Her tight sleeves have pronounced shoulder wings and deep lace cuffs. English court costume, 1616
Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I of England, wears a closed satin high-waisted bodice with tabbed skirts and open three-quarter sleeves over full chemise sleeves. She wears a ribbon sash. C. 1632–1635.
Henrietta Maria, wife of Charles I of England, wears a closed satin high-waisted bodice with tabbed skirts and open three-quarter sleeves over full chemise sleeves. She wears a ribbon sash. C. 1632–1635.
Helena Fourment in the hairstyle and neckline of c. 1630
Helena Fourment in the hairstyle and neckline of c. 1630

Gowns, bodices, and petticoats

In the early years of the new century, fashionable bodices had high necklines or extremely low, rounded necklines, and short wings at the shoulders. Separate closed cartwheel ruffs were sometimes worn, with the standing collar, supported by a small wire frame or supportasse used for more casual wear and becoming more common later. Long sleeves were worn with deep cuffs to match the ruff. The cartwheel ruff disappeared in fashionable England by 1613.[5]

By the mid-1620s, styles were relaxing. Ruffs were discarded in favor of wired collars which were called rebatos in continental Europe and, later, wide, flat collars. By the 1630s and 1640s, collars were accompanied by kerchiefs similar to the linen kerchiefs worn by middle-class women in the previous century; often the collar and kerchief were trimmed with matching lace.

Bodices were long-waisted at the beginning of the century, but waistlines rose steadily to the mid-1630s before beginning to drop again. In the second decade of the 17th century, short tabs developed attached to the bottom of the bodice covering the bum-roll which supported the skirts. These tabs grew longer during the 1620s and were worn with a stomacher which filled the gap between the two front edges of the bodice. By 1640, the long tabs had almost disappeared and a longer, smoother figure became fashionable: The waist returned to normal height at the back and sides with a low point at the front.

The long, tight sleeves of the early 17th century grew shorter, fuller, and looser. A common style of the 1620s and 1630s was the virago sleeve, a full, slashed sleeve gathered into two puffs by a ribbon or other trim above the elbow.

In France and England, lightweight bright or pastel-coloured satins replaced dark, heavy fabrics. As in other periods, painters tended to avoid the difficulty of painting striped fabrics; it is clear from inventories that these were common.[6] Short strings of pearls were fashionable.

Unfitted gowns (called nightgowns in England) with long hanging sleeves, short open sleeves, or no sleeves at all were worn over the bodice and skirt and tied with a ribbon sash at the waist. In England of the 1610s and 1620s, a loose nightgown was often worn over an embroidered jacket called a waistcoat and a contrasting embroidered petticoat, without a farthingale.[7] Black gowns were worn for the most formal occasions; they fell out of fashion in England in the 1630s in favour of gowns to match the bodice and petticoat, but remained an important item of clothing on the Continent.

At least in the Netherlands the open-fronted overgown or vlieger was strictly reserved for married women. Before marriage the bouwen, "a dress with a fitted bodice and a skirt that was closed all round" was worn instead; it was known in England as a "Dutch" or "round gown".[8]

Skirts might be open in front to reveal an underskirt or petticoat until about 1630, or closed all around; closed skirts were sometimes carried or worn looped up to reveal a petticoat.

Corsets were shorter to suit the new bodices, and might have a very stiff busk in the center front extending to the depth of the stomacher. Skirts were held in the proper shape by a padded roll or French farthingale holding the skirts out in a rounded shape at the waist, falling in soft folds to the floor. The drum or wheel farthingale was worn at the English court until the death of Anne of Denmark in 1619.

Hairstyles and headdresses

To about 1613, hair was worn feathered high over the forehead. Married women wore their hair in a linen coif or cap, often with lace trim. Tall hats like those worn by men were adopted for outdoor wear.

In a characteristic style of 1625–1650, hair was worn in loose waves to the shoulders on the sides, with the rest of the hair gathered or braided into a high bun at the back of the head. A short fringe or bangs might be worn with this style. Very fashionable married women abandoned the linen cap and wore their hair uncovered or with a hat.

Style gallery 1600–1620

  1. Hilliard's Unknown Woman of 1602 wears typical Puritan fashion of the early years of the century. Her tall black felt hat with a rounded crown is called a capotain and is worn over a linen cap. She wears a black dress and a white stomacher over a chemise with blackwork embroidery trim; her neckline is filled in with a linen partlet.
  2. Anne of Denmark wears a bodice with a low, round neckline and tight sleeve, with a matching petticoat pinned into flounces on a drum or cartwheel farthingale, 1605. The high-fronted hairstyle was briefly fashionable.
  3. Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain, Regent of the Netherlands, wears a cartwheel ruff and wide, flat ruffles at her wrists. Her split-sleeved dress in the Spanish fashion is trimmed with wide bands of braid or fabric, 1609.
  4. Mary Radclyffe in the very low rounded neckline and closed cartwheel ruff of c.1610. The black silk strings on her jewelry were a passing fashion.
  5. Anne of Denmark wears mourning for her son, Henry, Prince of Wales, 1612. She wears a black wired cap and black lace.
  6. An Englishwoman (traditionally called Dorothy Cary, Later Viscountess Rochford) wears an embroidered linen jacket with ribbon ties and embroidered petticoat under a black dress with hanging sleeves lined in gray. Her reticella lace collar, cuffs, and hood are tinted with yellow starch.
  7. Frans Hals' young woman wears a chain girdle over her black vlieger open-fronted gown, reserved for married women, and an elongated bodice with matching tight sleeves and petticoat. She is wearing a padded roll to hold her skirt in the fashionable shape. Dutch, 1618–20.
  8. Elizabeth, Lady Style of Wateringbury wears an embroidered jacket-bodice and petticoat under a red velvet dress. She wears a sheer partlet over an embroidered high-necked chemise, c. 1620.

Style gallery 1620s

  1. Margaret Laton wears a black gown over an embroidered linen jacket tucked into the newly fashionable high-waisted petticoat of c. 1620. She wears a sheer apron or overskirt, a falling ruff, and an embroidered cap with lace trim. The jacket itself is in the longer fashion of the previous decade.[9]
  2. Marie de' Medici in widowhood wears black with a black wired cap and veil, c. 1620–21.
  3. Anne of Austria, Queen of France, wears an open bodice over a stomacher and virago sleeves, with a closed ruff. Note looser cuffs. C. 1621–25.
  4. Susanna Fourment wears an open high-necked chemise, red sleeves tied on with ribbon points, and a broad-brimmed hat with plumes, 1625.
  5. Élisabeth de France, Queen of Spain, wears her hair in a popular style at the Spanish court, c. 1625.
  6. Isabella Brandt wears a black gown over a gold bodice and sleeves and a striped petticoat, 1623–26.
  7. Paola Adorno, Marchesa Brinole-Sale wears a black gown and a sheer ruff with large, soft figure-of-eight pleats seen in Italian portraits of this period. Her hair is caught in a cylindrical cap or caul of pearls. Genoa, c. 1626.
  8. Marie-Louise de Tassis wears a short-waisted gown with a sash over a tabbed bodice with a long stomacher and matching petticoat and virago sleeves, c. 1629–30.

Style gallery 1630s

  1. Large ruffs remained part of Dutch fashion long after they had disappeared in France and England. The dark gown has short puffed sleeves and is worn over tight undersleeves and a pink petticoat trimmed with rows of braid at the hem. The lace-edged apron shows creases from starching and ironing, 1630.
  2. Portrait of an unknown woman wearing the informal English fashion of a brightly coloured bodice and petticoat without an overgown. Her bodice has deep tabs at the waist and virago sleeves, 1630.
  3. Henrietta Maria as Divine Beauty in the masque Tempe Restored wears a high-necked chemise, a lace collar, and a jeweled cap with a feather, 1632. Masquing costumes such as this one, designed by Inigo Jones, are often seen in portraits of this period.[7]
  4. Henrietta Maria wears the formal English court costume of a gown with short open sleeves over a matching bodice with virago sleeves and a simple petticoat, 1632.
  5. Henrietta Maria wears a white satin tabbed bodice with full sleeves trimmed with silver braid or lace and a matching petticoat. Her bodice is laced up with a coral ribbon over a stomacher. A matching ribbon is set in a V-shape at her front waist and tied in a bow to one side. She wears a lace-trimmed smock or partlet with a broad, square collar. A ribbon and a string of pearls decorate her hair, 1632.
  6. Henrietta Maria's riding costume consists of a jacket-bodice of blue satin with long tabbed skirts and a matching long petticoat. She wears a broad-brimmed hat with ostrich plumes, 1633.
  7. A Lady from Spanish court wears an elegant, black dress. Its simplicity is a testament to the austerity of the Spanish court; however, her high hair is quite fashionable, as well as the mass of curls on both sides of her face c. 1635.
  8. Sara Wolphaerts van Diemen wears a double cartwheel ruff that remained popular in the Netherlands through the period. She wears a black gown with a brocaded stomacher and virago sleeves, and a white linen cap, 1635.
  9. Helena Fourment wears a black robe, bodice, and petticoat worn with an open-necked chemise with a broad, starched lace collar, gray satin sleeves tied with rose-coloured ribbons, and a broad-brimmed black hat cocked up on one side and decorated with a hatband and plumes, 1638.

Style gallery 1640s

  1. Elizabeth, Lady Capel wears a bright blue bodice and petticoat with yellow ribbons and a lace-trimmed kerchief pinned at her neck. Her daughters Mary and Elizabeth wear gold-coloured bodices and petticoats, 1640.
  2. Portrait of Henrietta Maria in the style of Van Dyck shows her in a flame-colored satin dress without a collar or kerchief. She wears a fur piece draped over her shoulder, 1640.
  3. Agatha Bas wears a pointed stomacher under a front-lacing, high-waisted black dress. Her matching linen kerchief, collar and cuffs are trimmed with lace, and she wears a high-necked chemise or partlet, the Netherlands, 1641.
  4. Hester Tradescant's costume is trimmed in lace in keeping with her station, but she wears the closed linen cap or coif, tall hat, unrevealing neckline, and sober colours favoured by Puritans, c. 1645. Her long-fronted bodice and open skirt are conservative fashions at this date.
  5. Dutch fashions of the 1640s feature modest, high-necked chemises, broad linen collars with matching kerchiefs and deep cuffs, and lavish use of bobbin lace.
  6. Engraving of Cecylia Renata, Queen of Poland in riding dress (doublet, skirt, and hat), 1645.
  7. Claudia de' Medici as a widow, in mourning dress (black cap, veil, and cloak) c. 1648.
  8. Archduchess Isabella Klara wears her lace collar or tucker off-the-shoulder.

Men's fashions

Shirts, doublets, and jerkins

Charles I wears a slashed doublet with paned sleeves, breeches, and tall narrow boots with turned-over tops, 1631.
Charles I wears a slashed doublet with paned sleeves, breeches, and tall narrow boots with turned-over tops, 1631.
Doublet of embroidered glazed linen, 1635–40, V&A Museum no. 177–1900.
Doublet of embroidered glazed linen, 1635–40, V&A Museum no. 177–1900.
The result of the Edict of 1633: the French courtier abandons his paned sleeves and ribbons for plainer styles.
The result of the Edict of 1633: the French courtier abandons his paned sleeves and ribbons for plainer styles.
The Duke of Buckingham wears a wired collar with lace trim and a slashed doublet and sleeves. His hair falls in loose curls to his collar. C. 1625
The Duke of Buckingham wears a wired collar with lace trim and a slashed doublet and sleeves. His hair falls in loose curls to his collar. C. 1625

Linen shirts had deep cuffs. Shirt sleeves became fuller throughout the period. To the 1620s, a collar wired to stick out horizontally, called a whisk, was popular. Other styles included an unstarched ruff-like collar and, later, a rectangular falling band lying on the shoulders. Pointed Van Dyke beards, named after the painter Anthony van Dyck, were fashionable, and men often grew a large, wide moustache, as well. Doublets were pointed and fitted close to the body, with tight sleeves, to about 1615. Gradually waistlines rose and sleeves became fuller, and both body and upper sleeves might be slashed to show the shirt beneath. By 1640, doublets were full and unfitted, and might be open at the front below the high waist to show the shirt.

Sleeveless leather jerkins were worn by soldiers and are seen in portraits, but otherwise the jerkin rapidly fell out of fashion for indoor wear.

Hose and breeches

G Paned or pansied trunk hose or round hose, padded hose with strips of fabric (panes) over a full inner layer or lining, were worn early in the period, over cannions, fitted hose that ended above the knee. Trunk hose were longer than in the previous period, and were pear-shaped, with less fullness at the waist and more at mid-thigh.

Slops or galligaskins, loose hose reaching just below the knee, replaced all other styles of hose by the 1620s, and were now generally called breeches. Breeches might be fastened up the outer leg with buttons or buckles over a full lining.

From 1600 to c. 1630, hose or breeches were fastened to doublets by means of ties or points, short laces or ribbons pulled through matching sets of worked eyelets. Points were tied in bows at the waist and became more elaborate until they disappeared with the very short waisted doublets of the late 1630s. Decorated metal tips on points were called aiguillettes or aiglets, and those of the wealthy were made of precious metals set with pearls and other gemstones.[10]

Spanish breeches, rather stiff ungathered breeches, were also popular throughout the era.


Gowns were worn early in the period, but fell out of fashion in the 1620s.

Short cloaks or capes, usually hip-length, often with sleeves, were worn by fashionable men, usually slung artistically over the left shoulder, even indoors; a fashion of the 1630s matched the cape fabric to the breeches and its lining to the doublet. Long cloaks were worn for inclement weather.

Hairstyles and Headgear

Early in the period, hair was worn collar-length and brushed back from the forehead; very fashionable men wore a single long strand of hair called a lovelock over one shoulder. Hairstyles grew longer through the period, and long curls were fashionable by the late 1630s and 1640s, pointing toward the ascendance of the wig in the 1660s.

Pointed beards and wide mustaches were fashionable.

To about 1620, the fashionable hat was the capotain, with a tall conical crown rounded at the top and a narrow brim. By the 1630s, the crown was shorter and the brim was wider, often worn cocked or pinned up on one side and decorated with a mass of ostrich plumes.

Close-fitting caps called coifs or biggins were worn only by young children and old men under their hats or alone indoors.

Style gallery 1600s–1620s

  1. James VI and I, 1603–1610, wears a satin doublet, wired whisk, short cape, and hose over cannions. Narrow points are tied in bows at his waist. He wears the garter and collar of the Order of the Garter.
  2. The young Henry, Prince of Wales and his companion wear doublets with wide wings and tight sleeves, and matching full breeches with soft pleats at the waist. For hunting, they wear plain linen shirts with flat collars and short cuffs at the wrist. Their soft boots turn down into cuffs below the knee, and are worn with linen boot hose. The prince wears a felt hat with a feather, 1606–09.
  3. Peter Saltonstall, in a fashionably melancholic pose c. 1610, wears an embroidered linen jacket under a brown robe with split sleeves. The robe sleeves have buttons and parallel rows of fringed braid that make button loops. The flat pleats or darts that shape his sheer collar and cuffs are visible. He wears an earring hung by a black cord.
  4. Richard Sackville, 3rd Earl of Dorset wears elaborate clothing, probably for the wedding of the King's daughter Elizabeth in 1613 (see notes on image page). His doublet, shoes, and the cuffs of his gloves are embroidered to match, and he wears a sleeved cloak on one arm and very full hose.
  5. Actor Nathan Field in a shirt decorated with blackwork embroidery, 1615.
  6. James Hamilton wears the unstarched ruff that became popular in England in the 1620s. His hose reach to the lower thigh and are worn with scarlet stockings and heeled shoes, 1623.
  7. Don Carlos of Spain wears a black patterned doublet with full black breeches, black stockings, and flat black shoes with roses. He carried a wide-brimmed black hat, 1628.
  8. Charles I. By the 1620s, doublets were still pointed but the waistline was rising above long tabs or skirts. Sleeves are slashed to the elbow and tight below. Points are more elaborate bows, and hose have completed the transition to breeches.
  9. Gustav II Adolf, King of Sweden (1611–1632) wears the Swedish Protestant fashions of the 17th century. Boots adorned with flowers, doublet, cuffs and sheer collar.

Style gallery 1630s–1640s

  1. Dutch fashion. The short-waisted doublet is slashed across the back. Points have elaborate ribbon rosettes (note matching points at hem of breeches).
  2. Philip IV of Spain wears breeches and doublet of brown and silver and a dark cloak all trimmed with silver lace. His sleeves are white and he wears white stockings, plain black shoes, and brown leather gloves, 1631–32.
  3. Henri II of Lorraine, Duke de Guise, in the buff leather jerkin and gorget (neck armor) of a soldier. His jerkin is open from the mid-chest, and his breeches match his cape, 1634.
  4. Charles I's doublet of 1635 is shorter waisted, and points have disappeared. He wears a broad-brimmed hat and boots.
  5. Royalist style: Brothers Lord John Stuart and Lord Bernard Stuart wear contrasting satin doublets and breeches, satin-lined short cloaks, and high collars with lavish lace scallops. Their high-heeled boots have deep cuffs and are worn over boot hose with lace tops, c. 1638.
  6. A Dutch civic guardsman wears a shortwaisted leather buff jerkin and a broad sash, both fashionable among soldiers. 1639.
  7. The young Charles, Prince of Wales, (later Charles II) wears a soldier's buff jerkin, sash, and half armor over a fashionable doublet and breeches trimmed with ribbon bows.
  8. Philip IV of Spain in military dress, 1644, wears a broad linen collar and matching cuffs. His sleeved short gown or cassock of red with metallic embroidery is worn over a buff jerkin and silver-gray sleeves. He carries a broad-brimmed black hat cocked on one side.


Heeled shoes with shoe roses
Heeled shoes with shoe roses
Boots with boothose, early (left) and late (right) 1630s
Boots with boothose, early (left) and late (right) 1630s
Bucket heeled boots with butterflies and spurs of King Ladislaus IV of Poland, c. 1640; butterflies were meant to reduce chafing from the spur straps

Flat shoes were worn to around 1610, when a low heel became popular. The ribbon tie over the instep that had appeared on late sixteenth century shoes grew into elaborate lace or ribbon rosettes called shoe roses that were worn by the most fashionable men and women.

Backless slippers called pantofles were worn indoors.

By the 1620s, heeled boots became popular for indoor as well as outdoor wear. The boots themselves were usually turned down below the knee; boot tops became wider until the "bucket-top" boot associated with The Three Musketeers appeared in the 1630s. Spurs straps featured decorative butterfly-shaped spur leathers over the instep.

Wooden clogs or pattens were worn outdoors over shoes and boots to keep the high heels from sinking into soft dirt.

Stockings had elaborate clocks or embroidery at the ankles early in the period. Boothose of stout linen were worn under boots to protect fine knitted stockings; these could be trimmed with lace.

Children's fashion

Toddler boys wore gowns or skirts and doublets until they were breeched.

Simplicity of dress

In Protestant and Catholic countries, attempts were made to simplify and reform the extravagances of dress. Louis XIII of France issued sumptuary laws in 1629 and 1633 that prohibited lace, gold trim and lavish embroidery for all but the highest nobility and restricting puffs, slashes and bunches of ribbon.[11] The effects of this reform effort are depicted in a series of popular engravings by Abraham Bosse.[12]

Puritan dress

Puritans advocated a conservative form of fashionable attire, characterized by sadd colors and modest cuts. Gowns with low necklines were filled in with high-necked smocks and wide collars. Married women covered their hair with a linen cap, over which they might wear a tall black hat. Men and women avoided bright colours, shiny fabrics and over-ornamentation.

Contrary to popular belief, most Puritans and Calvinists did not wear black for everyday, especially in England, Scotland and colonial America. Black dye was expensive, faded quickly and black clothing was reserved for the most formal occasions (including having one's portrait painted), for elders in a community and for those of higher rank. Richer puritans, like their Dutch Calvinist contemporaries, probably did wear it often but in silk, often patterned. Typical colours for most were brown, murrey (mulberry, a brownish-maroon), dull greens and tawny colours. Wool and linen were preferred over silks and satins, though Puritan women of rank wore modest amounts of lace and embroidery as appropriate to their station, believing that the various ranks of society were divinely ordained and should be reflected even in the most modest dress. William Perkins wrote "...that apparel is necessary for Scholar, the Tradesman, the Countryman, the Gentleman; which serveth not only to defend their bodies from cold, but which belongs also to the place, degree, calling, and condition of them all" (Cases of Conscience, 1616).[13]

Some Puritans rejected the long, curled hair as effeminate and favoured a shorter fashion which led to the nickname Roundheads for adherents of the English Parliamentary party but the taste for lavish or simple dress cut across both parties in the English Civil War.[14]

Working class clothing

  1. Flemish country folk: Men wear tall capotain hats; women wear similar hats or linen headdresses, 1608.
  2. English country folk watching Morris dancers and a hobby horse wear broad-brimmed hats. The woman wears a jacket-bodice and contrasting petticoat. Men wear full breeches and doublets, c. 1620.
  3. Musketeer and pikeman, c. 1635. The pikeman on the right wears a full-skirted buff coat. Spanish, before 1635.
  4. Men in a tavern wear floppy hats, wrinkled stockings and long, high-waisted jerkins, some with sleeves, and blunt-toed shoes.
  5. Man hunting small game wears a grey buttoned jerkin with short sleeves and matching breeches over a red doublet. He wears a fur-lined hat and grey gloves, Germany, 1643.


  1. ^ Berry 2004.
  2. ^ Kliot, Jules and Kaethe: The Needle-Made Lace of Reticella.
  3. ^ Montupet, Janine, and Ghislaine Schoeller: Lace: The Elegant Web
  4. ^ See Gordenker 2001, p. [page needed] and Winkel 2007, pp. 70, 71
  5. ^ See Costume notes to portrait of Mary Radclyffe, Denver Museum of Art Archived 2006-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Marieke de Winkel in:Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot (eds), Dutch Portraits, The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals, Mauritshuis/National Gallery/Waanders Publishers, Zwolle, p.73, 2007, ISBN 978-1-85709-362-9
  7. ^ a b See Aileen Ribeiro, Fashion and Fiction: Dress in Art and Literature in Stuart England
  8. ^ Marieke de Winkel in:Rudi Ekkart and Quentin Buvelot (eds), Dutch Portraits, The Age of Rembrandt and Frans Hals, Mauritshuis/National Gallery/Waanders Publishers, Zwolle, p.67, 2007, ISBN 978-1-85709-362-9
  9. ^ The jacket has been preserved and can be seen at the in Victoria and Albert Museum web site.
  10. ^ Scarisbrick, Diana, Tudor and Jacobean Jewellery, pp. 99–100
  11. ^ Kõhler, Carl: A History of Costume, p. 289
  12. ^ Lefébure, Ernest: Embroidery and Lace: Their Manufacture and History from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Day, p.230
  13. ^ See Cases of Conscience, 1616 Archived 2006-07-16 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Ribeiro, Aileen: Dress and Morality, Berg Publishers 2003, ISBN 1-85973-782-X, pp. 12–16


Further reading

  • Ashelford, Jane (1996). The Art of Dress: Clothing and Society 1500–1914. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-6317-5.
  • Arnold, Janet (1986) [1985]. Patterns of Fashion: the cut and construction of clothes for men and women 1560–1620 (Revised ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0-89676-083-9.

External links

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