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14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS
Dyvizia Galychyna.svg
Active28 April 1943 – 15 April 1945
Country Nazi Germany
Branch
Flag of the Schutzstaffel.svg
Waffen-SS
TypeInfantry
SizeDivision
Nickname(s)Galician Division
Colors         Blue & Yellow [1]
EngagementsWorld War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Walter Schimana
Fritz Freitag

The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician) (German: 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS [galizische Nr. 1]),[2] Ukrainian: 14а Гренадерська Дивізія СС (1а галицька)), prior to 1944 titled the 14th SS-Volunteer Division "Galicia" (German: 14. SS-Freiwilligen Division "Galizien", Ukrainian: 14а Добровільна Дивізія СС "Галичина")[1] was a World War II German military formation made up predominantly of military volunteers with a Ukrainian ethnic background from the area of Galicia,[3] later also with some Slovaks and Czechs.[3][4] Formed in 1943, it was largely destroyed in the battle of Brody, reformed, and saw action in Slovakia, Yugoslavia and Austria before being renamed the first division of the Ukrainian National Army and surrendering to the Western Allies by 10 May 1945.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Galicia Division: The Waffen-SS 14th grenadier Division «Галичина» WW2 Ukraine CHERNOBYL
  • ✪ The History of the Galician Division of the Waffen SS. Vol 1: On the Eastern Front
  • ✪ The History of the Galician Division of the Waffen SS. Vol 2: Stalin's Nemesis
  • ✪ Searching in Secret Ukraine, Wasyl Nimenko
  • ✪ Коллаборационисты второй мировой. 2 серия Дивизия СС Галиция

Transcription

The story of the Immortal Army and the military division known as SS Galicia Some consider them heroes and patriots while others - traitors and military criminals. We're going to try to understand this complex issue together with Doctor of Philology Iryna Farion. Ms. Iryna, welcome to our show! So, the Galicia Division is also the 4th Grenadier Division SS Galicia a military subunit of Waffen-SS German troops which existed between 1943-1945 and was staffed mainly by Ukrainians of Greek Catholic creed, actually compromised exclusively of Galicians. In April 19, 1945 the re-completed unit received a new status and a new name "The First Ukrainian Division an independent Ukrainian army" What do we know about this formation today? The first mistake the society makes is it evaluates historical events from the point of view of present circumstances The second mistake - is that the absolute majority of society lives with stereotypes and has no strength in itself to break those stereotypes. The third mistake - is not reading materials of diverse perspectives but scoop up information from a single source. Together all these three views give us a false assessment of those historical events So let's try to find out what is Galicia division? And we will understand it only in case if we discover for ourselves the preconditions for the creation such a formation You are right to note that the formation was created in April of 1943 On April 28th it was announced solemnly in Lviv the Day of embroidery is celebrated since and now associated with the creation of Division Galicia. the best of nation's youth enlisted into The Galicia Division the young Ukrainian generation to the Galicia division students were signing up in entire groups in fact the entire theatrical company of Lviv Opera House signed up as well to the Galicia Division * Why was it so popular? what was its essence and purpose? I will explain, about its essence and purpose So the year was 1939 In 1939 the Red army comes onto the territory of Western Ukraine What did this bring to Galicians? In 1939, the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact was signed, in accordance with the pact Europe was redistributed This has brought to the Ukrainians 300,000 deported to Siberia at once! 300,000 imagine? 300,000 deported to Siberia and an absolute overflow of prisons in Galicia expanding into Volyn region, filled with Ukrainians In particular, the Lansky Prison in Lviv How did we find out? We learned that when in 1941 the Germans came to Galicia, and opened prisons in those prisons we saw a huge number of people's corpses At least at least 30,000 people have been killed in western Ukraine What did this mean for the inhabitants of Western Ukraine? It meant they had to search for an immediate ally in the war with the Red Army! For what the Red Army was, we have already seen! In the end, we saw it not only in 1939 We have seen this once before in 1914, when there was the First World War and Moscow troops came They sent the Metropolitan, Archbishop Andrei Sheptytsky to exile right away, they closed all Ukrainian schools, destroyed The enlightment society called "Prosvita" And so began the collapse of Russification in Galicia which by the way, is on the rise again very seriously! So at the time Germany could be the only ally? Was this the right choice? That ally was very situational and very relative The task was different! Each war is always interpreted, as a way to assert your state Remember the First World War? How did Ukrainians interpret the First World War? They had to create their own armed forces, when this armed formation arose It was called The Sitch Arrows - Sichovi Striltsi Then this armed formation of the Sich Riflemen Transformed into the Ukrainian Galician Army (UGA) Here history was repeated, as history repeats itself in less than 20 years And here among intellectuals, I emphasize- in the intellectual environment, in particular in the area of ​​the Nationalist-democratic influence, which was then headed by Kubiyovych Kubiyovych was a very well-known intellectual, who became the author of the Encyclopedia of Ukrainian Studies project which was prohibited in Soviet times and for us, this soviet generation we call sovok or a "dust scoop" The Encyclopedia of Ukrainian Studies was the main source in the early 90's about the true history of Ukraine, culture and so on And this Kubiyovych, immediately after the war, turns to the German circles with the proposal so that Ukrainians get the opportunity to form their military structures as part of the German army What was the motivation? It was very simple! What if the Germans take over western Ukraine? they will sooner or later start to mobilize Ukrainians to their army What does it mean? This meant that the Ukrainians in this German army will eventually assimilate would then simply dissolve, so it was necessary to outstrip this step of the Germans by mobilizing Ukrainians to the Army Because if they were not mobilized by Germans, then the Red army would come and mobilize Ukrainians instead So it was necessary to take this step to beat the Germans to it, so that Ukrainians could not be taken into the German army one by one or be exported as ostarbeiters as my father was for example it was during this period that my father was taken away to Germany, and he endured it immensely and when in 1945 the Germans offered my father to stay and my dad answered the Germans - Did I come here on my own? I did not come here to you, you brought me here by force! I have my own Motherland! - Ok, Ms. Iryna but in order for Ukrainians not to dissolve in this German army, Were there specific requests for Germans? -Of course, absolutely! - In order for it to be a pro-Ukrainian identity military structure? -Of course, and this idea arose, the idea of ​​Kubiyovych together with Wechter I hope I got his name right, Otto Wechter, who then was the head of Halychyna district governorate He was the son of an Austrian general and had a favorable attitude towards Ukrainians To be honest, no nation was purely altruistic in its intentions towards Ukrainians. Let's be honest! Each foreigner always only pursued his own interests So, if Ukrainians were going to take this step in creating of its own military formation, in which they would receive professional training, where would they get such training otherwise? Where? in the woods? In the woods, they would not receive a professional training their training there would be received primarily at the cost of their own lives And so this Otto Wechter, who was the son of an Austrian general who remembered Ukrainians since the times of the Sich Riflemen and UGA (the Ukrainian Galician Army) picked up this idea and this idea really suited the policy of eastern Germany not from the side of Hitler, Hitler did not know at all about the formation of the Galicia Division Hitler learned about it in March of 1945, on March 23 and ordered an immediate disband of this division! Because eventually these men would turn their weapons against the Germans And he thought right! But then there would be no one to defend the front and this division has not been disbanded Before the division was formed several requests were put forward The main request was - that the Ukrainian division should have its own clergy Their own chaplains! Yes, your own clergy! Further, the Ukrainian division in no case should fight on any other than the eastern front and do not have to fight against the allies, that is, against France and against England Once Ukrainians were thrown against the French What did Ukrainians do? They went straight to the French side And one more condition: it should be Ukrainian in essence Ukrainians should have their own honors, not German honors, this lightning bolt associated with the Latin god, the familiar silver lightning bolt on a black background Germans did not allow Ukrainians to use their own emblems- the trident, for example but they allowed them to use the symbol of the lion, a yellow lion on a blue background or a silver lion on a black background In addition, originally Germans did not allow for this division to be called Ukrainian It was their condition not to allow even the slightest separatist ideas "But they agreed to give awards eventually?" They were honors really, or as they would be right to call symbols They agreed on these symbols, with the exception of the trident, and not to call this division Ukrainian in the original name, as you mentioned that the name has evolved Then, as the Germans lost they immediately retreated and then gave us all of the identifying Ukrainian signs And the division eventually began to be called Ukrainian, in the end the division had to develop into the Ukrainian National Army which was headed by General Shandruk, but this happened later Did the Germans fulfill these conditions? The division fought in the territory of Galicia, the Battle of Brody in particular (1944) during the Lviv–Sandomierz Offensive of World War II The division stopped the entrance of the Red Army to Lviv, at least for 10 days During those ten days, when the division, fought the Red Army like a beast, and the Germans fell down and retreated immediately and the division was the second in formation, within those 10 days the intelligentsia of Lviv could leave the city Then this Lviv intelligentsia, accused those young men who died for them those 8,000 men who died 70% of division they accused them of collaboration and betrayal and the rest of such slander - you actually mentioned the defeat of the division near the city of Brody so was there really a defeat, or not? What is very important for us to realize! These young men who were mobilized to the division The demand was crazy, because there were only three options for them One option was to join the division and receive training in the German army then it was believed that this was the best training and really as the historians say, I hope the adequate ones, that there were least 200 Ukrainian men who received an officer's title No other divisions whether it's the Lithuanians, or the Latvians, whether they were representatives of Asian countries, did not receive a higher military rank as a result of this training in the German army except for Ukrainians. Here Germans really allowed Ukrainians in to obtain a professional military training People would remember that there was no such UPA - Ukrainian Insurgent Army unit, in which there wouldn't be a trained division member Because the Galicia Division worked closely with the Ukrainian Insurgent Army UPA, we will say more about it in a moment. So one part of the youth was mostly intelligentsia who went to the Galicia Division with the primary goal to get an excellent training and the second to turn weapons against the Bolsheviks This was the main condition which was presented by the Galicia Division We are fighting a specific enemy! This one enemy is red Moscow! We're not fighting anyone else! Period! If we find ourselves in a different territory, then we are on the side of those against whom you are forcing us to fight force us to turn weapons. So the other way was, to go where? Into the woods! At this time, when the Galician Division was formed, It was formed in Lviv , in Frankivsk, THEN CALLED Stanislav, and in Ternopil in Western Ukraine, The Ukrainian Insurgent Army did not have such a widespread publicity, because it was formed where? Not in Galicia, it was formed in Volhyn! By the way, only later on, the Galicia Division joined the Volyn regiment Therefore, in principle, Galicians had no other choice, in order to fight red Moscow then to enroll in Galicia Division In addition, there were social benefits. Families whose children went to the Galicia Division were on the list of those who had to be taken care of. A so-called council was created, who looked after the families of those who sent their children to protect their homeland. That is, some elemental social security package, because those men who went into the woods did not have anything. You understand? The most interesting thing is that a cooperation began between the Galicia Division and the UPA. And it is very important for us to say that the organization of the Ukrainian nationalists of the O-UN (b) Banderivtsi, was officially against enlisting in the Galicia Division, and you know why? What Stepan Bandera would say? Because later, how strategically this man envisioned things Later there would be a war in the information field! Subsequently - 50 or 60 years later, Russia will start a war against Ukrainians via the media, and they will call Ukrainians collaborators because they collaborated with the Germans. Can you imagine how perceptive Stepan Bandera was to predict it? But OUN knew this from very beginning - the emergence of this struggle. Although members of OUN were aware that some of their men would enlist in the Galicia Division it was almost impossible to stop them. So then, Roman Shukhevych, one of the commanders of Nachtigall Battalion in October 1943 meets one of the representatives of the division headquarters. and they discussed cooperation That is, division members would help the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) with what? Weapons first and foremost! Were they essentially using Germans to get weapons? So! With that they have received impeccable security and I would like to emphasize, they have never been, how our current non-historians whistle cannon fodder They have really been practicing the whole year, cannon fodder was in the Red Army Only after a year of training They were put to the battle in the so-called Brody wedge. But I want to finish this topic about cooperation of the Galicia Division with the UPA. Roman Shukhevych, leading this conversation with a representative [of], let's say, the division headquarters, asking that those deeply infiltrated members of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), would join the Galicia Division. With what purpose? To learn how to fight! The Germans absolutely did not want to accept this, because the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) fiercely fought the Germans in guerilla warfare. That is, the Germans taught Ukrainians, through the UPA, to fight with themselves. The Germans realized it. - So, they didn't want this cooperation between SS Division Halychyna and UPA? Of course, the Germans tried to block this cooperation. but their efforts were in vain Because it is said, that at least 2,000 men, after the defeat of the German 14 or 13 corps, Some say it was the 13th others the 14th, let them clear the facts. The Germans were mercilessly defeated more than 2000 men quit the division at Brody to immediately join the Ukrainian Insurgent Army and this flow of men from the division to the Ukrainian Insurgent Army continued to happen and it was a colossal exchange of experience, and the most educated people in the UPA as we learned later these were just these division members, who learned to fight from Germans against Germans as well as against Muscovites simply become a military, the first military aristocracy in Ukraine This is what Ukrainian society should know! And Ukrainian society must realize that if one didn't go to the Galicia division, and wanted to defend his land, because he is a Ukrainian, then that guy would have to go to the Ukrainian insurgent army, or he would be forcibly taken to the Red Army, or he would be taken as an ostarbeiter to Germany out of those four options, and only those options it was the ultimate choice to assert themselves as a Ukrainian And we must give them their right in history and stop judging them today. And acknowledge those people as heroes, because they really were heroes - Do we have the names of these heroes today? Of course we have the names of those heroes and the Diaspora itself (when they would) General Shandruk * Birth of February 28, 1889 with. Borsuki, now Lanovetsky district Death February 15, 1979 (89 years) M. Trenton, New Jersey burial: St. Andrew's Cemetery who was supposed to organize the flow of the Galicia Division into the Ukrainian national army a few days before the defeat of Germany went on to communicate with the English so that the Galician Division surrendered to the British as captives. He drove the army from the front lines and moved the Ukrainian division to the area under British control Therefore, most of the divisions were located in England In England and Italy, mostly in the city of Rimini Each division member went through a commission examining them on a subject of committing crimes against humanity I want to emphasize that the divisionists were not a formation of the SS guard. THAT'S WHY THEY DID NOT EXECUTE JEWS!!! They fought only on the front and according to Descher's commission * The Commission of Inquiry on War Criminals in Canada, known more often under the name Deschênes Commission, is a State Commission established by the Government of Canada in February 1985 to investigate the facts of possible the presence of war criminals in Canada, including those from Ukraine and the Baltic States. if I correctly named the last name, check me on this one according to this commission which made its conclusion in Canada in the year 1987, not one member of the division was accused in crimes against humanity and military or war crimes - Was this a political stunt? Of course! The Nuremberg trial didn't have one negative thing to say about the division members The division members, as they emphasized it at every step never shared the ideology of Nazism, it was not fascist ideology. Fascism existed in Italy, it was a Nationalist outlook, none of them were members of the Nazi party These were the people who used the German army in it's own battle for a state that did not exist Can you imagine the level of their heroism? With no existing state, they fought the enemy they understood that it was an enemy. We have memoirs of the uneasy relationship that was between the division members and the head of the division by the name Freitag * Freytag, as an ambitious bureaucrat who did not trust anyone, replaced all the senior posts by the Germans, even when they had qualified Ukrainian forces before the disposition. This was the reason for the lack of harmonious cooperation between the Ukrainian and German elders. http://shron1.chtyvo.org.ua/Heike_Wolf-Dietrich/Ukrainska_dyviziia_Halychyna_vyd_2012.pdf Fritz Freitag, who, during the battle of Brody, 13 July 1944 – 29 August 1944 simply abandoned his army, he fled! and then returned like nothing happened Well, for a happy ending, he committed suicide he could not withstand the defeat of Germany in the war But this person did not treat Ukrainians too well and clashed with them on every level and these conflicts were described by the Chief of Staff with the surname Heike, and so the chief of staff this Captain Heike His memoirs are published in Ukrainian with incredibly interesting analytics as well as psychological characteristics of Ukrainian soldiers and this endeavor, as Heike writes, of Ukrainians to remain themselves amidst a foreign army, Ukrainians really managed to do it, it's an army of heroes! Take a look for example when they entered the American zone and the English zone there in the West they became the promoters of the Ukrainian idea among them was an outstanding Ukrainian linguist, Oleksa Gorbach, who fought in the Galicia Division Among them there were poets, writers, patrons - Did some of them return to Ukraine? - Was it possible at that moment? part of them did return ... They say that it is close to 1000 people Again, the repatriation commission arrived in Rimini from the Soviet Union after the end of the war and began to work with our soldiers. By the way after this defeat near the city of Brody the Galicia Division resumed its original count in a week Such overwhelming was the demand, because these men understood - that the Germans are losing, Why do we have to go to war? In order to learn how to fight! Because the state without military professionals is not a state, we feel it today! And then Galicia Division would be replenished with Ukrainians from the greater (eastern) Ukraine, not only from Western Ukraine as I was saying - the repatriation commission tricked them More than a thousand people listened to them and returned. Here I repeat what was previously mentioned what awaited them Yes by the writer Ivan Bagryanyi in 1945 he wrote a great novel called "The fiery circle," precisely about them. The heroes of Galicia Division What awaited them? the so-called filtration camps In those camps, they still had to check everyone The check ended with all of them being sent to Siberia so of course it ended with Siberia - Did they understand that in case they would return to the Soviet Union, they would not be called heroes there? yes, but their relatives were there! Their mother and father were here, and probably their sweetheart as well, Their children were here! They themselves were the children of the generation of those who fought for the Ukrainian state between 1917-1921 How did my father return? My father returned in 1945 from Germany If he didn't return, I wouldn't have been born but my dad lived in fear that it would be discovered And it went out in the open after 40 years and into his bank account $400 were deposited, that is, the Germans paid every ostarbeiter, for the fact that he worked for Germany and I remember that then I bought my first computer and I asked my father - Why haven't you ever told me about this? My father lowered his eyes and said - "I was afraid. I'm amazed at how I survived." But how did my dad pay for it? Paying for the fact that nobody gave him education! He had no right to apply anywhere, so my father's main dream was the education of his children! For Igor, my brother and I to receive an education! The fact that Farion is a professor is a merit of my dad! It was a goal I set before myself because my father could not realize it himself, as one who worked in Germany you know? but I want to name one more episode Remember the fallen Maidan protesters from 2014? Volodymyr Boikiv So, his own father, Vasyl Boykiv Fought in the Galicia Division and during the Brody operation he was terribly wounded and when he was taken to the medic's tent he found himself under terrible gun fire and he already completely shell-shocked opened his eyes and saw Red army soldiers standing over him - When he was wounded in Brody? right, these red soldiers stand before him speaking Ukrainian, saying: "Here is the fascist, look at the fascist" and Mr. Boykiv hears the word fascist pronounced in the Eastern Ukrainian dialect whereas in Western Ukraine it was pronounced differently "Let's shoot him!" they shout And then he says "I gathered the last ounce of strength to whisper - I am Ukrainian!" "Ah! this one is ours!" They replied in Ukrainian. That is the power of language! This Vasyl Boykiv is of course sent to the Red Army. What is his destiny? Filtering camps! Siberia! Then he returns he manages to receive an education this is very interesting! He graduates from Lviv Polytechnic! Builds our bus terminal in Lviv, built one of our main churches of The Holy Princess Olga and Volodymyr the Great and his son, Volodymyr Boykiv dies on February 18 (2014) at the barricades. Here is the continuity of generations! Everyone found a way to take up arms, like a true man would to fight for their independence - If we already mentioned that the SS Division "Galicia" fought, or so to speak cooperated with the Ukrainian insurgent army, then, in contrast to Vlasov's Army * Vlasov agreed to collaborate with Nazi Germany after having been captured on the Eastern Front. The Russian Liberation Army (aka Vlasov's army) was a collaborationist formation, primarily composed of Russians, that fought under German command during World War II. what is the difference, in what? Sure! Look! - After all, everyone was looking for their own way to defend the interests of the Ukrainian side, The state wasn't there yet, but still, it was a Ukrainian nation? Well, to be more precise, such legions actually, relatively as part of the German Army were created in every nation The Baltic peoples, even Englishmen, and the French had their own divisions and Vlasov's army of a million, as it was called there, RO-A seems to be the Russian Liberation Army So, this RO-A! What were the Germans bent on? you know what they were interested in? The Germans were inclined so that the ROA and the Ukrainian national army led by General Shandruk would come to terms with each other and have a single leadership. To which the Ukrainian National Army under the leadership of Shandruk, which was not realized as a project of course, refused! That is, the Germans pursued a completely different goal than say Ukrainians Ukrainians understood that this is an enemy! And this has once again confirmed that Ukrainians fought with Russians of various agendas! so Vlasov's army was also our enemy? Of course! No collaboration with them was possible! That was their choice! Let Russian historians and Russian society evaluate them I have no interest in them I only think of our own heroes! Those holy people who in the diaspora for the idea of ​​the liberation of the Ukrainian state did more than all governments of Ukraine here in Ukraine and still, do you understand? For propaganda of the Ukrainian national idea They published journals there they worked in respectable educational institutions, they created fraternities they sent money to Ukraine. These are the people who left then with an idea of an independent Ukraine! They must be honored at the level of the heroes of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, and at the level of other formations in the struggle for national liberation. This is an absolute injustice towards those people who chose this way in the struggle for the Ukrainian state! - And we are aware of the propaganda against them of course, as for the SS Division Galicia, for a long time they were called traitors criminals, So when did historical justice begin to be restored? Historical justice began to recover in the early 90's. And it surfaced in a very interesting, popular form when in Lviv cars were noticed with the emblem of the golden Lion on a blue background. We then did not even understand what that meant. For us it was something surprising! Those war honors of the soldiers of the SS Galicia Division And so slowly it began to be popular in society, but in society Stepan Bandera's prediction came true: that within 60 years, a war will be waged against you on the information field! Terrible information warfare! Stepan Bandera - this very far-sighted man, and therefore he publicly resented such cooperation of Ukrainians with the German Army. As we see, Stepan Bandera was right, but we will be more so justified, when we contradict the lies brought against us, we respect all those people who in extremely difficult circumstances, took arms in hand and fought And they fought like lions, desperately! By the way, two members of the division were awarded the highest honors. One of the most active members of the November Order Dmytro Paliy, died on the battlefield near Brody. 13 July 1944 – 29 August 1944 But that battle at Brody gave Lviv's intellifgentsia the opportunity to leave Ukraine and survive. -What conclusions do we have to make today? After all, some historians say that the heroes of the SS Galicia division, like the heroes of UPA, do not need any further acknowledgement What do you think? God have mercy! These historians are juvenile, who now hold high positions even though they are not one bit worthy of this generation of heroes, which lived so many years ago. Do not listen to just one author! Surround yourself with stacks of literature, even better you know what you should do? Read the memoirs of the Divison the voices of the now deceased! An eight hundred page book was published in Lviv by the Galician Division Brotherhood (by Igor Ivankov * in 2016 a full-length illustrated book "Ukrainian Division" Halychyna ". Lviv region History. Memoirs. When you start reading the memories of these division memebers it will give you the best estimate of their activities, not an interpretation of the contemporary amateur historians, or those who live by the stereotypes of the Soviet era! By the way, we remembered Bagryany, he also has a piece about divisions. Yes, Bagrianyi witnessed the formation of Galicia division and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army And he wrote a piece that you already mentioned in the previous program called "Luba," which he destroyed, it was about the Ukrainian Insurgent Army fortunately the one about Galician Division "The Fiery Circle" (1953) was published anyone can read it Today - we have the widest possible opportunity to find out for ourselves about the extremely difficult circumstances, in which these holy people lived Today we spoke about the army of the immortals with Iryna Farion I thank you for an interesting exchange, and thanks to the viewers who took the time to join us

Contents

Background

After World War I and the dissolution of Austria–Hungary, the territory of Eastern Galicia (Halychyna), populated by a Ukrainian majority but with a large Polish minority, was incorporated into Poland following the Polish–Ukrainian War. Between the wars, the political allegiances of Ukrainians in eastern Galicia were divided between moderate national democrats and the more radical Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. The latter group itself splintered into two factions, the more moderate OUN-M led by Andriy Melnyk with close ties to German intelligence (Abwehr), and the more radical OUN-B led by Stepan Bandera. When Poland was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union under the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in 1939, the territory of eastern Galicia was annexed to Soviet Ukraine. In 1941 it was occupied by Germany.

Ukrainian leaders of various political persuasions recognised the need for a trained armed force. The Germans had earlier considered the formation of an armed force made up of Slavic people, but they decided this to be unacceptable as they regarded Slavs as sub-humans (untermenschen) compared to the Germanic ubermenschen master race.[5] At the beginning of 1943, growing losses[6] inclined Nazi leaders to alter their initial opinions.

Organizing the division

Galician division's recruitment poster, 1943
Galician division's recruitment poster, 1943

The idea to organize a division of volunteers from Galicia was proposed by the German Governor of District Galicia, Dr. Otto von Wächter. He suggested creation of a Waffen-SS division composed of Galician volunteers and designed for regular combat on the Eastern Front. The creation of 14th Voluntary Division SS Galizien was announced in April 1943 at ceremonies throughout Galicia. At least 50 documents including contemporary newspaper clippings, radio broadcasts and speeches etc. record the date of 28 April. By June 1943 the first phase of recruitment had taken place. Initially Wächter's proposal (which he was certain would be supported by Ukrainian circles) was rejected. In Berlin Wächter was able to get support from Heinrich Himmler who made the stipulation that the division would only made up of Galicians, who Himmler considered "more Aryan-like".[7] The terms "Ukrainian", "Ukraine", could not be used when addressing the division, stressing the Imperial Austro-Hungarian heritage of the term "Galizien".[8] David Marples suggests that the division was titled "Galicia" to ensure stricter German control to avoid direct use of inflammatory term "Ukrainian".[9]

District Galicia Spring 1943. Celebrations dedicated to the creation of the SS-Freiwilligen-Schützen-Division «Galizien». Regional recruitment center
District Galicia Spring 1943. Celebrations dedicated to the creation of the SS-Freiwilligen-Schützen-Division «Galizien». Regional recruitment center

Wächter approached the Ukrainian Central Committee, a nonpolitical social welfare organization headed by Volodymyr Kubiyovych which supported the idea of the formation of the division.[10] The Ukrainian Catholic Church demanded the presence of its chaplains in the division, which was usually not permitted by Germans. Thus the Ukrainian division along with the Bosnian one became notable exceptions.

Germans made two political concessions: It was stipulated that the division shall not be used to fight Western Allies, and would be used exclusively to "fight Bolsheviks". The other concession was in that its oath of allegiance to Hitler was conditional on the fight against Bolshevism and in the fact that Christian (mostly Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and Ukrainian Orthodox) chaplains were integrated into the units and allowed to function (in the Waffen-SS, only the Bosnian division and Sturmbrigade Wallonien had a clerical presence). The latter condition was instituted at the insistence of the division's organizers in order to minimize the risk of Nazi demoralization amongst the soldiers.[11][page needed] Indeed, Nazi indoctrination was absent within the division.[12]

The creation of foreign SS units had been carried out previously in the name of fighting against communism; with French, Dutch, Latvian, Estonian, Croatian, and Belarusian units, among others, had been created.[13] The creation of a Ukrainian SS division was perceived by many in Ukraine as a step towards the attainment of Ukrainian independence and attracted many volunteers.

The Division's Support

The Division enjoyed support from multiple political and religious groups within the western Ukrainian community. The Division's prime organizer and highest ranking Ukrainian officer, Dmytro Paliiv, had been the leader of a small legal political party in the Second Polish Republic. Many of his colleagues had been members of the pre-war moderate, left-leaning democratic UNDO movement[14][nb 1] that before the war had also been opposed to the authoritarian OUN. The Division also obtained moral support from officers of the exiled Polish-allied Ukrainian National Republic such as General Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko.[12] The Division was also strongly supported by Andriy Melnyk's moderate faction of the OUN, who saw it as a counterweight to the extremist Banderist-dominated UPA.[12]

The Bandera faction of the OUN-B opposed the idea of creating the division, in part because it was an organization outside its control, and had claimed in its propaganda that the division was to be used by the Germans as cannon fodder. [nb 2] Nevertheless, it did not interfere in its formation and once the division was formed it sent some of its members, a number of whom would obtain prominent positions, into the division in order for them to gain military training and to prevent it from completely getting out of their hands. Despite this infiltration, Bandera's OUN failed to gain control over the division.[12]

It also had the support of both the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Among its members was a son of Mstyslav Skrypnyk, the Orthodox Bishop of Kiev.[12]

Commanders and personnel

1943 propaganda leaflet in Ukrainian containing a description of the division inauguration ceremony
1943 propaganda leaflet in Ukrainian containing a description of the division inauguration ceremony

The Division SS "Galizien" was commanded by German, Austrian and Ukrainian officers.[15] Training for the recruits began within the SS-Special Purpose Training Battalion (SS-Ausbildungs-Battalion z.b.V), commanded by SS Sturmbannführer Bernard Bartlet while the man appointed to oversee the forming of the Division was General Walter Schimana (until October 1943). Schimana never commanded the actual division, as up until the point of his departure it was still a training battalion, staffed mostly by temporary training personnel. From 20 November 1943 it was led by SS-Brigadier General Fritz Freitag.[15] Captain Wolf Dietrich Heike (temporarily seconded from the Wehrmacht) was the chief of staff from January 1944. All regimental commanders were Germans.

In total 81,999 men enlisted for service in the division. Of these, 42,000 were called up during the first 'recruitment phase' which took place in May and June 1943 from which only 27,000 were deemed fit for military service and 13,000 were enlisted.[16] To boost the recruitment figures the height minimum requirement was lowered from 1.65m to 1.61m.

Hans Frank and Dr. Hofstetter of SS Galizien enter a Ukrainian Greek Catholic church prior to the installation of volunteers in Sanok, 1943.
Hans Frank and Dr. Hofstetter of SS Galizien enter a Ukrainian Greek Catholic church prior to the installation of volunteers in Sanok, 1943.
SS Galizien volunteers march on Kosciuszko Street in Sanok, 1943 May
SS Galizien volunteers march on Kosciuszko Street in Sanok, 1943 May

Deployment

Anti-partisans actions with Kampfgruppe Beyersdorff

In mid-February 1944, the division received an order to form a battle group known as SS Kampfgruppe Beyersdorff for action against Soviet and Polish partisans. It operated in the Zamość area together with elements of the 5th Regiment, while elements of the 4th Regiment were sent to the Brody area. The SS Kampfgruppe performed its duty well enough that it earned the rare praise of German Field Marshal Walter Model.[17]

Brody

In July the division was sent to the area of Brody, where heavy combat was under way, and was attached to the 13th Army Corps.[11] Together with six under-strength German infantry divisions, the Galicia Division was responsible for holding a frontage of approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi).[11] On 8 July, the 13th Corps was transferred to the 1st Panzer Army.[11] The Galician Division was placed in reserve. Deployed at Brody were the division's 29th, 30th, 31st regiments, a fusilier and engineering battalion, and its artillery regiment. The 14th SS Field Replacement Battalion was deployed fifteen miles (24 kilometres) behind the other units.[18]

On 13 July, Soviet forces under the command of Marshal Ivan Konev launched their attack. By the next day, they routed a German division to the north of the 13th Corps and swept back an attempted German counterattack.[citation needed] On 15 July, the 1st and 8th Panzer Divisions along with the Galicia Division bore the brunt of a fierce assault by the Soviet Second Air Army, who in only a five-hour period flew 3,288 aircraft sorties and dropped 102 tons of bombs on them as they attempted a counterattack.[19] On 18 July, the division's Field Replacement Battalion was destroyed with its remnants fleeing west, whilst the remainder of 13th Corps, consisting of over 30,000 German and Ukrainian soldiers, was surrounded by the Soviets within the Brody pocket.[18]

Within the pocket, the Galician troops were tasked with defending the eastern perimeter near the castle and town of Pidhirtsy and Olesko.[18] The Soviets sought to collapse the Brody pocket by focusing their attack of what they perceived to be its weakest point, the relatively inexperienced Galician Division, and on 19 July attacked.[18] The 29th and 30th regiments of the division, supported by the division's artillery regiment, put up unexpectedly fierce resistance. Pidhirtsy changed hands several times before the Galicians were finally overwhelmed by the late afternoon, and at Olesko a major Soviet attack using T-34 tanks was repulsed by the division's Fusilier and Engineer battalions.[18]

On 20 July, the German divisions within the pocket attempted a breakout which failed despite early successes.[18] The Division's 31st regiment was destroyed in fighting. A second German breakout attempt that began at 1:00 am on 21 July ended in failure. ten miles (16 kilometres) to the west of the pocket, however, a German Panzergrenadier Regiment broke through Soviet lines and briefly established contact with the Brody pocket, resulting in the rescue of approximately 3,400 soldiers, including approximately 400 Galicians, before being repulsed.[18] By the end of that day, in the face of overwhelming Soviet attacks, the 14th Division as a whole disintegrated.[18] Its German commander, Fritz Freitag, resigned his command and decreed that everyone would be on his own during the breakout. He and his staff formed their own battle group and headed south, abandoning the division.[18] Some Ukrainian assault groups remained intact, others joined German units, and others fled or melted away. The Ukrainian 14th SS Fusilier battalion, which at this point had also largely disintegrated, came to form the rearguard of what was left of the entire 13th Corps. Holding the town of Bilyi Kamin, it enabled units or stragglers to escape to the south and was able to withstand several Soviet attempts to overwhelm it. By the evening of 21 July, it remained the only intact unit north of the Bug River.[18]

In the early morning of 22 July, the 14th Fusilier battalion abandoned Bilye Kamin. The Brody pocket was now only 4 to 5 miles (6.4–8.0 kilometres) long and wide. The German and Galician soldiers were instructed to attack with everything they had by moving forward until they broke through or were destroyed.[18] Fighting was fierce and desperate. The German and Ukrainian soldiers surging south were able to overwhelm the Soviet 91st Independent Tank Brigade "Proskurov" and its infantry support, and to escape by the hundreds. The remaining pocket collapsed by the evening of 22 July.[18]

Despite the severity of the fighting, the division maintained its discipline and most of its members were ultimately able to break out of the encirclement. Of the approximately 11,000 Galician soldiers deployed at Brody, about 3,000 were able to almost immediately re-enter the division. Approx 7,400 were posted as "Missing in combat".

It has been mistakenly suggested[citation needed] that the losses for the 14th SS Division in Brody ran at 73%, higher than the rest of the Corps. The other battle-hardened German units which had formed XIII.A.K. produced similar casualty reports. About 5,000 men of Korpsabteilung 'C' which formed the spearhead of the breakout forces escaped the encirclement with sidearms but without vehicles, horses, and other weapons, supplies, and equipment. A total of 73 officers and 4,059 NCOs and men were listed as killed or missing. By comparison, the 361st Infantry Division which deployed fewer troops at the beginning of the battle than the Galician Division and together with it formed the rearguard, suffered equal losses. Between 16–22 July, it sustained almost as many casualties with total losses amounting to 6,310 officers and men (dead, missing or wounded). The necessary manpower required to rebuild this and the other German formations was not available and they were subsequently disbanded and the survivors incorporated into other divisions.

As for XIII.A.K., the final report of the Corps's liquidation commission (applicable to its regular army units only) recorded 21,766 killed or missing in action, which together with the 7,000 killed or missing men from the Galician Division brings to the total lost to about 29,000. This figure corresponds with General Lange's own estimate of a total of 25–30,000 killed in the encirclement. On the other hand, the recently declassified secret Soviet General Staff report states that during the course of the battle their forces destroyed more than 30,000 soldiers and officers, 85 tanks and self-propelled guns, over 500 guns of various calibres, 476 mortars, 705 machine guns, 12,000 rifles and submachine guns, 5,843 vehicles, 183 tractors and trailers and 2,430 motorcycles and bicycles. It also claims that over 17,000 soldiers and officers were taken prisoner, 28 tanks and self-propelled guns were captured, as were over 500 guns of various calibres, more than 600 mortars, 483 machine guns, 11,000 rifles and sub-machine guns, over 1,500 vehicles, 98 tractors and trailers, 376 motorcycles and bicycles, in excess of 3,000 horses and 28 warehouses full of military goods. An estimated total number of survivors of all XIII.A.K. units has been given by the adjutant of the 349th Infantry Division as 15,000 officers and men, while a slightly lower figure of 12,000 was subsequently given by Oberst Wilck.

The division in Slovakia

The Germans rebuilt the division over two months using reserve units. From the end of September 1944, the division was used against the Slovak National Uprising.[20] Many of the personnel volunteered to serve in Slovakia, hoping to find friends and relatives among a large group of refugees from Galicia that had been admitted to Slovakia shortly before the uprising.[21]:62 The first unit, the 29th regiment with auxiliary units, arrived 28 September 1944. Eventually all divisional units were transferred to Slovakia. From 15 October 1944 they formed two Kampfgruppe, Wittenmayer and Wildner. (Both of approx reinforced battalion strength)[22] The division operated in coordination with the SS Division Horst Wessel, the SS-Sturmbrigade Dirlewanger, the Vlasov detachment and other SS and SD formations until 5 February 1945.[22][page needed][23] According to Slovak historian K. Fremal, the division's "members were helping in anti-partisan, repressive, and terrorist actions and committed murders and other excesses".[21]:65 The overall degree of criminality was less than that of Einsatzgruppe H or the Slovak collaborationist Hlinka Guard Emergency Divisions.[21]:65 Jan Stanislav, the director of the National Uprising Museum in Slovakia, denied that the division or that Ukrainians took part in brutalities committed against the Slovak people at this time.[24]About 200 soldiers deserted from the division while it was in Slovakia; many joined the partisans.[21]:67

Anti-partisans actions on the Slovenian-Austrian border

In the end of January 1945, it was moved to Slovenia, where from the end of February until the end of March 1945, it together with other SS and SD formations fought Yugoslav Partisans in the Styria and Carinthia (province) areas near the Austrian-Slovenian border.[25] During this time, the division absorbed the 31 SD Schutzmannschafts Battalion, also known as the Ukrainian Self Defense legion.[26] When on 31 March Soviet forces commenced an attack from Hungary into Austria that ruptured the German front, the division was ordered to advance northward to Gleichenberg in a desperate attempt to halt the Soviet advance.[11]

Graz

From 1 April until the end of the war, with a strength of 14,000 combat troops and 8,000 soldiers in a Training and Replacement Regiment, the division fought against the Red Army in the region of Graz in Austria[27] where in early April it seized the castle and village of Gleichenberg from Soviet forces (including elite Soviet airborne troops from the 3rd Guards Airborne Division) during a counterattack and on 15 April repulsed a Soviet counterattack. The division at this time maintained a 13-km front.[11][28] During one critical situation, Freitag became so alarmed by the developments at the front, that in the presence of the commander of the 1st Cavalry Corps General der Kavallerie Harteneck, he reacted instinctively and announced his abdication as Divisional commander and responsibility for its performance in action – as he had done at Brody. General Harteneck refused Freitag's resignation and ordered him to remain at his post. Due to his performance during the battles surrounding Gleichenberg, Waffen-Obersturmführer Ostap Czuczkewycz was awarded the Iron Cross, 1st class.[29] The Division suffered heavy casualties while in Austria, with an estimated 1,600 killed or wounded.[30]

1st Ukrainian Division UNA

On 17 March 1945, Ukrainian émigrés established the Ukrainian National Committee to represent the interests of Ukrainians to the Third Reich. Simultaneously, the Ukrainian National Army, commanded by general Pavlo Shandruk, was created. The Galician Division nominally became the 1st Division of the Ukrainian National Army, although the German Army's High command continued to list it as the Ukrainian 14th SS Grenadier Division in its order of battle.[31] The Division surrendered to British and US forces by 10 May 1945.[26]

Rimini

Most of The Ukrainian soldiers were interned in Rimini, Italy, in the area controlled by the II Polish Corps. The UNA commander Pavlo Shandruk requested a meeting with Polish general Władysław Anders a prewar Polish Army colleague, asking him to protect the army against the deportation to Soviet Union. There is credible evidence that despite Soviet pressure, Anders managed to protect the Ukrainian troops, as former citizens of the Second Republic of Poland. This, together with the intervention of the Vatican prevented its members from being deported to the USSR. Bishop Buchko of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church had appealed to Pope Pius XII to intervene on behalf of the division, whom he described as "good Catholics and fervent anti-Communists". Due to Vatican intervention, the British authorities changed the status of the division members from POW to surrendered enemy personnel.[32] 176 soldiers of the division, mainly prewar Polish Army officers followed their commander in joining Władysław Anders's Polish army.[33][34]

Former soldiers of SS "Galizien" were allowed to immigrate to Canada[35] and the United Kingdom in 1947.[36] The names of about 8,000 men from the division who were admitted to the UK have been stored in the so-called "Rimini List". Despite several requests of various lobby groups, the details of the list have never been publicly released, however the list is available on line and the original List is available for public inspection at the Schevchenko Archive in Linden Gardens London. In 2003 the anti-terrorist branch of Scotland Yard launched an investigation into people from the list by cross-referencing NHS patient, social security and pensions records; however, the order to release confidential medical records was met with outcry from civil liberties groups.[37]

Atrocities

Although at the Nuremberg Trials, the Waffen-SS as a whole was declared to be a criminal organization, the Galizien Division has not specifically been found guilty of any war crimes by any war tribunal or commission, however numerous accusations of impropriety have been leveled at the division and at particular members of the division from a variety of sources. It is difficult to determine the extent of war criminality among members of the division.[38] If prior service in Nazi police units is a measure of criminality, only a small number were recruited from established police detachments. Among those who had transferred from police detachments, some had been members of a coastal defence unit that had been stationed in France, while others came from two police battalions that had been formed in the spring of 1943, too late to have participated in the murder of Ukraine's Jews. According to Howard Margolian there is no evidence that these units participated in anti-partisan operations or reprisals prior to their inclusion into the division. However, a number of recruits, prior to their service within the police battalions are alleged to have been in Ukrainian irregular formations that are alleged to have committed atrocities against Jews and Communists. However, both the Canadian government and the Canadian Jewish Congress in their investigations of the division failed to find hard evidence to support the notion that it was rife with criminal elements.[38]

However, the division destroyed several Polish communities in western Ukraine during the winter and spring of 1944.[39] Specifically, the 4th and 5th SS Police Regiments have been accused of murdering Polish civilians in the course of anti-guerilla activity. At the time of their actions, these units were not yet under Divisional command, but were under German police command.[40] Yale historian Timothy Snyder noted that the division's role in the Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia was limited, as the murders were primarily carried out by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.

Heinrich Himmler in a speech to the soldiers of the 1st Galician division stated:

Your homeland has become so much more beautiful since you have lost – on our initiative, I must say – those residents who were so often a dirty blemish on Galicia's good name, namely the Jews... I know that if I ordered you to liquidate the Poles... I would be giving you permission to do what you are eager to do anyway.[41]

In June 2013, the Associated Press published an article stating that an American, Michael Karkoc, who was alleged to be a former "deputy company commander" in the Division, was implicated in war crimes committed before he joined the Division in 1945. According to Associated Press, before joining the Division Karkoc had previously served as a "lieutenant" of the 2nd Company of the German SS Police-led Ukrainian Self Defense Legion (USDL).[42] The USDL was a paramilitary police organization in the Schutzmannschaft. Karkoc was found living in Lauderdale, Minnesota. Michael Karkoc, arrived in the United States in 1949 and became a naturalized citizen in 1959.[43][44]

Huta Pieniacka

One of the stone tablets of the monument which lists the names of Poles killed at Huta Pieniacka.
One of the stone tablets of the monument which lists the names of Poles killed at Huta Pieniacka.

The Polish historian Motyka has stated that the Germans formed several SS police regiments (numbered from 4 to 8) which included "Galizien" in their name. These police regiments would later join the division in Spring 1944. Before being incorporated into the division in June 1944,[11] the 4th and 5th police regiments had participated in anti-guerrilla action at Huta Pieniacka on 23 February 1944,[45] against Soviet and Polish Armia Krajowa partisans in the village of Huta Pieniacka which had also served as a shelter for Jews and as a fortified centre for Polish and Soviet guerrillas.[40] Huta Pieniacka was a Polish self-defence outpost,[46] organized by inhabitants of the village and sheltering civilian refugees from Volhynia.[47] On 23 February 1944 two members of a detachment of the division were shot by the self-defense forces.[48] Five days later a mixed force of Ukrainian police and German soldiers shelled the village with artillery before entering it and ordering all the civilians to gather together. In the ensuing massacre, the village of Huta Pienacka was destroyed and between 500[49] and 1,000 of the inhabitants were killed. According to Polish accounts, civilians were locked in barns that were set on fire while those attempting to flee were killed.[50]

Polish witness accounts state that the soldiers were accompanied by Ukrainian nationalists (paramilitary unit under Włodzimierz Czerniawski's command), which included members of the UPA, as well as inhabitants of local villages who took property from the village's households.[51]

The NASU Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine concluded that the 4th and 5th SS Galizien Police regiments did indeed kill the civilians within the village, but added that the grisly reports by eyewitnesses in the Polish accounts were "hard to come up with" and that the likelihood was "difficult to believe." The Institute also noted that at the time of the massacre the police regiments were not under 14th division command, but rather under German police command (specifically, under German Sicherheitsdienst and SS command of the General Government).[52] The Polish Institute of National Remembrance stated "According to the witness' testimonies, and in the light of the collected documentation, there is no doubt that the 4th battalion 'Galizien' of the 14th division of SS committed the crime"[53]

Pidkamin and Palikrowy

The village of Pidkamin had a monastery where Poles sought shelter from the encroaching front. Around 2,000 people, the majority of whom were women and children, were seeking refuge there when the monastery was attacked on 11 March 1944, by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (unit under Maksym Skorupsky command), allegedly cooperating with an SS-Galizien unit.[54] The next day, 12 March the monastery was captured and civilians were murdered (at night part of the population managed to escape). Other civilians were also killed in the town of Pidkamin from 12 to 16 March.[54]

Estimates of victims include 150 by Polish historian Grzegorz Motyka,[54] and 250 according to the researchers of the Institute of History of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.[40]

Another sub-unit also participated in the execution of Polish civilians in Palykorovy located in the Lwów area (Lviv oblast) near Pidkamin (former Tarnopol Voivodeship). It is estimated that 365 ethnic Poles were murdered including women and children.[54]

The Canadian Deschênes Commission

Memorial to SS-Galizien division in Chervone, Lviv Oblast, western Ukraine
Memorial to SS-Galizien division in Chervone, Lviv Oblast, western Ukraine

The Canadian "Commission of Inquiry on War Crimes" of October 1986, by the Honourable Justice Jules Deschênes concluded that in relation to membership in the Galicia Division:

The Galicia Division (14. Waffen grenadier division der SS [gal. #1]) should not be indicted as a group. The members of Galicia Division were individually screened for security purposes before admission to Canada. Charges of war crimes of Galicia Division have never been substantiated, either in 1950 when they were first preferred, or in 1984 when they were renewed, or before this Commission. Further, in the absence of evidence of participation or knowledge of specific war crimes, mere membership in the Galicia Division is insufficient to justify prosecution.[55]

However, the Commission's conclusion failed to acknowledge or heed the International Military Tribunal's verdict at the Nuremberg Trials, in which the entire Waffen-SS organisation was declared a "criminal organization" guilty of war crimes.[56] Also, the Deschênes Commission in its conclusion only referenced the division as 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (Galizische Nr.1), thus in legal terms, only acknowledging the formation's activity after its name change in August 1944, while the massacre of Poles in Huta Pieniacka, Pidkamin and Palikrowy occurred when the division was called SS Freiwilligen Division "Galizien". Nevertheless, a subsequent review by Canada's Minister of Justice again confirmed that members of the Division were not implicated in war crimes.

Division's names

The division during its short history changed its name a number of times, being known as:

  • SS Schuetzen Division "Galizien" or Galizien Division – from 30 July 1943 to August 1943 (during recruitment)
  • SS Freiwilligen Division "Galizien" – from August 1943 to 27 July 1944 (during training)
  • 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (Galizische Nr.1) – from August 1944 to the Winter of 1944
  • 14. Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (ukrainische Nr.1)- from the Winter of 1944 to Spring 1945
  • 1st Ukrainian Division of the Ukrainian National Army – from Spring 1945.[7]

Formation

  • Waffen Grenadier Regiment der SS 29
  • Waffen-Grenadier Regiment der SS 30
  • Waffen-Grenadier Regiment der SS 31
  • Waffen-Artillery Regiment der SS 14
  • SS-Waffen-Füsilier-Battalion 14
  • SS-Waffen-Panzerjäger Company 14
  • SS-Volunteer-Flak Battalion 14
  • Waffen Signals Battalion der SS 14
  • SS-Radfahr-Battalion 14
  • Waffen-Pionier-Battalion der SS 14
  • SS-Versorgungs-Company 14
  • SS-Division-Signals Troop 14
  • SS Medical Battalion 14
  • SS-Veterinary Company 14
  • SS-Field post department 14
  • SS-War Reporter platoon 14|
  • SS Feldgendarmerie troop 14[57]

Legacy

Fans of the FC Karpaty Lviv football club honoring the Waffen-SS Galizien division, Lviv, Ukraine, 2013
Fans of the FC Karpaty Lviv football club honoring the Waffen-SS Galizien division, Lviv, Ukraine, 2013

The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician) is today honored by many Ukrainian nationalists.[58] Since 2010 every year on April 28 a march is held to celebrate the foundation of the division.[59] In addition streets were named after the division in Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukrains`koi Dyvizii Street) and Ternopil (Soldiers Division "Galicia" Street).[60] A monument commemorating those who served in the division exists in the Canadian city of Oakville.[61] Many Ukrainian Canadian historians[who?] have decried the recent articles as being inspired by Russian provocateurs and their fellow travellers who have done nothing other than regurgitate Soviet-era propaganda.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ John A. Armstrong. (1963). Ukrainian Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 18–19 Armstrong stated that the UNDO was "definitely democratic in character, with varying amounts of Catholic, liberal, and socialist ideology embedded in its program"
  2. ^ Michael O. Logusz. (1997). Galicia Division: The Waffen-SS 14th Grenadier Division, 1943–1945. Altglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History. Pg. 62. An article published by OUN-B's claimed: "we have no doubts that not a Ukrainian, but a German colonial element is forming. The attitude of the Ukrainian nation to it is, as it was to all previous German experiments – negative."

References

  1. ^ a b Abbott, Peter (2004). Ukrainian Armies 1914–55. Osprey Publishing. p. 41. ISBN 1-84176-668-2. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
  2. ^ Official designation in German language as to „Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv“ in Freiburg im Breisgau, stores of the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS.
  3. ^ a b Williamson Gordon, SS Hitler's Instrument of Terror, Amber books 1994, pp.123–4
  4. ^ Rikmenspoel, Marc J. (2004), Waffen-SS Encyclopedia, Aberjona Press, p.90. ISBN 0971765081.
  5. ^ Domenico Losurdo, "Toward a Critique of the Category of Totalitarianism", Historical Materialism 12.2 (April 2004), p.25-55, p.50.
  6. ^ Idzio, V. Ukrains'ka Povstans'ka Armiya – zhidno zi svidchenniamy nimetskykh ta radians'kykh arkhiviv, Lviv, 2005, p.82
  7. ^ a b Hajke Wolf-Dietrich The Ukrainian Division "Galicia" Toronto, 1970 p. 17
  8. ^ Idzio, V. Ukrains'ka Povstans'ka Armiya – zhidno zi svidchenniamy nimetskykh ta radians'kykh arkhiviv, Lviv, 2005, p.83
  9. ^ David R. Marples, Heroes and villains: creating national history in contemporary Ukraine, CEU Press, 2007, p. 184.
  10. ^ Orest Subtelny. (1988). Ukraine: a History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pg. 457
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Michael O. Logusz (1997). Galicia Division: The Waffen-SS 14th Grenadier Division, 1943–1945. Altglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Military History. ISBN 0-7643-0081-4.
  12. ^ a b c d e John A. Armstrong. (1963). Ukrainian Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 170–175
  13. ^ Mazower, Mark (2008) Hitler's Empire, pp 454–460
  14. ^ Timothy Snyder. (2004) The Reconstruction of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press: pg. 218.
  15. ^ a b Mitcham, p162
  16. ^ Michael Logusz. (1997). Galicia Division. Altglen, PA: Schiffer Military History. pg. 75.
  17. ^ * Mitcham, Samuel W (2007). The German Defeat in the East, 1944–45. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8117-3371-7.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Mitcham, Samuel W (2007). The German Defeat in the East, 1944–45. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. pp. 74–86. ISBN 978-0-8117-3371-7.
  19. ^ cited in Michael Logusz's Galicia Division: the Waffen-SS 14th Grenadier Division, 1943–1945.
  20. ^ Боляновський А.В. Дивізія «Галичина»: історія — Львів, 2000. ISBN 966-02-1635-1 pages 270–281
  21. ^ a b c d Šmigeľ, Michal; Cherkasov, Aleksandr A (2013). "The 14th Waffen-Grenadier-Division of the SS "Galizien No. 1" in Slovakia (1944-1945): Battles and Repressions". Bylye Gody. 28 (2): 61–72.
  22. ^ a b Боляновський А.В. Дивізія «Галичина»: історія — Львів, 2000. ISBN 966-02-1635-1-page 271
  23. ^ Michaelis, Rolf "Esten, Russen und Ukrainer in der Waffen-SS" ISBN 3-938392-25-8 Winkelried-Verlag 2006
  24. ^ "Interview with Dr. Jan Stanislav May 2000". Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2009.
  25. ^ Karel Prusnik-Gasper, Gemsen auf der Lawine. Der Kдrntner Partisanenkampf (Ljubjana/Klagenfurt 1981)
  26. ^ a b WOLF-DIETRICH HEIKE.UKRAINISCHE DIVISION "GALIZIEN". Geschichte der Aufstellung und des Einsatzes (1943–1945) 1970
  27. ^ "ss galizien". Archived from the original on 9 December 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  28. ^ On-line Ukrainian-language translation Of Wolf-Dietrich Heike's book THE UKRAINIAN DIVISION "GALICIA" THE HISTORY OF ITS FORMATION AND MILITARY OPERATIONS The English-language synapse mentions that the division "distinguished itself" and maintained a sector of the front until German capitulation
  29. ^ Michael Melnyk. (2007). To Battle: The Formation and History of the 14. Gallician SS Volunteer Division. Helion and Company. ISBN 1-874622-19-1 pg. 262. Cited from Personal-Akte A3343-SSO-133 (ff. 25–26) NA.
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